Ju-kyo (Confucianism) (儒教)
Ju-kyo is a system of thought and religious belief founded by Koshi (Confucius). It rose in China before the birth of Christ, and has had strong influence in East Asian countries for more than two thousand years. It is referred to as Ju-gaku (in Chinese) from the scholarly side, and Mei-kyo or Rei-kyo from the side of philosophy. It is also referred to as Ko-kyo or Koshi-kyo from Koshi, the person who achieved its perfection. In China, its philosophy or thought is called thought of Ju-ka (thought of Confucius).
Koshi of Lu systematized it in the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period, succeeded and developed the theories of the ancient men of virtue, Yao, Shun, King Wen of Zhou, King Wu of Zhou, and Duke of Zhou, as ideal politics, practiced a way of humanity and justice, and advocated the distinction of social standing and order. The religious community became a school of Shoshi hyakka (The Various Masters of the 100 Schools: Thinkers of Ancient China) as Ju-ka (Confucianist), and advocated the principle of rule by virtue of the sovereignty, which believed the country should be governed by the rule of virtue, criticizing the rule by military power and plots in those days, and claiming that in fact, history had progressed in such ways. It was established during the age of the Han Dynasty when this thought of Ju-ka was recognized as a national learning of religious doctrine.
Ju-kyo teaches the maintenance of five human relations arranged in order (father and son, lord and vassal, husband and wife, old and young, one and one's friend) through expansion of moral character called the five eternal virtues (humanity, justice, courtesy, wisdom, sincerity).
Originally, the concept of predominance of men over women did not exist in Ju-kyo. However, it is true that Ju-kyo in the Tang Dynasty and onward had a strong tendency towards predominance of men over women. This is seen today as a result of continuous emphasis on the thought that 'wives have the obligation to devote themselves to their husbands' (maintenance of the five human relations arranged in order), and it is frequently debated whether Ju-kyo should be considered a thought of equal rights for men and women or a thought of predominance of men over women.
To sympathize or consider others' situation.
Before Koshi, the word was used to mean 'to flatter.'
Additionally, according to the "Biography of Confucius" by Shizuka SHIRAKAWA, 'it is a word describing the likelihood of valiant young men in hunting clothes.'
In 'The Analects of Confucius,' it is described in many ways. Koshi considered humanity the highest type of virtue.
Repay an obligation
Humanity displayed in specific actions. It originally referred to taboos in religious courtesy or traditional practices and systems. Later, it came to mean rules to follow in superior-inferior relationships between people.
Development in China
There have been various theories on the origin of Ju since Koseki (Hu Shih) wrote in his research paper 'The Explanation of Thought of Confucianists' (1924), that they were 'men of the people remaining from Yin who taught courtesy,' but in recent years, it has generally been believed that they were a group who specialized in ceremonial occasions, especially, funeral ceremonies. It involves 'fushuku' (shaman) who communicate with the other side. Thus, the Orientalist, Shizuka SHIRAKAWA, believed shamanism, which had spread in Asia before Christ was the parent organization of Ju. She claimed that Koshi attempted to morally and religiously reorganize the ancient society, which was falling apart due to social disorder caused by collapse of public order based on the system of social status, by extracting the ancestor worship factor from shamanism and organizing it as Rei-kyo, and by embracing a philosophy of sympathy.
Spring and Autumn Period (770 B.C. - 403 B.C.)
Kokyu (Koshi, 551 B.C. - 479 B.C.) was born in Lu at the end of the Zhou period when the merit system was widespread and public order based upon social status was beginning to collapse, and he advocated the reorganization of public order based upon social status and politics of humanity, ideally returning to the beginning of the Zhou period. The disciples of Koshi believed in the thoughts of Koshi and organized a religious community, and became a Ju-ka to form a school of Shoshi hyakka during the Warring States Period. The analects of Koshi and his disciples were recorded in "The Analects of Confucius."
According to the house of Kongzi in "Shiki" (Records of the Grand Historian," Koshi had 3000 disciples, and the 'ones who were familiar with the Six Arts (rites, music, archery, charioteering, literature and mathematics)' were called Shichijisshi (approximately seventy disciples of Koshi with outstanding talent). Among them, high-caliber disciples with exceptional talent were called the most excellent ten pupils of Confucius, and were categorized into four departments based on their talent. Specifically, Gankai, Bin-Shiken, Zen-Hakugyu, and Chukyu of virtuous deed, Saiga and Shiko of language, Zen-Yu and Shiro of political affairs and tasks, Shiyu and Shika of literature (meaning learning). Additionally, there was So-Shin (So-shi) who was known for practicing filial piety and was the author of "The Book of Filial Piety," and his disciple, Shishi, was the grandchild of Koshi and the author of "Chuyo" (Doctrine of the Mean).
Warring States Period (403 B.C. - 221 B.C.)
After the death of Koshi, Ju-ka was divided into eight schools. Among them, Moka (Moshi (Mencius)) advocated the ethical doctrine that human nature is fundamentally good, as well as humanity, which was considered the most important type of virtue by Koshi, and the thought of justice, the type of virtue which was considered actionable. Junkyo (Junshi (Xun Zi)) advocated the ethical doctrine that human nature is fundamentally evil and insisted on the principle of the rule by virtue of courtesy. Additionally, the Rikkei (six documents) books from Zhou, "Shikyo" (Chinese Poetry book), "Shujing" (Book of History), "Girai" (Yili), "Gakkei," "I Ching" (The Book of Changes), and "Shunju" (Spring and Autumn Annals) were specified as Ju-kyo scriptures, and from their Ju-ka-style interpretation learning perspective, "Classic of Rites" and den, or commentaries and collected papers, such as "Ekiden," "Chunqiu Zuoshi Zhuan" (Master Zuo's Commentary to the Spring and Autumns), "Shunju Kuyo-den" (Annotation of Gongyang on Spring and Autumn Annals), and "Shunju Kokuryo-den" (Annotation of Guliang on Spring and Autumn Annals) were organized.
Qin period (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.)
When the first Qin Emperor united six nations to unify China, they respected the thought of legalism while prohibiting the freedom of activities based on other ideas, and burned books and buried scholars. However, it is told that books stored by the erudite officers were exempted, meaning not all Keisho (most important documents in Confucianism) of Ju-ka were destroyed, and they were passed on to Han despite the Chu-Han contention.
The age of the Han Dynasty
Former Han (202 B.C. - 8)
China was once again unified by Han, and the thought and learning which became popular at the beginning of the Han period was a school of Huang-Lao Taoism from a Taoism (Daoism) lineage. Under these circumstances, Confucianist who were erudite officers in Qin took active roles, such as Shuku Sontsu who defined the court etiquette of Han, Riku Ka who made the king of Nanyue pay tribute to the court, and Fuku Sho (Fu Sheng) who introduced the "Kinbunshosho" (a New Text version of the Classic of History). Ka Gi played an active role under Emperor Wen (Han). In the era of Emperor Wu (Han), To Chujo (Dong Zhongshu), who was praised as the man of intelligent and good-natured literature, made a proposal to establish Gokyo hakase (the expert of Five Classics) for Ju-gaku, treating it as a legitimate learning. Emperor Wu accepted this proposal, and established Gokyo hakase in 136 B.C. Conventionally, it was believed that this was what made Ju-kyo the state religion, but in current studies it is commonly believed that it was between the end of former Han and early later Han that the thought of Ju-ka spread as the national learning of thought and the system admiring Confucianist alone was established. Either way, with the establishment of Gokyo hakase, Keisho of Ju-ka was taught under national approval, and Ju-kyo became the official government learning. Meanwhile, Confucianist bureaucrats gradually gained ground, and by the end of former Han, many Confucians took over as chief vassals, with Confucians dominating the Chancellors.
