Sado (also known as chado) (Japanese tea ceremony) is the act of a ritual preparing and serving tea for guests. Formally, it was called as 'chato' (literally, hot water tea) or 'chanoyu' (literally, hot water for the tea). SEN no Rikyu called it 'Suki no michi' (the way of enjoying elegance), 'Cha no michi' (the art of Tea) by Enshu KOBORI, and it was eventually called sado by the beginning of the Edo period (according to "Sawa Shigetsu shu" (a collection of GENPAKU Sotan's talks about tea) and "Nanporoku" (Southern Record)).
It is considered to be a generalized art form that practices not only serving and drinking tea, but deals with the purpose of living, the way of thinking, religion, art of tea tools and art works placed in the tea room.
Currently, sado has the forerunning macchado (art of maccha (green powdered tea) ceremony) and the later senchado (art of sencha (simmered tea) ceremony), and it refers to the former if one mentions just about sado.
The History of Sado
What is considered to be the leader of tea is "Cha Jing" (The Classics of Tea) written by Lu Yu of Tang China (unknown - 804). He wrote in detail about the tea production process, drinking methods, and history and could be said that this is the bible of tea.
The tea drinking custom and production techniques were brought by envoys to Tang China during the Heian period. The tea at that time was semi-fermented tea resembling current oolong tea and it was brewed in just the right amount and drunk. However, it was not popular at that time and tea drinking customs disappeared.
Maccha, brought by Eisai, who spread the Zen sect of Buddhism, and Dogen, who brought it as a medicine, spread along with Zen during the Kamakura period and increased the concept of spiritual training. In addition, as the tea cultivation became popular, tea drinking practices spread amongst the public.
During the Muromachi period, there was a gambling game called Tocha (tea competition), where participants were made to guess the tea brand and place of production developed from the game Tosui (water competition). In addition, genuine Chinese tea utensils called 'karamono' (things imported from China) were praised at that time, and it became popular among daimyo (feudal lords) to collect them in quantity and hold tea parties using these (this was called 'karamono suki' (the taste for karamono)). On the other hand, Juko MURATA forbid gambling and alcohol drinking at tea parties, and lectured on the importance of spiritual relationships between the host and the guest. This developed into the origin of wabicha (wabi style of tea ceremony).
Wabicha was fully developed by Shoo TAKENO, who was one of the merchant class members in Sakai city, and his pupil, Rikyu SEN in Azuchi-Momoyama Period. The wabicha of Rikyu spread even to the samurai class, and created pupils called Rikyushichitetsu (Rikyu's Seven Adepts), which consisted of Ujisato GAMO, Tadaoki HOSOKAWA, Hyobu MAKIMURA, Kamon SETA, Shigenari (Shigeteru) FURUTA, Kenmotsu SHIBAYAMA, and Ukon TAKAYAMA. In addition, daimyos appeared, such as Masaichi KOBORI, Sadamasa KATAGIRI, and Nagamasu ODA, who created their own schools developed from wabicha. Currently, it is distinguished by often referring to it as the buke sado (buke sado (the tea ceremony of samurai family) or daimyo cha (the tea of the daimyo).
The population of those who practiced chanoyu in the beginning of the Edo period was limited to mainly daimyo and rich merchants, but increased dramatically as the merchant class prospered economically in the mid-Edo period. The school of the Senke (House of Sen) that originated from Edo period towns, centered around the Sansenke (three houses of tea ceremony (Omotesenke (the house of Omotesen), Urasenke (the house of Urasen) and Mushanokojisenke (the house of Mushanokojisen))), was the school that invited the new chanoyu participants mainly consisting of town class people. The formation of the head-master system commonly seen in a current traditional performing arts, developed in order to organize massive numbers of disciples. In addition, Shichijishiki (the seven virtues style ceremony) was designed by Nyoshinsai of the seventh head of Omotesenke, Yugensai of the eighth Urasenke, and Fuhaku KAWAKAMI of the founder of Edosenke (the house of Edosen) as the new practice method to handle large numbers of disciples. These efforts made chanoyu lessons for the village headman, headman and merchants, and became popular across Japan. However, it triggered the large scale chanoyu and developed into the bad game influence. The understanding of 'wabi (taste for the simple and quiet) or sabi (quiet simplicity)' gradually changed, behavior, like breaking a beautiful stone lantern for being 'too perfect,' treasuring a tea bowl that was repaired after being cracked, became incomprehensible for the masses that it made locals to call 'chajin' (a man of tea) as 'henjin' (abnormal man) (it had a close resemblance to extreme Zen and excessive spiritualism and was a behavior far removed from the original sado).
