Tsutaya Juzaburo (蔦屋重三郎)
Juzaburo TSUTAYA (February 13, 1750 - May 31, 1797) is a "hanmoto" (publisher) in the Edo period. He is known for publishing "kibyoshi" (illustrated books of popular fiction whose covers are yellow) and "sharebon" (gay-quarter novelettes) by Kisanji HOSEIDO, Kyoden SANTO and so on, and "ukiyoe" (Japanese woodblock prints) by Utamaro KITAGAWA and Sharaku TOSHUSAI.
He is also called 'Tsutaju.'
His father (Maruyama clan) was said to have worked at "yukaku" (a red-light district) in Yoshiwara, Edo. In 1750, Juzaburo was born in Yoshiwara and later adopted by the Kitagawa clan. Tsutaya' is the name of the store of Kitagawa clan, and it was said to have been a "chaya" (tea house) in Yoshiwara. In 1773, Juzaburo opened a book store in front of "Yoshiwara Omon" (a main gate to Yoshiwara), and first sold and published "Yoshiwara Saiken" (Yoshiwara Guidebook which indicates the names of prostitutes of each shops); he started to be involved in publishing business.
In 1780, he published a kibyoshi by a popular writer, Kisanji HOSEIDO as a start, and then fully expanded his publishing business. After that, he published successful sharebon and "kyokabon" (book of humorous poems) one after another, and in 1783, he moved to Nihonbashi, where those prestigious hanmoto were lined up. As for ukiyoe, he published masterpieces of Utamaro.
But the control of the morals became strict due to Kansei Reform, and in 1791, Sharebon and kibyoshi by Kyoden SANTO were exposed. Juzaburo was fined, and Kyoden received "tegusari" penalty (confinement to one's residence and restraint in behavior with handcuffs on the wrists) for 50 days. Later, in 1794, he published "Yakushae" (prints of Kabuki actors) by Sharaku. In 1797, he died at the age of 48. He was said to have suffered from beriberi.
He was said to have been an accommodating person and also have known how to recognize the talents of others. There were many figures such as Sharaku, Bakin KYOKUTEI and Ikku JUPPENSHA who were indebted to Juzaburo.