Makumo (a musical instrument) (莫目)
Makumo (written as 莫目 in Japanese) is a musical instrument used in Komagaku (the court music of Japan introduced from Korea) and Kudaragaku (the court music of Japan introduced from Paekche) music. It is also written 莫牟. It is an extinct musical instrument and has not been passed down.
According to "Ruiju sandaikyaku" (statute book written in the Heian period), gagakuryo (a government official in the ritsuryo codes, who administers gagaku [ancient Japanese court dance and music] and gakunin [players]) and zatsugakushi (a musician of various music other than gagaku) were established when Daijokanpu (official documents from Daijokan [Grand Council of State] to local governments) was issued on May 23, 809. The term "Makumo no shi" (Makumo player) can be found both in "Komagaku no shi" (Komagaku player) and "Kudaragaku no shi" (Kudaragaku player) described in the book.
Daijokanpu issued on October 26, 848 describes that gagakuryo and zoshiki no sho (student of low level functionaries) should be decreased. The term "Makumo no sho" (student of Makumo player) can be recognized in "Komagaku no sho" (student of Komagaku player) and "Kudaragaku no sho" (student of Kudaragaku player) described in the book.
Makumo is thought to be a type of kanyaku (a bamboo flute) in the items of Kabu (Japanese music) since it is described in the kanyaku section of "Wamyo ruijusho" (Japan's oldest dictionary of Chinese characters edited in the Heian period).