On the other hand, it began to stress the original purpose of sado, 'the beauty of the mind that appears when entertaining a guest' in response to the inclination of it becoming a form of entertainment in districts. The Rinzai Sect temples of the Daitokuji School greatly contributed to this, and 'wakei seijaku' (harmony, respect, purity, and tranquility), the motto that was considered to be fundamental to sado of the Rikyu School was created in this process. Furthermore, Naosuke II completed the general concept of 'Ichigo Ichie' (Treasure every meeting, for it will never recur) in the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
The current chanoyu called 'sado' was completed by reexamining the structure of temae (a formalized chano yu procedure) of each school, adding the ritualization structure of tea parties ('one of the basic mannerism is to wear full dress at weddings'), and reexamining the original idea of sado, 'the essence of hosting a guest is (the guest cannot be truly entertained if the person does not take a full consideration of daily conduct and be aware of the essence at the bottom of one's heart).'
When the end of the Edo period came, people of the town, who despised the strict form of chanoyu using maccha for the education of samurai families, demanded tea which could be enjoyed lightheartedly. In the same period, people became anxious about the status of sencha which became just a drink for pleasure and voiced to say that there should be an 'art' for sencha. The Senchado was developed by redefining the way of sencha in response to the voices of the people and followed the way of sencha performed by the Baisao of the former monk of Manpuku-ji Temple of Obaku Sect during the mid-Edo period. Senchado spread among men of culture and began to be established. The names of famous people who favored sencha were Jozan ISHIKAWA, who was a famous person in the early Edo period, Akinari UEDA during the mid-Edo period, and Sanyo RAI of the late Edo period.
The feudal system collapsed at the beginning of the Meiji period, and each school protected by a clan became financially unstable. In midst of it, Tecchu ENNOSAI of the thirteenth Urasenke resided temporarily in Tokyo to perform the revival of sado. It was worth his effort for he succeeded in grabbing the attention of influential businessmen to incorporate sado as required education for girls. As a result, sado gained the aspect of 'cultural need of girls' separate from the original wabicha, and it has now become the norm to have a fancy tea party wearing a beautiful kimono. Sado spread even around the world after World War II, and the popularization of sado achieved world level recognition.
Tenshin OKAKURA, who worked in the China-Japan Department, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, published and introduced "The Book of Tea" (Japanese title was "Cha no Hon") in 1906. This publication brought the attention of European and Americans, and it became common to call 'sado' as 'tea ceremony' in English.
(It was interesting that Okakura mentioned in 'Cha no Hon' that the experience that closely resembled 'sado' for European and Americans was the 'consideration of the host during a tea party' and was the 'essence of sado apart from tea.')
The influence that Okakura brought to sado was great, and chanoyu changed its name to sado in public after the introduction of Okakura.
The conduct of Japanese sado started to incorporate Chinese tea (art of tea) at the beginning of 1980's.
The current 'folding chakin' conduct in Chinese tea showed the influence from Japanese sado.
Schools Which Started Before SEN no Rikyu
It is uncertain as to whether or not to be called a school, but it was called follows:
Nara School: Juko MURATA
Higashiyama School: Noami
Sakai School: Shoo TAKENO
The following are believed to have originated during this period and are present up to now:
Mizuho School: Ittotsu TAMAKI, who was the lord of Tedori-jo Castle, Hidaka-gun (Wakayama Prefecture), served the Kishu Tokugawa Family for generations, revised the school in Meiji, but spread the tradition after the World War II with Kobe as the center.
"Chado yokan" (literally, summary of sado), written by Issei TAMAKI
Schools That Originated During the Same Period as SEN no Rikyu
Most of the founders were disciples of Shoo TAKENO or a direct pupil of SEN no Rikyu, and formed a unique way of tea different from 'Sotan School' even being influenced by Rikyu. Most of the schools of buke (samurai) sado are found here.
Rikyu School: the linage of Soen ENJOBO, the disciple of Rikyu.
Yabunouchi School: Kenchu YABUNOUCHI, the fellow junior disciple of Rikyu.
Azuma Yabunouchi School: Passed down along with the Senpo Misho School of Kado (flower arrangement), found in Kanagawa and Aomori Prefectures.
Nanbo School: Sokei NANBO, the founder
Ueda-Soko School: Shigeyasu UEDA, the disciple of Oribe FURUTA
Enshu School: Enshu KOBORI, the disciple of Oribe FURUTA
Kobori Enshu School: Enshu KOBORI, the disciple of Oribe FURUTA
Yamato Enshu School: Osetsu KOBORI, the third son of Enshu KOBORI
Anrakuan School: Sakuden ANRAKUAN (it is uncertain whether it presents itself or not).
Tamagawa-Enshu School: Zansai OMORI, the disciple of Enshu KOBORI
Uraku School: Nagamasu ODA
Sadaoki School: Sadaoki ODA, the son of Nobusada, who was the nephew of Yuraku ODA
Sansai School: Iori ICHIO, who was one of the Rikyushichitetsu, and the disciple of Tadaoki HOSOKAWA
Oie School: Nobutomo ANDO, the disciple of Iori ICHIJO, who studied under Tadakata YONEKITSU
Higo Ko School: Passed down in the Kumamoto clan, and is said to continue to teach the school of Rikyu as it was.