The learning of Keisho in former Han was specially restricted to only one classic, respecting the school, and following the rules and interpretations of the school told by the teacher, word for word (A study on Confucian Classics where the literature is divided into phrases, chapters and sections and their meanings or abstracts are lectured and explained). During the era of Emperor Xuan (Han), Sekkyokaku meetings were held to discuss the differences in sacred literature telling religious teachings, or in theories written in Confucian sacred literature. In this meeting, Shunju Kokuryo-den (Annotation of Guliang on Spring and Autumn Annals) prevailed over Shunju Kuyo-den (Annotation of Gongyang on Spring and Autumn Annals) in "Shunju."
Kuyo-ka (Kung-yang Chia) such as To Chujo (Dong Zhongshu) adopted the Inyo (Onmyo) gogyo shiso (Yin-Yang Wu-Hsing Idea) and preached Saii-setsu (Natural disaster and abnormal phenomenon theory) based on the theory of correlation between Heaven and man. Yo Yu (Yang Xiong) emerged at the end of former Han, and wrote "Taigen" imitating " I Ching," and "Hogen" imitating "Taigen" and "The Analects of Confucius" for public recognition of Confucianism.
Later Han (25 - 220)
At the end of former Han, due to thoughts based on Saii-setsu, etc., isho, which interpreted Keisho in a manner of mysticism appeared ('Kei' means 'the warp' in weaving and 'i' means 'the woof'). Isho was prepared as shichi-i, corresponding to the shichi-kei, which added the Book of Filial Piety to Rikkei, and along with its prophecies, shin-sho (prophecy) and Toshin (prediction, prophecy), it was called Shini, and became popular from the end of former Han to later Han. Omo of Xin and Kobu-tei (Emperor Guangwu) of later Han actively used Shini.
Meanwhile, thinkers such as Kantan and O Ju (Wang Chong) advocated atheism, and criticized Shini from their rationalistic perspective.
The manuscripts of the Five Classics used by the Gokyo hakase since former Han was copied in reisho-tai (clerical script), which was in use during the Han period, and was called Kinbun-kei. On the other hand, texts called Kobun-kei from Qin and earlier days were found behind the walls of Koshi's former residence and among ordinary citizens. At the end of former Han, Ryu Kin (Liu Xin) attempted to assign Kobun-kei as a gakkan (teacher), and this led to a dispute with the Kinbun-kei school. In the era of Hei-tei (Emperor Ping) (Han), "Chunqiu Zuoshi Zhuan" (Master Zuo's Commentary to the Spring and Autumns), "Girai" (Yili), "Mao shi" (Classic Poetry, Book of Odes), and "Shosho" (Classic of History) were assigned as gakkan, and in the Shin-cho (Xin Dynasty), "Rites of Zhou." In the later Han, Kobun-kei was never assigned as gakkan, but they gained influence by advancing the study on interpretation of the meaning of old characters, words and phrases of the sacred texts among ordinary citizens. In the era of Sho-tei (Emperor Zhang) (Han), Byakkokan Meeting was held to debate on differences in the manuscripts of Kinbun-kei, and while the Kobun learning came under attack, some of their interpretations were adopted. The records of this meeting were summarized in "Byakkotsugi" by Han Ko (Ban Gu).
While the Kinbun learning was specially restricted to only one classic and strictly followed the rules and interpretations of the school, the Kobun learning studied all of the Rikkei, sometimes adopting theories from other schools such as Kinbun, and aimed at a comprehensive interpretation of the Keisho. Ka Ki (Han) honored the "Sashi-den" (Zuo Zhuan), connecting it to Shini as a book describing Han's receiving of providence. His disciple, Kyoshin (Xu Shen), wrote "Setsumon-kaiji" (Shuowen Jiezi) to deny the legitimacy of character interpretation based on Kinbun, and made a significant contribution to the development of Kobun learning. Additionally, Ba Yu (Ma Rong) put forth the idea of arranging a compromise between Kinbun and Kobun through integration of the learning of Keisho. His disciple, Jo Gen (Zheng Xuan) developed a theory centered around Sanreichu and running through the entire Five Classics without contradictions, and compiled the learning of Keisho in the Han Dynasty.
The Kinbun learning side researched the weaknesses of the Kobun learning theory to rebut. Riiku criticized Sashi learning through "Nansashigi," and participated in the Byakkokan Meeting to attack Ka Ki. Ka Kyu wrote an annotation for the "Kuyoden" with his extensive knowledge and summarized it in "Shunjukuyo-kaiko" (Interpretation of Annotation of Gongyang on Spring and Autumn Annals). Additionally, he wrote "Kuyo-bokushu" to honor Kuyo learning and wrote "Sashikoko" to attack Sashi learning.
On the other hand, he rejected "Rites of Zhou" as 'a book of conspiracy by the six nations.'
Ka Kyu was rebutted by Jo Gen, and since then, no Taishi (a master and assistant of emperor in the ancient China) of Kinbun learning appeared, and Kinbun learning declined, pushed aside by Kobun learning.
Three Kingdoms period (220 - 280) and Both Jin Dynasties (Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties) (265 - 420)
In the Wei Dynasty (Three States Period), O Shuku (Wang Su) rebutted Jo Gen and created annotations for almost all classics, and most of these annotations for classics were assigned as gakkan. Additionally, O Shuku (Wang Su) was known for forgery of "Koshi-kego" (a chronicle of the sayings and doings of Confucius and his disciples). In the Western Jin Dynasty, To Yo (Du Yu) wrote "Shunjukeidenshikkai" (the Compiled Annotations of the Spring and Autumn Classic and its Commentary), an annotation for "Chunqiu Zuoshi Zhuan" (Master Zuo's Commentary to the Spring and Autumns), and created his original example-based interpretation of Shunju (Spring and Autumn Annals) to complete the Shunju learning based on commentary of Zuo. As for "Shunju Kokuryo-den" (Annotation of Guliang on Spring and Autumn Annals), Han Nei (Fan Ning) wrote the annotation. The learning which flourished in this period was Xuanxue (Neotaoism) based on the thought of Laozi and Zhuangzi and "I Ching" (Classic of Changes), and some wrote annotations for Ju-kyo Keisho from the Xuanxue side. For example, Wang Bi wrote "Annotation of Zhouyi" which was an annotation for Hi-shi Eki (Mr. Hi's divination) and Ka An (He Yan) created "The Collected Annotations of the Analects of Confucius" (sound of Seishi - academic traditions starting from Seishi era). Additionally, in Go (Three Kingdoms), there was Gu Hon who passed along Moshi's divination in Kinbun and I Sho who left "Annotation of Kokugo" (history book on Chinese Spring and Autumn Period). The Eika War occurred at the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, and many traditions of Kinbun-kei learning ended. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Bai Saku presented to the Emperor, something called 58 Volumes of "The Old Text version of Classic of History" with the Commentary of Ko Ankoku (the Commentary of Kong Anguo) attached, for "The Old Text version of Classic of History" which was lost in the Eika War, but it was proved by En Jakkyo (Yan Ruoju) of Qing that it was forged (they are called the forged Old Text version of Classic of History). This forged Old Text version of Classic of History was assigned as gakkan along with annotations by Jo Gen.
