Makimuku-kofun Tumulus Cluster (a tumulus cluster in Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture) (纏向古墳群)
This tumulus cluster is located in the south of Yanagimoto-kofun Tumulus Cluster and spread over the west foot of Mt. Miwa. Above all, Hashihaka-kofun Tumulus (also known as Hashinakayama-kofun Tumulus) is the first stereotyped large keyhole-shaped mound.
It is estimated to have been constructed approximately in the middle of the third century. The Kofun period is said to have begun at that time.
Furthermore, it is supposed to be the tomb of Himiko (first known ruler of Japan), the queen of Yamatai-Koku kingdom described in "Gishi" Wajinden (an 'Account of the Wa [inhabitants of the western Japanese archipelago in the late third century]' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty" which comprises "The History of the Three Kingdoms" written by Chen Shou, where the account is known as the first historical record of Japan). The Imperial Household Agency manages it as the Mausoleum of Yamatototohimomosohime no mikoto (Princess Yamatototohimomosohime) at Oichi.
Characteristics of the tumuli
The tumuli at the Makimuku ruin are referred to as Makimuku style of a large keyhole-shaped mound. There are many scallop-shaped mounds in the cluster.
They have the following characteristics:
Compared with the back circular part, the front square part is remarkably small, low and flat.
The ratio of the whole length of the tumuli, the diameter of the back circular part to the length of the front square part is exactly three, two to one in principle.
The form of the back circular part is not an accurate circle, but an oblate spheroid, an obovoid shape, or an inaccurate circle.
The front square part of a tumulus surrounded with a moat is narrow.
Makimuku Katsuyama-kofun Tumulus
Makimuku Yazuka-kofun Tumulus
Makimuku Ishizuka-kofun Tumulus
Higaida Otsuka-kofun Tumulus
Hashihaka-kofun Tumulus or Hashihaka Nakayama-kofun Tumulus