Homyo (Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism)) (法名 (浄土真宗))
Homyo' in Jodo Shinshu is the introduction of oneself showing that he/she is to be a disciple of Shaka or Shkyamuni (a disciple of the Buddha). Though Homyo is misunderstood as a name given to the deceased, originally it is the name given by swearing to live as a disciple of Buddha throughout life.
Homyo is given to Buddhist priests in Tokudo-shiki (or the ordination rites) held in the head temple and for follower in Okamisori (a Buddhist ceremony which is to confirm a follower as a certain level of religious steps) held in the head or branch temple by hoshu (high priest) (by '門主' for Jodo Shinshu Hongan-ji school, by '門首' for Shinshu sect Otani school). Sometimes, hoshi (successor of principle) acts to perform offerings.
Though recently it can be given in Tetsugi-dera Temple (an ancestral temple of Jodoshin sect) (which is the family temple for other sects), it is encouraged to be performed in the head temple.
Homyo in Jodoshin sect
It is based on enlightenment of Shinran, who is considered to be the founder of Jodoshin sect, in the position of hiso hizoku (non-priesthood, non-laity) by introducing himself to be 'Gutoku shaku Shinran' after being deprived of his priesthood due to banishment.
Homyo', not 'Kaimyo' is given on the basis of doctrine without precepts that 'Ordinary people can not follow the precepts, so they are healed only by the oath of Amida Nyorai (Amitabha Tathagata).
Homyo has the Chinese character '釋' to show that one can become a disciple of Shaka or Shkyamuni (a disciple of the Buddha) and two Chinese characters (except '鸞', '如' and so on) selected among shogyo (Buddhist sutra) of main sutras.
In Hongan-ji school and Otani school, homyo is '釋xx' for males and '釋尼xx' for females. ('xx' are replaced with two Chinese characters.)
The character '尼' is derived by changing the end of the word representing female in Sanskrit, not the meaning of Ama (Bikuni (female Buddhist disciple)) representing a female practitioner of austerities.
The character '尼' is sometimes not used for females in consideration of the doctrine which is supposed to be totally equal in terms of gender (now, it is not used in Tokudo-shiki and Okamisori in Hongan-ji school).
In Shinshu Takada sect, the form '釋xxyy' is used on the basis of the form 'shaku (Buddha), dogo (a pseudonym as a priest) (two characters) plus homyo (two characters)' ('xx' and 'yy' are replaced with two Chinese characters.).
Though the rules for making homyo depend on the schools, it is possible to choose one character from one's secular name if the chief priest of one's tetsugi-dera Temple selects (e.g. '光雲院釋眞幸' for Konosuke MATSUSHITA, '華文院釋正業' for Shotaro IKENAMI).
Two characters from shogyo of main sutras are chosen for Homyo selected by the head templse
Ingo (a title given to a Buddhist)
Ingo' is sometimes put in front of homyo. Ingo' was originally a name given to the person who contributed greatly enough to build the temple. Now, it is given to the person who contributed to maintain the head temple and the temple he/she belongs.
Some opposes the use of Ingo based on the doctrine that all living things are equal in Jodo.
Ingo is not used in Takada school.
Igo and Okiji (Auxiliary words in Chinese unavailable to articulation in Japanese reading)
Igo (Koji, Daishi and so on) is not used.
Okiji (non-retrogression, those guaranteed to be born in the Pure Land and so on) is not used either.
However, they are sometimes used in the temples which have great influence on other sects. However, the head temple will not admit it, and the branch temples only use it due to the will of the deceased or the request of his/her family. Now, there is a policy not to use 'Igo'.