Period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (439 - 589)
In the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (China), Ju-gaku in the Southern Dynasty (China) was called south learning, and Ju-gaku in the Northern Dynasty (China) was called north learning. Ju-kyo did not prosper much in the Southern Dynasty, but in the era of Sho En (Xiao Yan) of Liang (Southern Dynasty), Gokyo hakase was established and Ju-kyo flourished temporarily. In the south learning, a method of learning from Gi Shin was adopted, and annotation by Jo Gen such as "Mao shi," 'Sanrai' (three classical texts on rites), as well as annotation by Wang Bi for "Zhouyi," Gikoden for "Shosho," and annotation by To Yo for "Shunju" were honored. They did not dwell on rules and interpretations of the school, and exercised a thought adopting Xuanxue and Buddhist theories. During this period, influenced by the learning of Gisho (Annotated Commentaries), which was the interpretation learning of the Buddhist scripture, Giso for Ju-kyo Keisho began to be created.
However, in Ju-kyo, interpretation learning of old words such as creating annotations for annotations from Han and Wei was called 'so.'
Examples are "Interpretation Learning of Classic of History" by Hi Kan (the character for Kan is 虎+甘) of Liang and "Interpretation Learning of the Analects of Confucius" by O Gan. While "Interpretation Learning of Classics of History" was passed on to the north to be covered in north learning, and became the basis for "The Correct Annotation of the Classics of History" of Tang, "Interpretation Learning of the Analects of Confucius" was passed on to today without becoming lost.
Buddhism and Xuanxue became popular in the Northern Dynasty as well, but Ju-kyo was fairly popular, and particularly Northern Zhou, as the name of the nation suggests, honored the Zhou Dynasty as their ideal and suppressed Buddhism. In the Northern Dynasty, Kobun learning of later Han was practiced, and "Zhouyi," "Shujing," "Mao shi," and 'Sanrai' honored annotations by Jo Gen, "Chunqiu Zuoshi Zhuan," the annotation by Fukken of later Han, and "Shunju Kuyo-den," the annotation by Ka Kyu of later Han. Their method of learning was conservative, never revoking older theories, and adhering to the study on Confucian Classics where the literature is divided into phrases, chapters and sections and their meanings or abstracts are lectured and explained, and the interpretation learning of old words. There was Jo Junmei in Northern Wei, and the learning of Keisho other than "Mao shi" by Ryu Kenshi were all born from his disciples. Among the disciples was Yu Ansei of Northern Zhou, who was especially knowledgeable about Sanrai, and wrote "Interpretation Learning of Raiki" etc. Yu Ansei's disciples included the two major scholars of Sui, Ryu Shaku and Ryu Gen.
The age of the Sui Dynasty (581 - 619)
Since Sui, from the Northern Dynasty line, unified China, Ju-gaku in early Sui was mainly northern learning, but in the era of Yo-dai (Emperor Yang), the two Ryu, Ryu Shaku and Ryu Gen appeared, and integrated northern and southern Ju-gaku by taking up "Interpretation Learning of Classical History" by Hi Kan and creating Giso for southern learning annotations. "Interpretation Learning of the Five Classics" by Ryu Shaku and "Interpretation Learning of Spring and Autumn Annals," "Interpretation Learning of Classical History," and "Interpretation Learning of Classical Poetry" by Ryu Gen became the original texts for "Correct Interpretation Learning of the Five Classics" of Tang. Additionally, there was O To (Bun Chu-shi), a scholar without any power. He acknowledged himself as a successor of a strain of learning from the Duke of Zhou to Koshi, and created 'The Next Classic' a continuation of the Rikkei. Some say it was forged or embellished, but "Chu-setsu" an assimilation of "The Analects of Confucius" exists today. At the end of Tang, when the discussion about how a saint initiated another into Tao in Confucianism occurred regarding Koshi and Moshi, he was reappraised, and was seen as the pioneer of Kan Yu (Han Yu). His view of the three religions Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism merging into one, and calling himself a saint as the creator of Ju-kyo, later influenced Sung-period neo-Confucianism.
Additionally, it is important to point out that Yo Ken (Yang Jian) of Sui was the first to perform Kakyo (Imperial examination). Instead of the traditional system in which young nobles became government officials, government officials were selected by examination. This opened the way for Confucian scholars to make use of their knowledge to become government officials.
The period of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 917)
When Tang reunified China, the unification of the North and South strains of Confucianism presented by the two Ryu of Sui was promoted as a national project. Gathering and revising the Keisho which were lost during the turmoil at the end of the Sui Dynasty, "Standard Text for the Five Classics," which was a revision of the Five Classics by Gan Shiko (Yan Shigu) were distributed in 633. Additionally, in 640, "Correct Interpretation Learning of Five Classics," which summarized the annotation and interpretation of the Five Classics, was compiled under the supervision of Ku Eitatsu (completed in 653 after two revisions). Furthermore, in the Yonghui era, Ka Kogen was ordered to compile "Annotation and Interpretation Learning of Thirteen Classics." Thus the correct interpretation of the shichi-kei was completed, and the accomplishments of the interpretation learning of old words of Han and Tang reached its highest point.
While the correct interpretation was established, criticism against annotation and interpretation arose during the mid-Tang period (around the middle of the eighth century). With regard to "Shunju," Tanjo, Chokyo, and Rikujun expressed skepticism, pointing out that the three Shunju commentaries are not annotations of "Shunju," and rejected the "Commentary of Zuo" in particular. With regard to "Zhouyi," Ri Tei So (li ding zuo) opposed the Giri-eki (ethics and philosophy divination) with annotation by Wang Bi, and preached Shosu-eki (graphic and mathematical divination) by Jo Gen (Zheng Xuan) and others from the Han Dynasty. With regard to "Shikyo," 'Consideration of Shijo' which was compiled on the pretext of Kan Yu (Han Yu), denied that 'Shijo' was created by Shika.
The Tang Dynasty was in general, a period when Buddhism prospered, but under such conditions, Kan Yu (Han Yu) and Ri Ko (Li Gao) advocated a return to Ju-kyo. Kan Yu (Han Yu) claimed in his book "Gen Do" that the 'way' of humanity and justice continually instructed from Gyo Shun to Koshi, Moshi was what should be replaced by the way of Buddhism and Taoism. Ri Ko (Li Gao) wrote in "Fukusei-sho" that 'nature' is fundamentally good, and by returning to human nature, one can become a saint. He claimed that such teachings of Fukusei (returning to human nature) was passed on from Koshi to Shishi, who summarized it into the 47 Volumes of the "Chuyo" (Doctrine of the Mean), and was passed on to Moshi, but was lost in the burning of books and burying of scholars in Qin, which led to the prospering of Taoism and Buddhism. Their systematology regarding how the 'way' was passed on, became a pioneer for the discussion about how a saint initiated another into Tao in Confucianism during Song. They were leaders of an old text revival movement in terms of the history of literature, and they criticized the annotation and interpretation learning, that fixated, word for word, on the sacred literature telling religious teachings, claiming that the so-called 'text' for old text activists was a tool for 'loading Tao,' and that it was not the appearance of the sentences, but the moral spirit placed in it that was important. This was one of the factors which led to the birth of a new learning of Keisho in Song.
Baisong (960 - 1127)
Baisong initially aimed at succeeding Tang, and in Ju-kyo, annotation and interpretation learning was practiced. Examples include "Sanrai-zu" (Figure for the Three Classic of Rites) of Jo Sogi, "Interpretation of Ko-kyo" (Interpretation of Xiao Jing, Interpretation of Classic of Filial Piety), "Interpretation of Rongo" (Interpretation of Lunyu, Interpretation of Analects of Confucius), and "Interpretation of Jiga" (Interpretation of Erya) by Kei Hei, Son Seki, etc. In the Southern Song Dynasty, these three interpretations and an "Interpretation of Moshi" (Interpretation of Mencius) were added to the annotation and interpretation learning of Han and Tang, and the "Annotation and Interpretation Learning of Thirteen Classics" were compiled.
