Makashikan (Mahayana Practice of Cessation and Contemplation) (摩訶止観)

Makashikan (Mahayana Practice of Cessation and Contemplation), one of the textbooks on Buddhism, is a commentary on Shikan (a type of meditation). It comes in ten volumes. It was lectured by Zhiyi, the founder of the Tien tai sect, in the Yuquan Temple in Jing Province (present Hubei Province), China in 594 and then compiled by his disciple, Guanding. It is one of the three major treatises of the Tien tai school.

Summary

Makashikan is a commentary on Endonshikan (perfect and sudden cessation and contemplation) among three kinds of contemplation (Endonshikan, Zenjishikan [the method of gradual attainment of the ultimate enlightenment] and Fujoshikan [indeterminate meditation]) and four kinds of samadhi (jogyo zanmai [samadhi through continual walking], joza zanmai [samadhi through constant sitting], hangyo hanza zanmai [half walking, half sitting], and hiko hiza zanmai [samadhi neither through walking nor sitting]), which construct the Tien tai contemplation. It is made up of 10 chapters. That is to say, it is made up of essential principles (five outlines [五略]), expounding, appearance, method of guidance, partial and perfect (偏円), expedient means, correct practice, good luck, rise to the teaching and shiki (旨帰), but the latter half of them was not expounded because the lecture period was ended.

Commentaries

Makashikan Bugyo Denguketsu, a commentary written by Zhanran.

Edition

Chapter of All the Sects in the volume 46 of "Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo (An collection of Buddhist Scriptures revised in the Taisho period)", the third edition.

Chapter of Scriptures of Sects (宗典部) in the volume 13 of "Showa Shinsan Kokuyaku Daizokyo" (Japanese translation of Daizo-kyo Sutra newly edited in the Showa period).