Japanese Coiffure (日本髪)

The Japanese coiffure by a broad definition refers to the coiffure unique to Japan from the Tumulus Period to the pre-war Showa Period.

The Japanese coiffure' by a narrow definition refers to the keppatsu (hairdressing) practiced by Japanese women from the late Azuchi-Momoyama Period to the end of the Edo Period.
This section adopts a broad definition to illustrate the transition of the hairstyles in Japan and the dressing customs of men and lists 'the hairstyles that existed in Japan.'

Transition
Early Edo Period
The mainstream male hairstyle was Hittsume (hair tightly pulled back in a bun), whose shape was close to Ichomage (a hairstyle like a fan, like a leaf of the sacred gingko tree). The mainstream female hairstyles were long and narrow hairstyles such as Tatehyogo, Genrokushimada, and Genrokukatsuyama. The popular styles of tabo (back part) were the ones the form of which protruded backward such as Kamome-zuto (women's hairstyle similar to the gull's tail) and Sekirei-tabo (women's hairstyle similar to the wagtail's tail).

Mid-Edo Period
The mainstream of the male hairstyle was Honda mage. The mainstream of the female hairstyle was Toro-bin, a style that has sideburns protruding to both sides and that can be seen through. Mage (chignon) became larger and wider as seen in Shimada-mage and Katsuyama (for yujo [prostitutes]), while sideburns became more puffed up downward, which introduced nukiemon (pulled back collar) at this time.

Late Edo Period
The mainstream of the male hairstyle was Ichomage again, the style of which had puffed and thick sideburns like women's. Among townspeople, tabo puffed out downward, called Fukurotsuki, was prevailing (although men did not practice nukiemon). As for the female hairstyles, the popularity of Toro-bin declined, and the hairstyles almost same as the current ones, such as the following, took root in these days: Takashimada (a decorative female wig), Tsubushi shimada (a hairstyle worn by young unmarried women, courtesans and geisha), Yuiwata (a hairstyle like cotton wrapped up), Momoware (literally, split peach; a female hairstyle in kimono in which the bun is split and a red fabric is woven in the center), Marumage (a rounded hairstyle for married women), and Sakikogai (a variation of the Shimada knot with remaining hair arranged with a stick called "kogai"). Speaking of tabo, among kuge (court nobles) and daimyo families (feudal lord families), Shiitake-tabo (palace women's hairstyle) became their mainstream. Among common samurai families and townspeople, tabo was generally puffed out downward in the Kanto region and puffed a little round in the Kansai region.

From Meiji Period to pre-war Showa Period
Under the influence of westernization, most men started to have the western hairstyles. With regard to the women's hairstyles, the western styles emerged on one hand, but on the other hand hairstyles that can be said to be hybrids between traditional styles and western styles, such as the followings, were invented to suit both western and Japanese clothes: Sokuhatsu (western hairdo), Yakaimaki (a bun hairdo which was popular in the Meiji Period), Mimikakushi (a bun hairdo which was popular in the Taisho Period), Yukuefumei mage (a bun hairdo without a topknot), and so on.

Nihyakusankochi-mage, which was a popular hairstyle after the Russo-Japanese War, had forward protruding hair on the top front of the head and high tied hair at the top. This style was invented to suit western closes that began to spread at this time and became popular.

The hairstyles in the western style with modern names such as Radio maki were also invented. Before the wartime regime was established, the traditional Japanese coiffures were still worn (along with thick makeup like Shironuri [white makeup]) only when women wore Japanese clothes.

After the post-war period
Although the Japanese coiffure culture almost perished except in kabuki (the traditional drama performed by male actors), period dramas, karyukai (the world of geisha), and the wedding industry, people today usually dress the new Japanese coiffure when wearing haregi (festive dress) in New Year's day and other occasions.

Edo and kamigata (Kyoto and Osaka area)
Edo style
The hair on the top front of a head and the sideburns protruded forward. The tabo protruded downward. The hair tended to be heavier because many kamoji (hairpieces) were used. The hair was large as a whole.

Kamigata style
The hair on the top front of a head and the sideburns did not protrude forward but naturally flowed backward. The tabo was rolled up. The hair tended to be lighter because a minimum number of kamoji (hairpieces) were used. The hairstyle gave an impression of cuteness because it looked small and round when looked at from the front.