However, when Song stabilized during the Jinso (Renzong) period, the old text revival movement at the end of Tang raised sympathy, and the Han and Tang era began being denied. Genealogy was created for the way of Koshi, which was quietly being passed down during the Han and Tang eras, and discussions about how a saint initiated another into Tao within Confucianism, where people would put themselves at the end of the genealogy, became popular. For example, an old text expert, Liu Kai, presented a genealogy of 'Koshi - Moshi - Junshi (Xun Zi) - Yo Yu (Yang Xiong) - Kan Yu (Han Yu),' and Seki Kai added O To of Sui to this. This is when the movement to reevaluate Moshi occurred. At the beginning of Song, not many valued Moshi, and his evaluation was established after intense discussion in early Song. Anseki O (Wang Anshi) named "Moshi" instead of "The Book of Filial Piety" and "Jiga" (Erya), and in the Southern Song Dynasty, "Annotation and Interpretation of the Book of Mencius" was compiled on the pretext of Son Seki. With regard to the discussion about original human nature in Confucianism, instead of the traditional ethical doctrine where human beings are classified into three ranks of dignity, the ethical doctrine that human nature is fundamentally good began being advocated. On the other hand, Junshi (Xun Zi) of the ethical doctrine that human nature is fundamentally evil, and Yo Yu (Yang Xiong) of the ethical doctrine that human fundamentally consists of the mixture of good nature and evil one were excluded from evaluation.
Additionally, they criticized the interpretation learning of old words of Han and Tang, which was an interpretation learning focusing solely on meaning of words, and a learning focusing on the moral spirit implied was put forth. Ko En, Son Puku, and Seki Kai 'considered humanity, justice, courtesy, and music as what needed to be learned' and were later called the three teachers of early Song by Oyo Shu (Ouyang Xiu, Ou-yang Hsiu).
During the Shinso (Shenzong) period, these claims of predecessors were put together and a new systematic learning was created. A representative example was New learning by Anseki O (Wang Anshi). Anseki O (Wang Anshi) created annotations for "Rites of Zhou," "Shikyo," and "Shujing" in his "New annotation of the Three Classics," and other scholars belonging to the New learning created annotations for the other Keisho. These new annotations were distributed in schools and became government-designated textbooks for Kakyo, widely read throughout the Song period. Anseki O (Wang Anshi) especially valued the "New annotation of Shukan," and implemented various new acts, aiming to establish a centralized government based on "Rites of Zhou." Those objecting to the New learning included Luo learning (Do school) of Tei Ko (Cheng Hao) and Tei I (Cheng Yi), Shu learning of Su Shi and So Tetsu (Su Zhe), and Guan learning of Cho Sai (Zhang Zai). These schools were in serious conflict throughout the twelfth century, but in the Southern Song Dynasty, predominance of New learning gradually shifted to predominance of the Do school.
During this period, there was a major change in the view towards the 'sky.'
Until then, the sky was thought of as having a character, rewarding and punishing people with will, but from Song onward, the sky was considered a natural being without will, and there simply was a law in the principle between sky and humans. The Theory of the Sky' by Liu Zongyuan and "The Opinion about the Sky" by Ryu Ushaku (Liu Yuxi) in the mid-Tang period were the pioneers, and in Baisong, it is seen in "Shin To-jo" (New Book of Tang) Gogyoshi by Oyo Shu (Ouyang Xiu, Ou-yang Hsiu), "Kohanden" by Anseki O (Wang Anshi), "Annotation of Spring and Autumn Annals" by Tei I (Cheng Yi), etc. Ri (basic principle of the universe) of Tei I (Cheng Yi) and Tenri (natural laws) of Tei Ko (Cheng Hao) later influenced Chu His. Additionally, such change in the view towards the sky led to the development of a new forming theory of the universe centered around "I Ching." ShoYo (Shao Yong) created the 'Senten-zu' (the innate figure) to describe the forming of the universe with 'numbers,' and Shu Ton-i (Zhou Dunyi) wrote "The Theory Based on the Figure of Taiji " based on 'the figure of Taiji' to preach forming a theory of the universe described as 'unlimitedness -> Taiji (the root of all things) -> yin yang (positive and negative, light and shade) -> Wu Xing (Five Movements, Five Phases) -> sudden appearance of all things' (Chu His interpreted unlimitedness as Taiji). Additionally, Cho Sai (Zhang Zai) preached 'the great vein is just a concrete objects' theory, defining the existences in the world as 'taikyo' when Qi is dispersed and high in mobility, and 'banbutsu' when Qi is congealed and at a standstill. Furthermore, he preached that this Qi does not only apply to cosmology, but also has a moral 'nature,' and that nature in a 'taikyo' state was called 'nature of heaven and earth' and considered original and superior, while nature in a 'banbutsu' state was called 'nature of disposition' and was considered deteriorated. This paradigm shift in the Tang and Song period of change was put together as a systematic thought in the Southern Song Dynasty, and Neo-Confucianism was formed.
Southern Song Dynasty (1127 - 1279)
The northern part of the Song Dynasty was occupied by Chin (Dynasty), and Song had to move south. During this period, New learning and Luo learning were in fierce conflict, in and out of the dynasty. At the beginning of the Southern Song Dynasty, Yo Ji, who was the direct disciple of Tei I (Cheng Yi), suggested Koso (Gaozong) that interpretation by Anseki O (Wang Anshi) should be used for Kakyo, since the New learning of Anseki O was responsible for the loss of Baisong, and wrote "Description of the Meaning of Three Classics" criticizing the "New annotation of the Three Classics." Additionally, Ko Ankoku, who adored Tei I (Cheng Yi), wrote annotation for "Shunju" in "Ko's Annotation of Spring and Autumn Annals," and criticized the New learning, which was based on "Rites of Zhou." Shusin, a disciple of Sha Ryosa, brought together Shosu-eki (graphic and mathematical divination) such as "Kokyokukeiseisho" (Kogyoku future occurrence book) by ShoYo (Shao Yong) and "Tsusho" (almanac) by Shu Ton-i (Zhou Dunyi), and Giri-eki (ethics and philosophy divination) such as "Tei's annotation of I Ching" and Cho Sai's (Zhang Zai) "Seimo," and wrote "Kanjoekiden," to counter the art of divination led by Anseki O (Wang Anshi) and Su Shi. After the death of Sin Kai (Qin Hui), a grand person who valued New learning, the position of New learning was relativized by Koso.
In the era of Koso (Xiaozong) (Song), Chu His, who later developed a system of learning called Neo-Confucianism, appeared. Chu His, who acknowledged himself as a successor of Luo learning, valued training of the mind, and developed a methodology based on a precise theory. He pursued his thoughts on the theory of structure and training method (sitting on the floor calmly) for the mind through his encounter with Ri To, a pupil of Yo Ji's disciple, and his friendship with Cho Shoku (Kosho school), who inherited the learning from Ko Ko, the child of Ko Ankoku. When he was forty, he reached an established theory through the words of Cho Sai (Zhang Zai), 'the mind unites nature and emotion,' and 'seisokuri' (xing ji li) (human nature is natural law) of Tei I (Cheng Yi), and established Bin-gaku (Bin neo-confucianism). He described the cosmic structure through Li and Qi dualism, claiming that even in the mind, there is 'nature' which is specified by metaphysical 'law' and exists universally in humans, and 'emotion' which is formed by 'Qi' and is the specific way each individual appears, and that nature is absolutely good, based on Moshi. He claimed that by returning to such 'nature,' that is, by realizing the 'law,' one can build the foundation and handle everything, and to train the mind for this, he advocated a reflective 'Kyokei' (keep the mind calm with concentrated consciousness at any moment in daily life) and 'Kakubutsu' (perceiving things or reading their information to reach the essential law) through observation of the world outside and reading.
