Monto Mono Shirazu (門徒物知らず)

Monto mono shirazu' is a phrase which believers of other sects use when they criticize monto (believers) of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) as 'they don't know about the manners of Buddhism.'
Originally it was a part of the pun that made fun of various sects saying 'Believers of Jodo Shinshu Sect don't know about the manners of Buddhism, those of Hokke Sect have no backbone, those of Zen Sect have no money and those of Jodo Sect have no mercy."

Monto mono shirazu' is a phrase that ridicules the believers of Jodo Shinshu Sect, from the standpoint of other sects, who believe solely in Amida Buddha without paying any respect to other deities and Buddha and as a result, neither pay attention to rituals and practices concerning local deities and Buddha nor follow even the customs concerning funerals of the dead.
Some people, however, appreciate such characteristics of monto which other sects' believers ridicule as 'mono shirazu.'
For instance, Shundai DAZAI, a Confucian scholar in the Edo period, wrote in his book "Seigaku Mondo" (Questions and Answers on Religious Scholarship) as 'Believers of Ikko Sect (Jodo Shinshu Sect) solely believe in Amida Buddha, do not believe in any other Buddha and deities, do not conduct a prayer under any circumstances and do not use magic rituals or charms even when they are sick. All of the above are attributable to Shinran's influence.'

Another view, which asserts that the original phrase of 'monto monoimi shirazu' (monto don't know ritual abstention) or 'monto monoimi sezu' (monto don't conduct ritual abstention) has been passed down after being distorted to 'monto mono shirazu,' is sometimes cited in the preachings of Jodo Shinshu Sect.
However, it is not the case that a phrase of 'monto monoimi shirazu' and so on, had existed before the phrase of 'monto mono shirazu' was created and therefore, it is contemplated that they were created in recent years as a phrase to counter 'mono shirazu.'
While not conducting monoimi is one of the characteristics of Jodo Shinshu monto, the phrase 'monto mono shirazu' represents not only not conducting monoimi (confinement to one's house on an unlucky day) but also various unique aspects of Jodo Shinshu monto.
(regarding monoimi, refer to the article of 'monoimi' included in the section of 'Difference between Jodo Shinshu Sect and other sects' described below)

It is confirmed that a phrase of 'monto mono shirazu' appeared in "Tatoezukushi" (collection of Common Sayings), a book compiled in 1786, and "Nezumi Komon Haru no Shingata" (The Rat and the Fine Patterned New Spring Fashion), a Kabuki (traditional drama performed by male actors) play firstly performed in 1857.
Source: Shogakukan "Nihon Kokugo Daijiten" (Complete Japanese-language dictionary)

Actual Examples

As a matter of actual examples, this phrase is not used as a matter of doctrine but in the intercommunication with local society, such as on the occasion of funeral rituals and Buddhist services that are closely connected with local customs. This phrase is used when believers of other sects criticize monto for not following the local customs which, at least from their viewpoint, is common.

There exist many monto who comply with the respective doctrine of the sect in question when attending Buddhist services of other sects so that they can avoid needless confrontation, and follow the doctrine of Jodo Shinshu Sect only in the event of their families' Buddhist service.
(When attending the funeral and Buddhist memorial service of Jodo Shinshu Sect, believers of other sects often have a feeling that something is wrong.)

On the occasion of funerals, and so on, relatives of the deceased or elderly people who believe in other sects sometimes instruct monto to follow different manners from those of Jodo Shinshu Sect or conventional practice based on customs or superstitions. In the face of such a situation, some monto disobey such instructions amicably by admitting they are 'monto mono shirazu,' instead of causing confrontation by bringing forward the doctrine. As mentioned above, monto sometimes use a phrase of 'monto mono shirazu' for their convenience.

Difference between Jodo Shinshu Sect and Other Sects

In this section, we explain about the difference between Jodo Shinshu Sect and other sects. Provided, however, please pay attention to the fact that the explanation in this section is to be made based on the manners of Hongan-ji School and Otani School which are dominant among various schools of Jodo Shinshu Sect.

Further, Jodo Shinshu Sect has no intention to criticize other sects' manners and doctrines. The third chapter, volume two of "Ofumi" (Gobunsho) (Rennyo's instruction to monto) states that monto must abide by the following three things. 1. Monto must not slander other doctrines and other sects. 2. Monto must not scorn other deities, other Buddha and Bosatsu. 3. Monto must devote themselves in faith in order to reincarnate in the Pure land. Judging from the fact that a phrase of admonition to monto frequently appears in "Ofumi" (Gobunsho), it is contemplated that the difference of doctrine was a problem between monto and the believers of other sects even at that time.

