Ichiji Kinrin Buccho (a Buddhist deity with a golden wheel, represented by a sacred Sanskrit syllabl (一字金輪仏頂)

Ichiji Kinrin Buccho (ekaakSara-uSNiiSacakra in Sanskrit) is one of the deities worshipped in Esoteric Buddhism. It's a deity specifically associated with the sacred Sanskrit syllable, "bhruuM," which was uttered by Shakyamuni to verbalize his thought while he was absorbed in profound meditation.

The Sanskrit syllable "bhruuM" is an invocation word that represents the ultimate truth of the universe. The word "kinrin" (meaning golden wheel in Japanese), which refers to the highest king among the four sacred kings that rule the universe, symbolizes the miraculous power of this deity. Accordingly, in the mandalas that represent Ichiji Kinrin Buccho, seven treasures (a golden wheel, a Buddhist rosary, a queen, a horse, an elephant, a god of wealth and a god of war) that are believed to be possessed by the four sacred kings are depicted together with the deity.

Ichiji Kinrin Buccho is represented in two different forms, depending on the Buddhist sutra: one as Shaka Kinrin (Shakyamuni Buddha with a golden wheel) and another as Dainichi Kinrin (great cosmic Buddha with a golden wheel).

Shaka Kinrin (Shakyamuni Buddha with a golden wheel)
Shaka Kinrin is believed to be a deity derived from Shaka Nyorai (Shakyamuni Buddha).

A wheel with eight spokes is the divine symbol that represents this deity. The Sanskrit syllable thought to contain the essence (seed) of Shaka Kinrin in Esoteric Buddhism is bhruuM.

Shaka Kinrin is ordinarily depicted as a figure with crinkly hair wearing red clothes. In many representations, Shaka Kinrin is seated on a sacred mountain surrounded by a ring of moonlight (a white halo surrounding the entire figure) or sunlight (a red halo), holding a golden wheel in its hands, which are held in the meditation mudra. Sometimes the figure is depicted with a golden wheel surrounding the halo.

Meanwhile, the first volume of the "Collection of Buddhist Sutras" (No 901, collection of Buddhist sutras edited during the Taisho period) describes Shaka Kinrin as a golden figure wearing a crown decorated with seven treasures and emitting light from its body. According to the description given in this sutra, the figure represents a Buddhist deity seated in a lotus position on a lotus throne decorated with seven treasures, with its hands held in a prayer position. It is written in the same sutra that there is a golden wheel beneath its lotus throne and a pond of treasures beneath the golden wheel.

Shaka Kinrin is believed to have the ability to subdue star gods such as Kuyo (nine-planet crest) using its golden wheel, and it's worshiped in Indian astrology as a deity that has the magical power to avoid misfortunes caused by ominous stars.

Dainichi Kinrin (great cosmic Buddha with a golden wheel)
Dainichi Kinrin, which is believed to be a deity derived from the great cosmic Buddha (Dainichi Nyorai in Japanese), is associated with the Sanskrit syllable "bhruuM," which Dainichi Nyorai of the transcendental world uttered while he was absorbed in profound meditation in the world of physical phenomenon.

A wheel with 12 spokes is the divine symbol that represents this deity. "BhruuM," the Sanskrit syllable associated with Shaka Kinrin, is also thought to contain the essence (seed) of Dainichi Kinrin.

Dainichi Kinrin is a deity decorated with a crown engraved with five images of Buddha, with its hands placed in the wisdom-fist mudra. It sits on a white lotus throne supported by seven lions. It bears a close resemblance to Dainichi Nyorai (great cosmic Buddha) of the transcendental world, but whereas Dainichi Nyorai is usually surrounded by a ring of moonlight, Dainichi Kinrin is surrounded by a ring of sunlight (a red halo). A golden wheel is also sometimes placed around its ring of sunlight.

In Tendai Buddhism, Dainichi Kinrin is worshipped as a deity of the same importance as Dainichi Nyorai of the transcendental world and that of the world of physical phenomenon, and as the protector deity of an esoteric ritual that binds these two worlds together.

It is also regarded as the same entity as Butsugen Butsumo (a deity that symbolizes the eye of Buddha, representing the Buddhist truth). While Dainichi Nyorai of the transcendental world mediating in the world of physical phenomenon is believed to be Dainichi Kinrin, Dainichi Nyorai of the world of physical phenomenon mediating in the transcendental world is believed to be Butsugen Butsumo.

Ichiji Kinrin Buccho and Butsugen Butsumo also represent two different aspects of Buddhist preaching in the sense that while the former enlightens people by logical argument, the latter leads them to the truth by cultivating virtues among them.

The Ichiji Kinrin Buccho mandala is used together with the Butsugen Butsumo mandala in the religious practice of Esoteric Buddhism due to the complementary relationship that exists between these two deities. Evil deities that are subdued by the magical power of Ichiji Kinrin Buccho's golden wheel are believed to be reborn as benevolent deities by Butsugen Butsumo, who opens their eyes to the truth.

The miraculous power possessed by Ichiji Kinrin Buccho was believed to be so strong that it could nullify the effects of any ritual practiced within a distance of 500 yojana from its throne. For this reason, in Shingon Buddhism only the highest priest of Toji Temple was allowed to practice rituals related to Ichiji Kinrin Buccho.