The Umami-kofun Tumuli Cluster (Tumuli Cluster around Umami-kyuryo Hill) (馬見古墳群)

The Umami-kofun Tumuli Cluster was constructed around the Umami-kyuryo Hill which was stretched from Kawai Town, Koryo Town of Kitakatsuragi County to Yamato Takada City, Nara Prefecture, in the southwest area of the Nara Basin. It was one of the most famous tumuli clusters in Nara Prefecture, consisting of three groups: North group, Middle group and South group.

Summary

It was constructed between the end of fourth century and sixth century. There is a view that it is the cemetery area of the Katsuragi clan, which was an ancient local ruling family. In the Katsuragi region, construction of famous tumulus started from the middle of the early Kofun period (Tumulus period). In the mid-early period to the middle period, tumuli of more than 200 meters long were constructed.

Major Tumulus

The Shinyama-kofun Tumulus: Otsuka, Koryo Town; the early Kofun period; a square-front, square-back mound; 137 meters; and 34 bronze mirrors were excavated. The Suyama-kofun Tumulus: Mitsuyoshi, Koryo Town; the early Kofun period; a keyhole-shaped mound; 204 meters; and a special historic site.
Popular Moat Surrounding, Keyhole-Shaped Tumulus in Japan

The Tsukiyama-kofun Tumulus: Tsukiyama, Yamato Takada City; the middle Kofun period; a keyhole-shaped mound; 210 meters; and an imperial mausoleum. The Nikiyama-kofun Tumulus: Nikiyama, Koryo Town; the middle Kofun period; a keyhole-shaped mound; 200 meters; and a potential site for imperial mausoleums. The Kawai Otsukayama-kofun Tumulus: Kawai, Kawai Town; the middle Kofun period; a keyhole-shaped mound; and 195 meters. There is a view that the Otsukayama-kofun Tumuli Cluster is not included in the Umami-kofun Tumuli Cluster. The Ryokeyama-kofun Tumulus: Ryoke, Yamato Takada City; chicken-head haniwa (funerary figures) were excavated. The Samita Nagareyama-kofun Tumulus: Samita, Kawai Town; and a historic site. The Samida Takarazuka-kofun Tumulus: Samita, Kawai Town; and a historic site. More than 30 bronze mirrors were excavated. Among them, there is Kaoku Monkyo, an ancient mirror on which icons of four types of houses were curved on its back. It is imagined that the icons describe the design of the palace of the late Katsuragi Dynasty and that the four types of houses are Takadono (a building placed on the high place), Ko-oku (a raised-floor house), Takakura (a raised storehouse) and Densha (a palace).

The Kitsui Shiroyama-kofun Tumulus: Kitsui and Ryofukuji, Kashiba City; the late Kofun period; a keyhole-shaped mound; and 140 meters. The Shimanoyama-kofun Tumulus: Toin, Kawanishi Town; the early Kofun period; a keyhole-shaped mound; and 195 meters.