Funerals

Funerals can be held on the day of tomobiki (good day for business and lawsuits (trial day), literally 'pulling friends'). According to Jodo Shinshu Sect's interpretation, Rokuyo (six days of the Buddhist calendar) is, in the first place, a Chinese divination which has nothing to do with Buddhism and its interpretation was altered after it was imported into Japan. Further, Jodo Shinshu Sect asserts that the original meaning of tomobiki was 'pulling evenly,' which was used as a term expressing a drawn match, not 'pulling friends' regardless of good or bad.

While funerals are not held on the day of tomobiki under other sects' interpretation because of anxiety for pulling friends, there is no problem to hold funerals on the day of tomobiki in Jodo Shinshu Sect.

As many funeral halls and crematories are closed on the day of tomobiki, however, even the believers of Jodo Shinshu Sect rarely hold funerals on the day of tomobiki (practically, it is impossible to hold the final service for the dead).

Traditional customs, such as a sword for protection, an upside-down folding screen, a shroud with the left side under the right, burying rokumonsen (six mon (obsolete unit of currency) coins for the world of the dead) and salt for purification, are not employed in principle.
(There exist some sects which assert that salt for purification is not necessary because it deviates from the principle of Buddhism.)
However, some monks do not refuse to use salt for purification, based on the wishes of the bereaved family, if the bereaved family hope to do so.

Kitamakura (lay a coffin with the head of deceased toward the north) derives from 'Zumen Hokusei' (the head faced to the northwest) when Shakyamuni died. Kitamakura is not required if it is difficult to do so due to the position of a family Buddhist alter.

Koden (condolence money for a funeral)

In other sects, it is common to write 'goreizen' (to the spirit of a dead person) on kodenbukuro (a condolence-money envelope) when attending Tsuya (funeral wake), a funeral or Buddhist memorial service to be held before the 49th day after one's death because the deceased has yet to attain Buddhahood and 'gobutsuzen' (to a dead person in the other world) when attending Buddhist memorial service to be held after 49th day memorial service. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, however, it is believed that a person who died while having faith in Amida Nyorai (Amitabha Tathagata) (Tarikihongan (salvation through the benevolence of Buddha)) is able to go immediately to the Pure Land (land where Amida Nyorai resided) and reincarnate as a Buddha (Ojo soku Jobutsu (going to heaven and immediately becoming a Buddha)). Therefore, the concept that the deceased still exists as a spirit is denied. As a result, the concept of divine punishment is also denied in Jodo-shin Sect. In conclusion, the recipient of koden is not the deceased (spirit) but Buddha and therefore, 'gobutsuzen,' not 'goreizen,' is used from the day of one's death.

However, believers of other religions and sects as well as free thinkers are allowed to write 'goreizen' when they attend Jodo Shinshu Sect funerals, and so on. Such flexibility in the title of kodenbukuro is also seen by other sects' believers as monto mono shirazu.

Titles that are not linked with any religious doctrines, such as 'gokoden,' 'gokoryo' and 'gokogi' (those three means 'instead of incense sticks') are sometimes used (provided that only those of Buddhist-style are allowed).

Burning Incense

In other sects, attendants pick up incense from an incense container, put it into an incense burner after holding it in front of the forehead and repeat such action three times. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, however, attendants pick up incense from an incense container, put it into an incense burner at once and conduct such actions once or twice. The background of the above difference is that while other sects consider that incense is offered to three of Butsu, Ho and So (Buddha, doctrine and monks), Jodo Shinshu Sect considers that the purpose of burning incense is to purify one's own smell as etiquette required for a person who stands in front of Buddha. Frequency of burning incense is once in the Hongan-ji school of Jodo Shinshu Sect and twice in the Otani school of Jodo Shinshu Sect. Frequency could be different depending on the practices of local parishioners. Believers of other sects are allowed to burn incense according to the manner of their own sects.

Kaimyo (posthumous Buddhist name) and Homyo (a name given to a person who enters the Buddhist priesthood)

Kaimyo' is not used in Jodo Shinshu Sect because there are no religious precepts in Jodo Shinshu Sect. Homyo' (Jodo Shinshu Sect) is used as a name of a Buddhist.