Additionally, for the learning of Keisho, he set up a learning of the Four Books of Confucianism as a preliminary step toward learning the Five Classics, and wrote the "Collected Annotations of the Four Books." Furthermore, for "I Ching," he wrote "Shueki-Hongi" (the real meaning of Zhouyi), which treated the classics as books on fortune-telling, and for "Shikyo," "Shishu-den" (Annotation of Shi Jing, which interpreted it based on natural human emotions, and not necessarily based on Rei-kyo, and for 'Classic of Li' (Classic of Rites), "Comprehensive Explanation of Classic of Yili and Annotation of Classic of Li," which treated "Girai (Yili)" as a classic and "Classic of Rites" as tradition. In addition, for "Shujing," he had his disciple, Saichin, write "Shoshu-den" (Annotation of Shujing).
In the same period, Chin Ryo (Chen Liang) of the Eiko school and Sho Seki of the Eika school preached on a Utilitarianism school, which claimed that the way of the saint was to benefit the nation and the lives of the people, and criticized Chu His who valued the inner self. Additionally, Riku Kyuen (Lu Jiuyuan) of the Kosei school had a different idea from Chu His regarding the theory of structure of the mind, and developed his original theory based on the theory that mind itself is the law. Chu His and Riku Kyuen argued in person (the talk at Gako), but reached no conclusion, and only reconfirmed the differences in their theories. The learning of Riku Kyuen was honored by O Shujin in the Ming Dynasty, and was included in the genealogy of Shin school (Mind school) (Riku-O Shin school (Riku-O Mind school)). During this period, the schools of Luo learning including the learning of Chu His were called Do school, and became the predominant. Meanwhile, Tei Sho, Ko Mai, Tei Daisho, etc. established the historical investigation of Chinese classics on ethics, politics, and history as a learning, and conflicted with the Do school.
Disciples of Chu His include, Ko Kan, who was the favorite of Chu His and made efforts to correct misunderstandings in the learning of Chu His, Hoko, who spread the learning of Chu His while working on the learning of religious doctrines, father and son of Saichin family, who edited the "Shoshu-den" (Annotation of Shujing) with Sai Gentei, who studied the art of divination by Sho Yo (Shao Yong), and Chin Jun, who organized the terms of Chu His in a dictionary format in "Hokukei Jigi."
In 1197 of Neiso (Ningzong) (Song), the prohibition against the political party in the Keien period occurred in which a maternal relative, Kan Takuchu (Han Tuozhou), expelled the party on the side of prime minister Cho Jogu, and 59 people including Cho Jogu, Shu Hitsudai, Chu His, Ho Kinen, Chin Furyo, and Sai Gentei were imprisoned. In the following year, an imperial decree for the prohibition against the learning straying from the right path was issued, and the Do school was considered a learning straying from the right path and was oppressed. Chu His died in 1200, while being considered a rebel. Prohibition against the learning straying from the right path was lifted in 1211.
Ri So (Lizong) (Song) enjoyed Do school as the name 'Ri' (law) given to a dead emperor for the ceremony of putting the soul in a mausoleum indicates, and Gi Ryo O, Sin Toku Shu, etc. from the school of Chu His flourished. "Daigaku Engi" by Sin Toku Shu became a textbook to study to become emperor in future generations. In the era of Taku So (Song), there were Ko Shin of "Koshi Nisho" (Ko's reading diary) and O Orin known for "Gyoku Kai" and "Kongaku Kibun." Both were from the school of Chu His and played a major role in academic fields.
The period of Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368)
According to traditional history of Ju-kyo, Do school was not active in Chin, and it was first handed down to the north when Cho Fuku, who became a captive in Mongolia, passed it to Yo Su (Yao Shu) and O Ichu, but today, it is known that the Do school was active in Chin. In any case, in the Yuan Dynasty period, Kyo Ko (Xu Heng), who studied under Yo Su (Yao Shu), emerged and Neo-Confucianism flourished considerably. Yuan originally called for succeeding Chin, and the Southern Song Dynasty was unrealized. Under these conditions, Kyo Ko (Xu Heng) managed to become a valet of Kublai (Khan), and played a role in spreading Neo-Confucianism to the Imperial court of Yuan. Additionally, among the Southern people (survivors of the extinct Southern Song Dynasty), Go Cho emerged and widely spread Neo-Confucianism. He claimed that there was fallacy in Neo-Confucianism, correcting the Li and Qi theory and Taiji theory, and actively adopted the achievements of Riku Kyuen's (Lu Jiuyuan) learning. Kyo Ko (Xu Heng) and Go Cho were later called Hokkyo Nango as the two main Confucianist of Yuang.
A major reform occurred in Kakyo during the period of the Yuan Dynasty. In Kakyo, which hired the Han race, a Neo-Confucianism line of commentary was selected along with "Annotation and Interpretation Learning of Thirteen Classics" as the commentaries to rely on. This largely advanced the systematized teaching and learning of Neo-Confucianism.
Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644)
Do scholars such as Ryu Ki (Liu Ji) and So Ren (Song Lian) gather around Taiso (founder), Shu Gensho (Chu Yuan-chang), who founded Ming. Ryu Ki (Liu Ji) worked on establishing the Kakyo system of Ming, and adopted the Four Books of Confucianism as examination subjects, as well as specified 'Hakko-bun' (Eight-legged essay) described later as the format of writing used in examinations. So Ren (Song Lian) made efforts to establish the Li-system for the Ming Dynasty. Among the students of So Ren (Song Lian) was Ho Koju (Fang Xiaoru), who thought it was not gracious to serve Eiraku-tei (Emperor Yongle) after serving Kenbun-tei (Emperor Jianwen).
Eiraku-tei (Emperor Yongle) ordered Ko Ko and others to collect Do school literature and compile "The Complete Four Books," "The Complete Book of Five Classics," and "The Complete Book of Nature and the Law," which were like encyclopedias, and distribute them widely in schools. The drawback of these three books was that they were rough, but the convenience of being able to browse through various Do school theories in one book made them popular as reference books for Kakyo. With the distribution of "The Complete Four Books" and "The Complete Book of Five Classics," "Annotation and Interpretation Learning of Thirteen Classics" was abolished as the dependent Keisho interpretation, and Neo-Confucianism became the system for teaching and learning.
Do scholars representing the early Ming Dynasty were Setsu Sen and Go Yohitsu.
Setsu preached that Li and Qi closely interact, as opposed to Li precedes Qi of Chu His, and between 'Kakubutsu' (perceiving things or reading their information to reach the essential law) and 'Kyokei' (keep the mind calm, concentrating consciousness at all moments in daily life), he valued 'Kyokei.'
Go Yohitsu stayed within the theory of Chu His, focusing on practicing it, and his disciples include Ko Kyojin, Ro Ryo, and Chin Kensho. Ko Kyojin exclusively believed in Neo-Confucianism, and strove to refine it. Ro Ryo valued Kyokei and practiced through writing books, but he was criticized by Ko Kyojin that his learning was the learning of Riku Kyuen (Lu Jiuyuan) and that his Keisho interpretation was subjective. Chin Kensho was known for placing value on sitting on the floor calmly, and was criticized by Ko Kyojin that his learning was Zen. Disciples of Chin Kensho include Tan Jakusui, who was close with O Yomei (Wang Yangming).