By category
*Girls: before the secondary sex characteristics; Young women: unmarried women after the secondary sex characteristics; Married women: possibly include unmarried women aged 18 or older
Long flowing hairstyles
Long flowing hair (From mid-Heian to Muromachi Periods; Worn by, originally, kuge and the samurai families, and now modern brides)
Sagegami (From mid- to late Edo Periods; Worn by the married women of the daimyo families)
Kirigami (From mid- to late Edo Periods; Worn by the widows of the daimyo families)
Chasenmage (a hairstyle like a tea whisk) (From early to late Edo Periods; Worn by the widows of the daimyo families)
Osuberakashi (From mid-Edo Period to the present; Worn by, originally, the imperial family and kuge, and now modern brides)
Hyogo styles
Tatehyogo (Early Edo Period; Worn by yujo)
Toro-bin yokohyogo (Mid-Edo Period; Worn by yujo)
Datehyogo (Late Edo Period; Worn by yujo)
Shimada styles
Kofun shimada (Tumulus Period; Worn by miko [shrine maidens])
Genroku shimada (Early Edo Period; Worn by, originally, yujo, and then the young women of townspeople)
Harunobu-style shimada (Early Edo Period; Worn by, originally, yujo, and then the young women of townspeople)
Toro-bin shimadamage (Mid-Edo Period; Worn by, originally, yujo, and then young women of townspeople)
Tsubuichi (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the girls and young women of kuge, and now modern brides)
Takashimada (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the girls and young women of the samurai families, and now modern brides)
Tsubushi shimada (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the young women and married women of townspeople, and then modern Edo geisha [Japanese professional female entertainers at drinking parties in Edo])
Yuiwata (Late Edo Period; Worn, originally, by the girls and young women of townspeople, and now with modern haregi)
Suisha mage (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the girls and young women of townspeople, and now modern maiko [apprentice geisha])
Ichokuzushi (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the girls of townspeople, and then elderly townspeople)
Katsuyama styles
Katsuyama mage (Early Edo Period; Worn by yujo, and then the young women of the samurai families)
Toro-bin Katsuyama mage (Mid-Edo Period; Worn by, originally, yujo, and then the married women of townspeople)
Marumage (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of the samurai families, and then the married women of townspeople)
Fukiwa (Late Edo Period; Worn by the young women of the daimyo families)
Kogai-mage styles
Kogai-mage (Early Edo Period; Worn by, originally, yujo, and then the married women of townspeople)
Toro-bin kogai-mage (Mid-Edo Period; Worn by, originally, yujo, and then the married women of townspeople)
Sageshita (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of the daimyo retainer families)
Katahazushi (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of the daimyo retainer families)
Sakko (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the married women of townspeople, and now modern maiko)
Ryowa (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of townspeople)
Suisho (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of townspeople [only in Kyoto])
Shimada kuzushi (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of townspeople)
Tabanegami (western hairdo) styles
Chigomage (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the girls of the samurai families, and then the girls of townspeople, and now at modern festivals)
Ichomage (Late Edo Period; Worn, originally, by the girls of townspeople, and now at modern festivals)
Ichogaeshi (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally the young women and married women of townspeople)
Momoware (Late Edo Period; Worn, originally, by the girls of townspeople, and now with modern haregi)
Wareshinobu (Late Edo Period; Worn by, originally, the girls of townspeople, and now modern maiko)
Warikanoko (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of townspeople)
Toro-bin bai-mage (Mid-Edo Period; Worn by yujo)
Bai-mage (Late Edo Period; Worn by the married women of townspeople)
Tabanegami (Meiji Period; Worn by young women and married women)
Yakaimaki (Meiji Period; Worn by young women and married women)
Men's hairstyles
Tsunogami (From Tumulus to Heian Periods; Worn by the imperial family and kuge (also boys after the Nara Period)
Kanmurishita no motodori (From Nara to late Edo Periods; Worn by the imperial family, kuge, and the daimyo families)
Chigomage (From mid-Heian to late Edo Periods; Worn by the boys at large temples)
Chasenmage (Azuchi-Momoyama Period; Worn by busho [Japanese military commanders])
Ichomage (Early Edo Period; Worn by the samurai families and townspeople)
Hondamage (Mid-Edo Period; Worn by townspeople)
Wakashu-mage (Early Edo Period; Worn by the boys of townspeople)
Sumi-maegami (Late Edo Period; Worn by the boys of the samurai families)
Sohatsu (Late Edo Period; Worn by doctors, scholars, etc.)
Oicho (Late Edo Period; Worn by townspeople and sumo wrestlers)

By social class and profession

Kuge, nobles, and the imperial family

Amasogi: a hairstyle of both nuns and young girls of the Heian Period

Osuberakashi: a hairstyle of the women of both the nobles and the daimyo families from the Heian Period to early-modern times

Osuberakashi: a hairstyle of the women of the nobles families from the modern times to present day

Tsubuichi: A variation of Shimada mage. This hairstyle was popular from the end of the Edo Period to the Meiji Period. It was worn by the young women of kuge.