Buddhist Memorial Services During the Chuin Period (period of 49 days after death)

Some sects follow the practice that define the chuin period as the period of 35 days after the death because when the chuin period of 49 days is over three months, it reminds about the phrase 'shiju ku ga mitsuki' (literally, "forty-nine days over three months," always suffer hardship), a pun based on the pronunciation of Japanese. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, however, Nanananoka Buddhist memorial service (Shijukunichi (49 days)) is held even when the chuin is over three months because it denies superstitions based on a pun, and so on. Actually, as the case where the chuin period is over three months coincides with the case where a person died in the latter half of the month, such cases could account for more than half of all cases. In that event, Shijukunichi itself becomes meaningless. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, the purpose of the Buddhist memorial service during the chuin period is to get attendants to deeply contemplate the meaning of life and death as well as the teachings of Buddha taking the opportunity of their close relative's death. Unlike other sects, it is not a Buddhist memorial service which prays for attaining Buddhahood.

Among Buddhist memorial services to be held during the chuin period, a memorial service of Nanananoka (also referred as Jinshichinichi or Shijukunichi) is generally held at a family temple or in front of a family Buddhist alter at home and deemed as the most important one. In the event of Shonanoka (a memorial service on the sixth day after the death), Shogakki (a memorial service on the day of a month after the death) and Itsunanoka (a memorial service on the 35th day after the death), it is believed to be preferable to visit a family temple or invite a monk. Futananoka (a memorial service on the 14th day after the death), Minanoka (a memorial service on the 21st day after the death), Shinanoka (a memorial service on the 28th day after the death) and Munanoka (a memorial service on the 42nd day after the death) can be held in front of a family alter with only relatives' attendance, though it is preferable to invite a monk. Recently, the Shonanoka memorial service is often brought forward and held after a cremation (haiso (literally ash funeral), kanso (literally, funeral for return).

Depending on local practices, Itsunanoka (35th day) is sometimes the final Buddhist memorial service, instead of Shijukunichi (Nanananoka), during the chuin period. In some regions, 'Shonanoka' is called 'Ichinanoka' (literally, one seven day) or 'Ikkananoka' (literally, one day and seven day).

Ihai (Buddhist mortuary tablet)

In other sects, kaimyo is written on ihai and when the number of ihai increased substantially, they are abolished and kaimyo is removed to Kakocho (a family register of dead). In Jodo Shinshu Sect, however, plain wood ihai is used only up to a Buddhist memorial service of Nanananoka (Shijukunichi memorial service or memorial service of Manchuin (full chuin)) and homyo is written on it. Such plain wood ihai is used only for convenience sake and is nothing more than a nameplate of homyo. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, the concept that a soul resides in ihai doesn't exist.

Homyo is transferred from plain wood ihai to Homyo-jiku (a white hanging scroll which is a little smaller than that of the principal image) or a small folded book called Kakocho after Shijukunichi memorial service and it is used thereafter. As the target of worship in Jodo Shinshu Sect is only Amida Buddha based on its doctrine, Homyo-jiku and Kakocho are not the target of worship.
(Hongan-ji School generally uses Kakocho rather than Homyo-jiku)

In some regions, however, 'Kuridashi-ihai' (a set of mortuary tablets which can be taken out one by one) is used (Hongan-ji School in Chugoku region, and so on). Takada School uses ihai.

In other sects, a ritual for transferring a soul from plain wood ihai to real ihai is held on the occasion of Manchuin memorial service or Hyakkanichi memorial service (memorial service on the 100th day after death) and plain wood ihai is burnt thereafter. Such a ritual, however, is not held in Jodo Shinshu Sect because it does not place particular significance, such as the idea that a soul resides in it, on ihai.
(Therefore, other sects have an impression that Jodo Shinshu Sect burns plain wood ihai in which a soul resides.)

Fuse

In other sects, especially in the schools of Zen Sect, a big amount of fuse is requested because fuse (a fee for chanting sutra, a fee for kaimyo, and so on) is deemed as an expression of faith which substitutes for ascetic practices. Although it depends on the status of the family concerned, it is not uncommon to see a case, especially in the case of funerals, where fuse of hundreds of thousands of yen to more than one million yen is requested.