During mid-Ming Dynasty, O Shujin (priestly name was Yomei) presented a new interpretation of 'Kakubutsu Chichi' (Kakubutsu leads to maximum activation of wisdom) in "Daigaku" (a book describing educational philosophy of Daigaku), which Chu His set forth as a way of attaining law. Chu His interpreted 'Kakubutsu' as 'to reach things,' and to realize the law in things one by one, while O Shujin interpreted this as 'to correct things' claiming that law does not exist in jijibutsubutsu (all things) outside the mind, but it exists in the internal exercise of the mind corresponding to jijibutsubutsu, citing Riku Kyuen's (Lu Jiuyuan) mind itself is the law theory. Regarding 'Chichi,' he claimed that 'ryochi' in "Moshi" was the inherent moral wisdom, and that it meant to 'attain ryochi' or to realize such ryochi without interruption. Simultaneity of wisdom and practice was emphasized and chikodoitsu (activation of wisdom requires practice) (or Chiko-Goitsu - awareness comes only through practice) was preached. As an idea for attaining ryochi, sitting on the floor calmly and choshin (making the mind clear) was taught initially, but considering the adverse effect of the disciples shifting to zen, jijomaren (polishing knowledge through practical action) was preached. Additionally, whereas the Do school taught 'one shall become a saint through learning,' they introduced a new concept of saints in Ju-kyo called 'mangai seijin' (all the people in the town are saints), meaning people are fundamentally saints. The learning of O Shujin became the Yomei school (Yoko school), and grew in popularity.
During this period, there were objections towards Li and Qi dualism of Chu His, and the position of Qi was heightened and Li was considered the reason for the operation of Qi. Ra Kinjun was among those who preached this while complying with the framework of the Do school. Additionally, O Shujin preached 'living together as the unity of all things,' in other words, by taking into one's mind, the world which is made of fundamental components producing all things, the world and self will respond to the same Qi. Furthermore, it was O Teisho who thoroughly pursued such Qi monism.
He preached that 'fundamental existence' was the original existence and criticized the theory of Chu His, claiming the superiority of Qi as 'no thing, no principle or no law over fundamental existence.'
With regard to the discussion about original human nature in Confucianism, he claimed that human nature was Qi, not law, and that it is equipped with both good and evil.
While Qi became more superior to law, daily movements of the mind (emotion) and human desire, which were thought to be formed by Qi began to be accepted. O Shujin also preached a theory which viewed the main body of the mind as being no good, no evil (neither good, nor evil), in his later years.
His disciple, O Ki, evolved this to preach shimu-setsu (four containing no-evil theory), which viewed the mind, wish, wisdom, and things as all being no good, no evil, but his colleague, Sen Tokuko, opposed this, advocating shiyu-setsu (four containing evil theory), which viewed that wish, wisdom, and things required self-training to 'be good and fight off evil.'
Since then, the trend towards accepting emotions and human desires became notable in O Kon's Taishu-gakuha (Taishu school), and Ri Shi (Ri Takugo) at the end of Ming Dynasty entirely accepted human desire, saying 'wearing clothes and eating food is law.'
Additionally, Ri Shi denied all traditional values, corrected O Shujin's ryochi theory to preach a 'juvenile mind' theory (pure mind prior to disruption by existing morals), and eventually even denied Koshi and Rikkei, "The Analects of Confucius," and "Moshi."
At the end of the Ming Dynasty when society and economy were in crisis, Torin-gakuha (Torin school), which attempted to respond to realistic demands of society, was born.
While they criticized the 'mind itself as the law' and 'no good, no evil' of Yomei-gaku (neo-Confucianism based on teaching of Wang Yangming), they recognized the position of accepting human desires, and created the trend of viewing the accommodation of social desires as 'law.'
Their criticism towards monarchy, and decentralization theory led to learning that is practically useful to rule a country during the early Qing Dynasty. The thought was rounded up in "Meiitaiho-roku" (a book awaiting questions in the unlit world) by Ko Sogi, the child of Ko Sonso who was a member of the Torin-gakuha, and a disciple of Ryu Soshu.
Additionally, the Ming Dynasty was when Ju-kyo became secular, spreading from shitaifu (Scholar-bureaucrats) to the common people. Taiso, Shu Gensho (Chu Yuan-chang), issued Rikuyu (Six admonition to people), aiming to build a public order of villages based on Ju-kyo morals, and honored people who sacrifice themselves to justice, dutiful children, and faithful women. Furthermore, since the mid-Ming Dynasty, building of edified mutual aid organizations among villagers through Kyoyaku (agreements and an organization for them in a village) and Hoko (the smallest administrative organ) became popular, and O Shujin and Torin-gakuha jinshi (a person of high social standing and culture) worked on promoting them. Thus, a Confucian order was thoroughly in place in village societies. Meanwhile, Kosa, from the same period as O Shujin, wrote "Taisen Gorei" (Courtesy in villages) drawing upon "Karei" (courtesy among cultured people) by Chu His to create courtesy in villages for use in village societies. "Karei" by Chu His was popular from Yuan to Ming as the Girai (Yili) for the shitaifu class, with improvements through "Courtesy Among Cultured People and How to Keep Moderation" by Kyu Shun, and by the end of Ming, it spread to the common people along with a form of family called Sozoku (the paternal family group). Additionally, Taishu-gakuha (Taishu school) of O Kon included woodcutters, ceramic workmen, and farmers, reflecting how widespread Ju-kyo was among the common people.
Meanwhile, study of history books was popular during the Ming Dynasty, and since mid-Ming, demonstrative study of Keisho emerged. Bai Saku (Ming) wrote "Shosho Koi" (Reconsideration of Shoko) to prove that the 'imitated old text version of Shokyo' in use was a gisho (apocryphal book). Additionally, Chin Tei wrote the "Study on Old Sound of Moshi," clearly stating that phonology was changing historically, leading the way to ancient phonology research.
Qing Dynasty (1616 - 1912)
The fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty by a different ethnic group strongly shocked the Confucian scholars of the time. The surviving retainers of Ming blamed the theoretical idle talk of Yomei-gaku for the fall of the Ming Dynasty, and called for practical learning and that is practical and useful to rule a country. Representative examples are Ko Sogi, Ko Enbu, and O Fushi. They looked to Keisho and history books for a foothold, and aimed at a return to Rikkei. Their method of approach was Jitsujikyuze (Based on the facts, searching for the truth of the case) (objective positivism). Their methodology eventually led to the birth of empirical studies on classics, or the study of old documents.
Meanwhile, Gan Gen (Yen Yuan) criticized both Neo-Confucianism and Yomei-gaku, and created an original learning which preaching that the way to become a saint is not through reading or sitting on the floor calmly, but through shuko (repeated practices). Regarding 'kaku' of Kakubutsu,' he interpreted it as 'fight' as in 'fighting a beast with one's hands,' placing value on making movements on one's own, and advocated a learned character building based on practice. The learning of Gan Gen (Yen Yuan) was widely spread by his disciple, Ri Kyo, and was called the Gan Ri school.
In terms of Li and Qi theory, these thinkers of early Qing all supported Qi monism, and rejected 'law,' which was believed to exist innately in Neo-Confucianism and Yomei-gaku, as a logical existence. Additionally, they claimed that 'Qi' which constitutes the real world was more dominant and even accepted human desire. The Li and Qi theory, on which opinions were divided since mid-Ming in terms of the direction of Qi monism, tentatively settled when Tai Shin (Dai Zhen) preached that 'law' was a reason (reason resulting from division) appearing as a result of movement of 'Qi,' and defined it as 'a crease' which socially accommodates human desires formed by Qi.
When control over Qing stabilized, instead of practical learning, the study of old documents, which attempted to empirically interpret classics such as Keisho, occurred. Mo Kirei criticized the subjective Keisho interpretation by Neo-Confucianism, and set forth a direction for an objective Keisho interpretation of interpreting Keisho by Keisho. He wrote "Shisho Kaisaku" (Correction of Four Books) and attacked the "Collected Annotations of the Four Books" by Chu His.
