Kaburaya (a whistling arrow) (鏑矢)
鏑矢 (Kaburaya: in rare cases, written as 蕪矢) is the name of an arrow with kabura (to be described later) installed at the end of zoku; the top of an arrow head. Kaburaya was already described (Hogen Monogatari; the Tale of the Hogen War) in Kamakura period, and the name of Kaburaya was not fixed early on; its origin and when it began to be used is unknown.
Kabura is a kind of weapon that was installed at the tip of an arrow. It varied in size from small to large; around 5 - 20 cm, and also varied in its detailed shape; its basic shape was cylindrical shape, conical shape, or fusiform shape. To fix Kabura to an arrow, pull the yano from the base through to the top, and fix it by putting zoku (an arrowhead) on the tip. It is hollow; and usually wrapped with thread at a few points, fixed, and finished with lacquer so that it won't crack. It is made of easy-to-process light wood such as ho, paulownia; even deer horn or bamboo roots were once used.
(Hikime: also written as 引目) was Kabura mentioned above with a few holes, and it was fixed by nails after pulling yano from the top through to the bottom in the same way as for Kabura. Formal Hikime had four holes, and it was called `shime' (four eyes). Releasing an arrow with Hikime mounted on the tip lets air flow into the holes, producing an acute sound like a flute. It is believed that the sound produced by Hikime removes and purifies negative vibes. It was also called Hikime Kabura.
(Jinto: also written as 矢頭) was different from Kabura, however, since they are somewhat similar in their appearance, Jinto was often confused with Kabura. It has existed from ancient times, it is quite similar to Kabura, but it is not hollow, and is smaller than Kabura. It varied in size and in shape; from a fusiform to conical shapes; it is made of light or hard lumber, and dried seaweed roots were used in ancient times. It is fixed to the tip of an arrow instead of Zoku, and it was used to protect a target from having a scratch, or in other words, used to crush a target.
(Kaburaya) refers to an arrow with Kabura fixed at its tip, and it also has Zoku. It is common that small Kabura are used for and Zoku is mounted with gammata, hirane, etc. In the Medieval Period, including an arrow with Kaburaya combined along with regular arrows in the ebira (quiver) as uwazashiya was typical. Nowadays, it is used in rituals that succeed ancient customs such as yabusame (archery on horseback), and it is also regarded as lucky, and is well known as Kazariya (decorative arrow) that removes negative vibes.
(hikimeya) is an arrow fixed with Hikime. It is intended to remove negative vibes and to purify a place by the sound of Hikime without using Zoku, and it is used in rites and festivals and in Shinto rituals.
In ancient times, Hikimeya were shot at turning points of a life; on a baby's birthday for praying for the baby's growth; on entering into a birth room for praying for an unborn baby's health; Hikimeya was shot over the roof of a house when moving into the house in order to remove negative vibes and to drive off evil spirits;
"Hikime-no-Gi" (Hikime ceremony) in the Ogasawara school has been conducted until the present day, and it takes place in Shimogamo-jinja Shrine, Sumiyoshitaisha Shrine, and in the opening ceremony of Ichibu kyudo taikai (Japanese archery tournament). It has recently been performed in Kokusai kyudo renmei kinen taikai (Memorial tournament for establishment of International Kyudo Federation).
(Hikimekaburaya) is Hikimeya with Zoku together with gammata, hirane, etc. In the Medieval Period, it was carried with regular arrows in ebira (quiver) as uwazashiya, and it was shot to inform someone far by its sound as a signal for the same side or for the starting a battle.
Nowadays, it is regarded as bringing luck, and is well known as Kazariya (decorative arrow)
(Jintoya) is an arrow with Jinto installed at its tip. Strictly speaking, it is different from Kaburaya. Zoku was not included. It has been used in practice for kasagake (horseback archery competition), yabusame (archery on horseback), inuoumono (dog-hunting event, skill of archery) since ancient times, and it was used as a target arrow in early times. Now it is used in rituals that succeed ancient customs such as yabusame (archery on horseback) that has succeeded to the Takeda or Ogasawara schools.