In Jodo Shinshu Sect, chanting Nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation) is deemed as the expression of faith and fuse to be paid on the occasion of funeral, and so on is a kind of donation for maintaining a temple, an exercise hall for listening to the teachings of Buddha (Monpo (listening to the teachings of Buddha)). Monks' chanting of sutra and gemon (Recitation of verses) at a funeral etc. is hosse (preaching Buddhism) and it is supposedly free of charge.
(An idea of homyo fee or chanting sutra fee doesn't exist.)
In reality, however, fuse at funerals is the biggest income for temples and it is impossible to maintain temples without it.

The amount of fuse at a funeral is generally between tens of thousands of yen to hundreds of thousands of yen, though it varies depending on the scale of the funeral in question. The amount of annual myogakin (money to dedicate) to be paid to a family temple and a head temple is generally a few thousand yen for each.

Butsudan (Buddhist alter)

Kin butsudan (golden alter) is recommended in Jodo Shinshu Sect.
(However, there is no problem to use karaki butsudan (rare foreign wood alter) or contemporary-style butsudan.)
Further, Jodo Shinshu Sect regulations on alters and butsugu (Buddhist alter fittings) are more detailed than those of other sects. Those of Hongan-ji School and Otani School are particularly strict. In contemporary terms, butsudan is deemed as a mini-copy (a dummy) of the head temple and accordingly, it is modeled after the inner sanctuary of the main hall of each sect's head temple.

Its main image should be a hanging scroll (a painting image) obtained from the head temple. On the scroll, there exists a writing 'Hobenhisshin no Songyo' (a tentative image of Buddha) as well as the signature and seal of the chief priest of the sect. While a Buddhist statue, rather than a hanging scroll, is recommended in other sects, a hanging scroll (a painting image or Myogo (name of Buddha)), rather than a Buddhist statue, is recommended in Jodo Shinshu Sect. The above is based on the following description of "Rennyo-shonin Goichidai-ki Kikigaki" (a record of what was heard about the whole life of the holy priest Rennyo), which compiled from what Rennyo Shonin told. "Other sects recommend a painted image rather than myogo, a wooden image rather than a painted image. Our sect recommend a painted image rather than a wooden image, myogo rather than a painted image." From the above, we can infer the characteristics of Jodo Shinshu Sect which emphasizes nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation) (faith).

A glass or teacup shouldn't be used when offering water or tea. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, water should be served on uwajoku (a table situated in front of the principal image) as purified water (fragrant water) using Buddhist alter fittings called kebyo with branches and leaves of shikimi (Japanese star anise) put into it.
(Offering water or tea can be omitted in case butsudan is small or mitsuori-honzon (the principal image which can be folded into thirds) is enshrined.)

Only fresh flowers, not artificial flowers or artificial lotus flowers (one of Buddhist alter fittings), should be used.

In ordinary times, only obuku (also referred as obuppan, rice served for a family Buddhist alter) should be served. On the occasion of events such as Higan (vernal and autumnal equinox festivals) and Bon Festival (the festival of the dead), small rice cakes which are placed on kuge (offering stand) should be served.
(In Hongan-ji school, cakes and fruits are also served other than small rice cakes. Ryoguzen tray (one of Buddhist alter fittings) should not be used.)
Gifts or favorite food of the deceased should be served outside of the family Buddhist alter.

Object of Worship

In Jodo Shinshu Sect, only Amida Nyorai is the object of worship. Ihai and the picture of the deceased shouldn't be put inside the Family Buddhist alter. Pictures should be displayed at a position which is not right above the family Buddhist alter, such as on nageshi (a horizontal piece of timber) situated beside it, for the purpose of recalling the deceased.

Monto should put the palms of hands together while chanting 'Namu Amidabutsu' even if other sects' main image (such as Dainichi-nyorai and Shakyamuni-nyorai) is enshrined. The reason for the above is because "Bussetsu Muryoju-kyo Sutra" preaches that Amida Nyorai's vows (Forty eight vows) are admitted by various Buddha. It is said, however, that as a matter of etiquette, nenbutsu should be chanted in a whisper which cannot be heard by those around or at heart in order not to make believers of other sects uncomfortable.