Additionally, En Jakukyo (Yan Ruoju) wrote the "Interpretation Learning of the Old Text Version of Shosho" to prove that the 'imitated old text version of Shokyo' was a gisho, and shocked Neo-Confucianism which preached a human mind-universe doctrine theory based on 'the forged Old Text version of the Classics of History.'
Ko I wrote the "Clarification of Figures used in Eki-kyo" and proved that the figures of art of divination such as 'the figure of Taiji,' 'Senten-zu' (the innate figure), and 'Katoraku-sho' (pictures of legend good omens, which were thought to be related to Eki-kyo), which were valued in Neo-Confucianism, were originally not related to Ju-kyo. Their learning built the foundation for a study of old documents, which was an interpretive learning process based on positivism.
The Kenryu (Qianlong), Kakei era was when the study of old documents flourished. It was called the Ken-Ka school due to the name of the era. The Sessei school which descended from Ko Enbu was mainstream, and there was the Go school of Kei To based in Soshu-shi (Suzhou) and the Kan school influenced by Tai Shin (Dai Zhen) from Anki-sho (Anhui Province). They excelled in phonology, ideographic science, literal revision science, and courtesy science. Also known as Sinology, it is particularly based on Kobun learning, characterized by learning of the relationship between things and their names, and of old words. Meanwhile, the Setto school, which descended from Ko Sogi, excelled in history, and their representative, Sho Gakusei (Zhang Xuecheng), preached a Rikkei Kaishi theory, engaging in the research of Keisho from a historical point of view. Yangzhou school of Gen Gen was born a little after this, and developed the Ken-Ka Sinology.
Since Doko, the Zenkan Kinbungaku (Western Han new text version of literature) of the Joshu school flourished. They believed that it was Kinbun-kei (especially, "Shunju Kuyo-den" which it was centered around) that carried the true intent of Koshi, and it aimed at eliminating Kobun-kei learning, valued by Ken-Ka learning and returning to Kinbun-kei, and eventually, Koshi. The social reformism thought to be seen in Kuyo learning which it was rooted in, largely influenced the social climate of late Qing, and became the theoretical basis for the Changing-System Self-Strengthening Movement by Ko Yui (Kang Youwei), etc.
With the defeat in the First Opium War, a Western Affairs Movement occurred, introducing science and technology of the West, or 'Western culture,'
So Kokuhan (Zeng Guofan), a government official from the Western Affairs school, valued Neo-Confucianism and advocated adopting both Sung-period neo-Confucianism and Sinology under Rikkei, as well as preaching the need of practical learning, honoring O Fushi of late Ming and early Qing. Additionally, Cho Shido opposed the theory of Ko Yui (Kang Youwei) and wrote "Kangakuhen," preaching to maintain the form of Ju-kyo as the system teaching and learning while adopting Western culture.
Meanwhile, Ko Yui (Kang Youwei) who promoted the Changing-System Self-Strengthening Movement wrote "The Rediscovered Versions of the Confucian Classics," honoring Koshi as a system changer according to providence, and advocating Ko-kyo, which reinterpreted Ju-kyo as a European-style state religion. The Ko-kyo movement by Ko Yui (Kang Youwei) which preached that the name of eras should be abolished and a Confucian calendar should be used, was a threat to the traditional system, and was considered dangerous by the Qing Dynasty, resulting in the ban of "The Rediscovered Versions of the Confucian Classics." Among the Changing-System schools, the Ko-kyo movement was not accepted and this was one of the reasons the Changing-System movement failing. However, when the Xinhai Revolution occurred, Ko Yui (Kang Youwei) established a Ko-kyo association in Shanghai City as a propagation effort, and rolled out a movement to make Ko-kyo the state religion of the Republic of China. Their movement resulted in a conflict with opponents advocating religious freedom, and became a major political issue regarding the making of a draft of the constitution. Later, the Ko-kyo association lost its reputation due to its involvement in the Cho Kun (Zhang Xun) fukuheki (reinstatement of the emperor by Cho Kun) coups by Cho Kun (end of Qing, early Republic of China) in 1917. The Koshi-kyo movement advocated by Ko Yui (Kang Youwei) was actively supported by his disciple, Chin Kansho, who operated in China and America. Other prominent figures who supported the movement included Gen Puku (Yan Fu).
In the late 1910s, the intellectuals who were in despair over repetitive conflicts in politics, started a New Culture Movement, aiming at social reform through an awareness campaign involving culture such as literature and learning.
Chin Dokushu (Chen Duxiu), Go Gu, and Ro Jin (Lu Xun) who supervised the magazine "La Jeunesse" (New Youth) (China), attempted to cast aside Ju-kyo, which supported a patriarchal head family dominant system and the thought of predominance of men over women, under the slogan 'overthrow the Confucians.'
Meanwhile, the Gakuko school including Liu Yizheng, Go Hitsu, Mei Guangdi, and Hu Xiansu who supervised the magazine "Gakuko" advocated establishing a new culture that bridged China and the West by transforming Ju-kyo and other traditional Chinese culture in a modern way.
Additionally, the methodology of classics critique by the Kinbun learning school which flourished from the end of Qing brought a climate of clarification of truth or falsehood of old books, and in 1927, the Giko-ha school including Ko Ketsugo published "Koshiben" (telling right from wrong about old history), which discussed forged Keisho and ancient history. Ko Ketsugo advocated a theory on tradition of old history that those for older times were created more recently, based on a metaphor 'when stacking firewood, the ones placed later are higher,' and strongly shocked the intellectuals who were immersed in a Confucian historical perspective which viewed Gyo, Shun, and U as the golden age of Chinese history. Additionally, Sen Gendo argued that Rikkei was not only unrelated to the Duke of Zhou, but was also unrelated to Koshi as well, and the relationship between Koshi and Rikkei was entirely denied.
In the People's Republic of China, Ju-kyo was suppressed under the notion that 'Ju-kyo is the counter reaction to revolution,' and it was thoroughly suppressed particularly during the Cultural Revolution (Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution). Many scholars fled abroad, and Yu Juriki (Xiong Shili), who remained in China is believed to have committed suicide after suffering fierce persecution.
However, in the twenty first century, Ju-kyo became the subject of protection instead of subject of suppression, and is being reappraised. Reappraisal of Ju-kyo is under way, with celebration of the birth of Koshi being held as a national event since 2005 and the Analects of Confucius is being actively taught in schools. Historic sites and facilities of Ju-kyo which were completely destroyed during the Cultural Revolution are being restored rapidly in recent years.
With reform and opening-up under way, the study of Chinese classical literature, which was an interpretative learning based on a wide range of Chinese classics from Ju-kyo and the thought of Laozi and Zhuangzi, was reappraised as 'the brilliant moral values of the Chinese people,' and a momentum to learn business ethics essential for the market economy from the study of Chinese classical literature is rising. Additionally, there is also discussion on the need of state officials to seriously study Ju-kyo.
Yu Juriki (Xiong Shili)
Ryo Somei (Liang Shuming)
Bo Sosan (Mou Zongsan)
To Kunki (Tang Junyi)
To Imei (Tu Wei-ming)
Impact on neighboring states
It is a Ju-kyo cultural area where Ju-kyo culture penetrated deeply, and the remnants remain deep today. Thus, they have a strong sense of 'politeness' towards former teachers, and some say that the Ju-kyo culture of respecting teachers, etc. is deeply rooted in good sense. On the other hand, some say there is an adverse effect of successive policymakers abusing Ju-kyo for crowd control.