Chigomage: This hairstyle was popular from the end of the Edo Period to the Meiji Period. It was dressed by the young girls of both kuge and the samurai families.

Hitotsu-motodori: This hairstyle was the one worn by noble-class men and existed from Nara Period to early-modern times. It was also called Kanmurisita no motodori.

Ikkei: A hairstyle of noble-class women in the Nara Period. A Chinese-style hairdo. Refer to Koukei for details.

Sokei: A hairstyle of noble-class women in the Nara Period. It made two bundles of hair. Refers to Koukei for details.

Koukei: A variation of Ikkei, but hair was dressed high up by adding hairpieces.

Mizura: A hairstyle worn in the Tumulus Period and after (regardless of age). After the Nara Period, it was worn by the children of the noble families.

Tama musubi: A hairstyle of mid-class women in the Azuchi-momoyama Period. It was a hairstyle in which the end of hanging hair was wrapped into a circle.

Samurai families

Osafune: a hairstyle of the concubines of the samurai warriors in the late Edo Period

Katahazushi: a hairstyle for the female retainers of daimyo (Japanese feudal lords) in the late Edo Period

Marumage: A typical mage for women from early Edo Period to early-modern times.
This hairstyle was also called Katsuyama mage
It was commonly worn by the wives of the samurai families. It came into common use after the Meiji Period.

Shimada-mage: This hairstyle lasts from the Edo Period until today. It was originally Wakashu-mage (a young men's hairstyle in the early Edo Period) but became widely popular mainly among the women of the samurai families.

Fukiwa: a hairstyle of the princesses of the daymyo families that emerged in the early Edo Period

Chasenmage (for women): a hairstyle mainly for the widows of the daimyo and samurai families

Chasenmage (for men): This hairstyle became popular in Azuchi-Momoyama Period.

Oicho: Ichomage in the style of high-ranking country samurai. This hairstyle is famous for a topknot worn by sumo wrestlers. Refer to Ichomage for details on the topknot of samurai.

Hosohake: A small type of Ichomage giving an impression of a stylish guy between a samurai or townsman. Yoriki (police sergeants) liked this hairstyle. Refer to Ichomage for details.

Sumi-maegami: a hairstyle of boys just before genpuku (coming of age)

Wakashu-mage: A topknot worn by young men. Also, it refers to young men before genpuku (coming of age).

Chonmage: This hairstyle reminds people of the men's hairstyles appearing in period dramas.

Wealthy merchants and tradesmen

Tojinmage: This hairstyle became popular from the end of the Edo Period to the Meiji Period. It was commonly worn by the daughters of wealthy households.

Warikanoko: A hairstyle with both stylishness and cuteness which gave an impression that Chigomage was made to lie flat backward. This hairstyle was commonly worn by the wives of wealthy merchants.

Mitsuwamage: A hairstyle of the mistresses kept by wealthy merchants at the end of the Edo Period and after. This hairstyle was a mixture of Marumage and Ichogaeshi. It was similar to Osafune listed in samurai families.

Hondamage: This hairstyle was popular in the mid-Edo Period. An elegant topknot commonly worn by young masters.

Koicho: A merchant-style Ichomage. Refer to Ichomage for details.

Townspeople

Keshibouzu: A hairstyle of young boys and girls. This hairstyle was a head with the hair (as well as eyebrows for girls) shaved up but the hair only on the top of the head or the forelock left.

Ichomage (for girls): A hairstyle for girls worn until the hair grew long. Eyebrows were shaved while this topknot was worn.

Otabakobon: This hairstyle was popular from the end of the Edo Period to the Meiji Period. A simple hairstyle with two topknots and a kanoko (an ornament) worn between them. It was worn by the young girls of townspeople.

Momoware: This hairstyle was popular from the end of the Edo Period to the Taisho Period. It was commonly worn by the young women of townspeople. Today it is often combined with haregi in events like the coming-of-age celebration.

Yuiwata: A modification of Shimada. This hairstyle was worn by the young women of townspeople mainly in Kyoto and Osaka at around the end of the Edo Period. Today it is often combined with haregi in events like the coming-of-age celebration.

Oshidori: A variation of Yuiwata, above, with a bridge-shaped hairpiece solidified with oil. This hairstyle was worn by the girls in Kyoto and Osaka at the end of the Edo Period and after.