Nenko (burning of an incense stick)

While one or three burning sticks are stood in koro (incense burner) in other sects, in Jodo Shinshu Sect, incense sticks are laid down in koro after being broken into a few pieces for which the length is suitable for the size of koro. There is no problem to serve four sticks after breaking two incense sticks into four.
(Jodo Shinshu Sect denies a superstition deriving from a pun of shi (four) meaning shi (death).)

Depending on the region, an incense stick is broken into three pieces like the practice in other sects. The reason why the believers of other sects stand an incense stick after breaking it into three is because they believe each of the three sticks represents Buddha, teachings of Buddha and Buddhist monks respectively or the present, the past and the future respectively.

In some sects other than Jodo Shinshu Sect, breaking an incense stick is sometimes regarded as ominous.

By breaking an incense stick, burning time can be shortened and the risk of fire can also be reduced. Further, as incense sticks are laid on ashes instead of being stood, they burn themselves out and no cinders remain in ashes. Even if an incense stick is broken by mistake, it doesn't come to nothing. It can be said that this practice of nenko represents Jodo Shinshu Sect's reasonable way of thinking.

Graveyard

A graveyard is defined in Jodo Shinshu Sect as a place to house the remains of the dead. Visiting a grave is an opportunity to confirm the relation with, as well as faith in, Buddha and its significance is to recall the deceased who was salvaged by Amida Nyorai and to give thanks for being a person who might also be salvaged at some time.

On a gravestone, the word of 'Namu Amidabutsu' (南無阿弥陀仏) or 'Kue-issho' (具会一処) should be written in principle. When visiting a graveyard with only a family name written on it, visitors should bring an object of worship, such as mitsuori honzon, and worship it while putting the palms of the hands together, chanting nenbutsu and invocating the name of Buddha. Like in other sects, there exist many gravestones with only the word of '... family' written on them.

As Jodo Shinshu Sect denies the notion of boso (the properties of a grave, such as its style and shape, which may affect one's fortune) as a groundless superstition, it prohibits the building of Kissobaka (a grave with properties which may lead to good fortune). Further, as Jodo Shinshu Sect does not place any particular significance on a gravestone, it instructs monto not to build gorinto (a gravestone composed of five pieces piled up one upon another) and not to stick to the direction of gravestone.

Since the notion of Tsuizen-kuyo (religious service for the repose of the soul of the deceased) does not exist in Jodo Shinshu Sect, sotoba (a tall, narrow wooden tablet set up behind a gravestone for the repose of the deceased) is not necessary.

Some monto place a portion of the remains at Nishi Otani or Higashi Otani in Kyoto, the graveyard of the holy priest Shinran, separately from their own family graveyard. In this case, remains that were once placed there cannot be taken out because all remains are placed in the same place. Monto do not cling to remains and graves traditionally and not a few monto in the regions of Omi, Hokuriku and Tokai, so-called monto regions, place all of the remains at the grave of the holy priest Shinran without having their family graves.

Tatari (a curse)

The notion of 'Tatari of the dead' doesn't exist in Jodo Shinshu Sect. This is because according to the teachings of Jodo Shinshu Sect, the dead immediately reincarnate as Buddha in the Pure Land (going to heaven and immediately becoming a Buddha) and therefore, they never wander in this world as souls.

Tsuizen Kuyo (a religious service for the repose of the soul of someone)

In Jodo Shinshu Sect, devotional exercises every morning and evening, in which monto worship Amida Nyorai while putting the palms of the hands together, chanting nenbutsu and invocating the name of Buddha and thanking the holy priest Shinran, the founder of Jodo Shinshu Sect, as well as Seven masters of Jodo Shinshu Sect for their efforts in preaching the teachings of Buddha, are deemed as memorial services for the ancestors. In the event of memorial services held at family temples, it is desirable to attend and practice monpo (listening to the teachings of Buddha) wherever possible. The above is based on the thought that particular events of memorial services are unnecessary since the deceased have already become Buddha by Other-power (Amida Nyorai's power). From the viewpoint of other sects' believers, however, such a practice is proof that monto do not know about ordinary Buddhist memorial services (such as Segaki (hungry ghosts' feeding rites) at the Urabon-e festival (a Festival of the Dead or Buddhist All Soul's Day, around the 15th of July or August, depending on local customs)).

Eitai Kuyo (eternal memorial services)

The notion of 'Eitai Kuyo' doesn't exist in Jodo Shinshu Sect. Though the notion of Eitai-kyo (eternal sutra reciting) does exist, its purpose is not for memorial services but for the eternal continuation of sutra reciting, existence of temples and spreading of the teachings.