Ri Taikei: Yeongnam school
I Rikkoku (Yi Yulgok): Kiho school
Ju-kyo reached Japan in the 6th century, after the Gokyo hakase came to Japan from Baekje. Prior to this, Wa Ni (Wang In) came and brought "The Analects of Confucius," and it is believed that it was introduced around the 5th century.
Nara period - Heian period
When the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) was inherited, it was adopted for training government officials and for academic research, and was taught in the Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system) for the hikan (low-level bureaucrat) of Shikibu-sho (the Ministry of Ceremonial) as Myogyo-do (the study of Confucian classics). However, perhaps due to the fact that Kakyo system was not adopted in Japan, Ju-kyo values did not take root, and it gradually faded as the subject of the learning shifted to practical Kidendo (the study of the histories) learning.
With Kukai criticizing it along with Taoism in "Sango ishiki," the prosperity of Buddhism was one of the causes for the decline of Ritsuryo Ju-kyo.
Kamakura period - Azuchi-Momoyama period
When intellectuals arrived from the Southern Song Dynasty to avoid the invasion by Yuan, they passed down the latest Ju-kyo including Neo-Confucianism, and they were studied in temples of Zen sects such as the Five Great zen Temples of Kyoto and the Kamakura Gozan Temples.
The turmoil of the warring states spread these accomplishments to provinces, and led to the birth of the Satsunangaku school (school of Neo-Confucian in Satsuma) of Genju KEIAN, the Kainan school of Baiken MINAMIMURA, etc.
During the Edo period, a movement occurred which moved Ju-kyo away from its previous role as accomplishments for Buddhist monks to learn, and establish it as a single learning (the separation of Confucianism from Buddhism). Additionally, Neo-Confucianism and Yomei-gaku were introduced purely as a learning, without the gyoho (method of ascetic practices) such as sitting on the floor calmly (Zen sitting meditation), and Neo-Confucianism in particular was adopted by the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) as thought for feudal governance. Razan HAYASHI, a disciple of Seika FUJIWARA, served Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, and since then, the Hayashi family was appointed as Daigaku no kami (Director of the Bureau of Education) and controlled the educational policy of the bakufu.
Neo-Confucianism became the path for success in life in a shogunate government displaying a tendency to shift to politics of civilian government, and other schools of the Hayashi family grew as well. Particularly, many disciples were produced under Junan KINOSHITA, such as Hakuseki ARAI, Kyuso MURO, Hoshu AMENOMORI, and Nankai GION. They greatly influenced the decision making in the bakufu and domains.
In the Yomei school, Toju NAKAE gained authority and influenced various parts of the country, including his disciple, Banzan KUMAZAWA, who became an administrator in Okayama Domain. Some say the business method of Omi was influenced by them. Yomei-gaku became a practical thought on ethics advocating Chiko-Goitsu, and at times, became thought for reform, as in Rebellion of Oshio Heihachiro.
While Ju-kyo and Buddhism separated, Ansai YAMAZAKI preached the Unity of Shinto and Confucianism, and Confucian Shinto such as Suika Shinto was born. Additionally, as a major characteristic of Ju-kyo in Japan, Ko-gaku (learning about ancient teachings), such as Sei-gaku (learning about saints) (Ko-gaku), Kogi-gaku (learning about ancient morals), and Komonji-gaku (learning about ancient words), which directly and empirically studied scriptures such as the Analects of Confucius without referring to interpretation by Neo-Confucianism or Yomei-gaku in the later ages, were started by Soko YAMAGA, Jinsai ITO, and Sorai OGYU, respectively.
Throughout the Edo period, Ju-kyo took root in Japan mainly in the samurai family class, impacting Mitogaku and so on, and eventually connected to the thought of Sonno Joi (reverence for the Emperor and the expulsion of foreigners) to become one of the driving forces behind the Meiji Restoration.
Meanwhile, among the common people, other than the few exceptions such as the Sekimon-shingaku (popularized blend of Buddhist, Shinto and Confucian ethical teachings) of Baigan ISHIDA, the thought of Ju-kyo hardly spread. Confucian funeral rites, which became common through danka seido (parishioner system), is one of the few exceptions, but edification of the types of virtue in Ju-kyo were attempted, for example, through the story of eight dog samurai and a princess of Satomi family in Nanso region by Bakin KYOKUTEI.
The feudal period ended, and in 1885, the then Monbukyo (chief of Ministry of Education), Arinori MORI, issued an order to restrict Confucian ethics education. However, influenced by conservative scholars of the Chinese classics in the imperial court such as Nagazane MOTODA, the thought of loyalty to one's master and filial piety of Ju-kyo was adopted in the Imperial Rescript on Education, etc. and was promoted. The former Japanese Ju-kyo, or Neo-Confucianism was ethics for a limited target, such as samurai, certain farmers, and townsmen, but under the modern emperor system, it was imposed on all citizens. Meanwhile, there were some like Eichi SHIBUSAWA, who preached that even in modern society, and even for people who are considered 'sophisticated modern people,' Ju-kyo's moral values are valid in certain areas such as the importance of social contribution. After World War II, it was criticized as a feudalistic thought, convenient for the ruler, and its influence diminished, but lines from "The Analects of Confucius" are frequently quoted even today, and is a familiar thing for the Japanese people.
Researchers who consider Ju-kyo as a religion are a minority, but it was Ryuji YAMASHITA and Nobuyuki KAJI who opened the way to view the essence of Ju-kyo as religion in terms of academic research. Yamashita centered Ju-kyo around the gods and souls in the world and religious service for the ancestors, while Kaji defined religion as something that speaks about death, and claimed that ancestor worship was the essence of Ju-kyo. However, such understanding of Ju-kyo was criticized by Shuzo IKEDA and others.
Disputes in the study of Ju-kyo
In the long history of Ju-kyo, there is an endless list of various disputes including, the dispute between Kobun and Kinbun, the period of time to observe mourning, relation with Buddhism in terms of thought, and view towards law and Qi.
In today's academic research, especially among debates in Japan, there is a debate on whether or not Ju-kyo is a religion. Currently, Ju-kyo is generally considered a kind of theory of thought and not a religion. However, since Moshi, it also preaches that everything is decided by Providence, and some point out that this is a concept which goes against materialism. Thus, opinions are completely divided on whether to view Ju-kyo as a thought or a religion, and this has often been the point of dispute. Additionally, if Ju-kyo is seen as a religion, the fact that its creed does not include the idea of equality, and that having no concept of the afterworld, reevaluation after death is not possible, is perceived as a problem. Above all, an overwhelming majority believe it is a thought that should not be treated as a religion, due to the fact that it completely denies the existence of god.
The People's Republic of China (Communist Party of China) treats Ju-kyo as a thought of ethics, but as mentioned above, Ju-kyo activities are the subject of suppression, and are largely limited due to the idea that 'Ju-kyo is the counter reaction to revolution.'
This was because the thought of Ju-kyo was considered incompatible with Marxism, which was the foundation for communism.
As mentioned above, Ju-kyo was perfected by Koshi in the Spring and Autumn Period. In China, many today still worship Koshi. Mausoleums enshrining Koshi exist all over China. These are called Bun Byo, and are also referred to as Confucius's Mausoleum, Ko Byo, or Fushi Byo.
(Especially well known is the Ko Byo built at the old house of Koshi in his place of connection, Lu.)
Many of the Confucius Mausoleums within China were destroyed or damaged in the Cultural Revolution.
In Japan, the bakufu positioned Ju-kyo (among Ju-kyo, especially Neo-Confucianism) at the center of learning in the Edo period. Thus, at schools in the bakufu and domains where Ju-kyo (Neo-Confucianism) was taught, mausoleums enshrining Koshi were built and worshipped. Most notable is the Yushima Seido (Sacred Hall at Yushima).