Ryowa: a hairstyle for women after their childbirth

Yakai maki: This hairstyle was popular at intervals at the Meiji Period and after. It was favored as a women's hairstyle.

Tabanegami: It became popular at intervals at the Meiji Period and after. It was favored as a women's hairstyle.

Mimikakushi: This hairstyle was greatly popular in the Taisho Period. It is often found in the pictures by Yumeji TAKEHISA.

Ichomage: a topknot with its end broadened, commonly worn by townspeople in Edo

Jiretta musubi: A young women's hairstyle in the Edo Period. A simple hairstyle that only bound hair after taking a bath or other occasions.

Buddhist priest families, Shinto priest families, Confucian families

Kofunshimada: a hairstyle of miko in the Tumulus Period

Tokutou: a totally shaved head of both those who entered the priesthood and elderly people

Chigomage: This hairstyle was worn by the children of the nobles and samurai families who were looked after in temples. It came into common use later.

Souhatsu: This hairstyle started in the old ages but came into common use at the end of the Edo Period. It was a long hair with the hair on the top front combed back and smoothed down, and was favored by the young men of sonno-ha (the supporters of the doctrine of restoring the emperor).

Yujo

Kamuro: Bobbed hair. It is known as a hairstyle of the girls called 'kaburo' who were in the red-light district in the early Edo Period and after.

Kamuro shimada: Elongated takashimada. It is known as a hairstyle of the girls called 'kaburo' who were in the red-light district in the late Edo Period and after.

Karawa: This hairstyle was popular in Kyoto and Osaka in the early Edo Period.

Tatehyogo: This hairstyle was popular in Kyoto and Osaka in the early Edo Period.

Yokohyogo: This hairstyle derived from Tatehyogo
It was famous as a hairstyle of oiran (highest-ranking yujo).

Katsuyama-mage: a samurai-style mage made popular by a yujo named Katsuyama

Kuruwatsubushi: A variation of Tsubushi shimada. This hairstyle was worn by middle-class yujo. It had a wide topknot.

Geisha (Japanese professional female entertainers at drinking parties) and geigi (almost the same as geisha)

Ichogaeshi: This hairstyle was popular from the end of Edo Period to the Meiji Period. It was frequently worn by geisha.

Kushimaki: A simple topknot that lasted from the mid-Edo Period to the Showa Period. This hairstyle was worn mainly by women in the geisha society.

Geisha shimada: A hairstyle of geisha in Edo. This hairstyle was a variation of Tsubushi shimada but the ornament was never too much.

Chudaka shimada: A hairstyle of geigi in the Kansai region. This hairstyle was a little lower and smaller Takashimada.

Kyofu shimada: An original hairstyle of geiko in Kyoto
Today this hairstyle is worn only at chaseki (tea ceremonies).

Hakesaki: A hairstyle for tekomai (float leading dance). This hairstyle was quite a large type of Ichomage.

Wareshinobu: a common hairstyle of junior maiko (apprentice geisha) today
Ofuku: a hairstyle of senior maiko who are elder than the maiko who wore wareshinobu

Chushimada: A hairstyle between Yakkoshimada and Kyofu shimada.
This hairstyle is worn by the maiko of Gion kobu during the period of Miyako odori (the dance performance held by geisha and maiko in Kyoto's Gion district in April)

Katsuyama: a hairstyle worn by senior maiko during the period of Miyako odori

Yakkoshimada: a hairstyle worn by senior maiko when wearing black crested haori.

Sakko: A topknot worn by maiko one to four weeks before erigae (the promotion to a full-fledged geisha; refer to haneri [neckpiece]). This hairstyle is worn always with haguro (black painted teeth).

Actors, street performers, and so on
Gakuyaicho: This hairstyle was also called Hawase or Maeware, where hair is parted in the middle without making the forelock stand up. It had the same mage as the one of Ichogaeshi. It was originally a hairstyle for the daily use of kabuki actors who took female roles. Today it is worn when a woman plays a male role in the dance of suodori (dancing without costume and hairpiece).

Bai-mage: A vertically long topknot imitating a spiral shell. A hairstyle of street performers such as onnadayu (torioi).

Baichouchou: A mixture hairstyle of Bai-mage and Ichogaeshi. It was also called Tenjinmage. A hairstyle of street performers like the above.

Sennichi-bin: This hairstyle was not for everyday life but was worn by actors who played a role like a thief in dramas. This hairstyle was gained when a ronin (masterless samurai)let his sakayaki (the shaved part of the forehead) grow.