Eitai-kyo' in Jodo Shinshu Sect is sutra reciting which is conducted on shotsuki-meinichi (the anniversaries of one's death after the first anniversary) and at Higan-e in spring and autumn and its purpose is to thank the ancestors. It is the opportunity for those in life to remind the teachings of Buddha.

Omamori (a personal amulet) and Ofuda (paper charm)

Monto of Jodo Shinshu Sect have neither omamori nor ofuda. The reason for the above is the doctrine by which monto are encouraged not to be shackled by superstitions and to live while facing up to reality.

Kaichumyogo (a pocketable paper with the name of Amida-nyorai written on it) of Hongan-ji School is the remains of what was given during wartime (Pacific war) to soldiers when they were called up. Some monks of the school consider that it should be abolished because unlike Mitsuori-honzon, it is the same thing with omamori.
(Some monks of Hongan-ji School consider, to the contrary, that it is good behavior to always bring an object of worship.)
In this connection, kaichu-myogo doesn't exist in Otani School.

Monoimi (avoiding something that is regarded as ominous)

As Jodo Shinshu Sect doesn't understand a death as uncleanness, monoimi is not conducted. For the same reason, salt for purification is not used in funerals.

In chapter ninth of volume one in "Ofumi" (Gobunsho), Rennyo Shonin stated that monoimi should not be conducted in Jodo Shinshu Sect saying 'next, regarding monoimi, our sect does not abstain from anything based on the doctrine of Buddhism.'
However, Rennyo Shonin subsequently advised monto not to make fun of or condemn believers of other sects (because they conduct monoimi) on the grounds that monto do not conduct monoimi by saying as follows.
In other sects, there is no reason for not conducting Monoimi for kubo (shogunal representative). There is no problem for believers of other sects'/schools' to conduct monoimi. Further, monto must not slander believers of other sects for conducting monoimi.'
In a nutshell, Jodo Shinshu Sect prohibits monto from conducting monoimi. Further, it cites a paragraph of "Nehan-gyo Sutra" (The Sutra of The Great Nirvana) and "Hanju-kyo Sutra" (also known as Hanju Zanmai-kyo Sutra (Sutra of the Meditation to Behold the Buddha)) as the authority for not conducting monoimi and by these sutras, it also pointed out that all Buddhists, not monto alone, don't stick to selecting kichijitsu (the happiest day among Rokuyo). As described above, what is in compliance with the teachings of Buddhism from the viewpoint of monto is taken by the believers of other sects as mono shirazu (don't know anything) and such a misunderstanding sometimes causes conflict.

Hannya Shingyo (Heart Sutra)

"Hannya Shingyo Sutra," which is widely used in other sects, is not used in Jodo Shinshu Sect, because its teachings of self-attainment through its own exercises is inconsistent with the teaching of Jodo Shinshu Sect that emphasizes salvation through the benevolence of Amida Buddha.

Goshuin (letter bearing the shogun's scarlet seal)

When visiting sacred places such as temples, some believers of other sects place goshuin on Shuin-cho (a notebook for sealing red seals of various sacred places) for record. In Jodo Shinshu Sect, however, placing goshuin is not recommended because its teachings don't place importance on visiting many temples. However, it doesn't ban monto's visiting various temples. The reason for the above is because according to the thoughts of Jodo Shinshu Sect, the purpose of visiting many temples is not collecting many goshuin but coming in to contact with many doctrines (teachings).

Fading Trend of the Unique Teaching of Jodo Shinshu Sect

In recent years, it is increasingly becoming difficult to pass down the teachings of Jodo Shinshu Sect due to the trend towards the nuclear family and the ever-increasing flow of young people to urban areas. Especially in the Tokyo metropolitan area where Jodo Shinshu Sect has not been so prevalent from the beginning, many monto, though they belong to temples affiliated to Jodo Shinshu Sect, are confusing the rituals and manners of other sects with those of Jodo Shinshu Sect. As a result, many of monto's descendants are not aware of the meaning of Tariki Hongan (by Amida Nyorai) and the unique rituals and manners of Jodo Shinshu Sect. At present, it could be said that 'Monto omo shirazu' (believers of Jodo Shinshu Sect are unaware of even the fact that they are monto).