Furuichi School: Soan FURUICHI, the son-in-law of Soen ENJOBO
Kobori School: Chosai KOBORI
Kayano School: Jinsai KAYANO, the nephew of Oribe FURUTA (it is uncertain whether it presents itself or not)
Schools That Practiced the Way of SEN no Doan
Sakaisenke: The head family of Senke, was inherited by the biological son of SEN no Rikyu, but broke off early.
Sowa School: Higechika KANAMORI, who was influenced by Oribe and Enshu
Sekishu School: Sekishu KATAGIRI (Also known as Sadamasa KATAGIRI) studied under Sosen KUWAYAMA, the disciple of Doan
Sekishu School of the Soen Line: Nobutaka SHIMOJO, the child born out of wedlock of Sekishu
Ko Sekishu School: Sogen FUJIBAYASHI, the chief vassal of Sekishu
Oguchi Line: Shoo OGUCHI
Shimizu Line: Dokan SHIMIZU
Nomura Line: Yasumori NOMURA
Ikei Line: Soetsu IKEI
Chinshin School: Shigenobu (Also known as Tensho) MATSURA
Fumai School: Harusato MATSUDAIRA
Sokan School: Naosuke II
Schools That Practiced the Way of SEN no Sotan
In another words, it was the 'Sotan School' and included Matsuo, Yoken, Sohen, Fusai, and Hisada Schools that were pedigree of Sotan Shitenno (Four Disciples of Sotan) other than the Sansenke. The Sotan School was the name used for SEN no Sotan, the son of Shoan, and his disciples. There was a strong inclination to consider that it is good to devote oneself to wabi.
Omotesenke: Fushin-an (a tea room in the residence of the head of the Omotesenke)
Mushanokojisenke: Kankyu-an (a tea room in the residence of the head of the Mushanokojisenke school), separated from Omotesenke
Sohen School: Sohen YAMADA of the Sotan Shitenno
Yoken School: Yoken FUJIMURA of the Sotan Shitenno
Soseki-Teikan Line of Yoken School
Fusai School: Fusai SUGIMOTO of the Sotan Shitenno (it is uncertain whether it presents itself or not)
Hisada School: Soei HISADA, and was the related line of Omotesenke which branched off.
Horinouchi School: Senkaku HORINOCHI and the disciple of Kakukakusai, the sixth Omotesenke
Matsuo School: Soji MATSUO (also known as Rakushisai), the disciple of Kakukakusai, the sixth Omotesenke
Mitani School: Sochin MITANI, the disciple of Kakukakusai, the sixth Omotesenke (it is unclear whether it presents itself or not)
Kyokuzen School: Kyokuzen KAWAKAMI, the disciple of Kakukakusai, the sixth Omotesenke (it is unclear whether it presents itself or not).
Edosenke: Fuhaku KAWAKAMI, the disciple of Nyoshinsai, the seventh Omotesenke
Omotesenke Fuhaku School: Soju KAWAKAMI, the disciple of Fuhaku KAWAKAMI
Ishizuka Line of Fuhaku School: Sotsu ISHIZUKA, the disciple of Fuhaku KAWAKAMI
Miyakosenke (the House of Miyakosen): Soe MORIYAMA, separated from Edosenke
Miyabi School: Soga MIZUTANI, a branch of the Fuhaku School
Sin-Yanagi School of Edosenke
Miyako School of Omotesenke
Kangetsu-an of Omotesenke
Hayami School: Sotatsu HAYAMI, the disciple of Yugensai, the eighth Urasenke
Dai Nihon Chado Gakkai (Japan Association of the Tea Ceremony): Sensho TANAKA, the disciple of Ennosai, the thirteenth Urasenke, and later gained the secrets of the Ishida School and returned the teachings
The Sotan Ko School (also called as the Isshinden Line): Shonin ENYU, passed down in Senju-ji Temple, the head temple of Takada School of Shinshu Sect
Schools Where Genealogy Remains Uncertain
Chugu-ji Goryu School: Passed down in Nara Chugu-ji Temple
Murasakinosenke (the house of Murasakinosen): Assumed to be the linage passed down from the house of chief vassal of Owari Tokugawa family, which taught within the Japanese Defense Army; there is another school with the same name which is unknown the linage
Koka-Isshin School: Munemitsu TENKO (巓崢宗光) and ended it's relationship and separated from the School of Senke
Sado Fujian School
Yoyo School (燁々流)
Well known Chajin
For more information about well known chajin, please refer to the List of people, Chajin.
The purpose of Sado is to entertain guest with tea, and there were various forms to achieve this. It is a simple everyday event to entertain guest with Usucha (thin maccha) using a pot and a tea tray for a person who practices sado, but more ceremonial forms of entertaining guests were the Chaji (tea function) and Oyose Chakai (tea party of the masses).
Chaji is a form of tea party that individuals perform for a small number of designated guests, and the host decorates the tea room with flowers and a hanging scroll, and entertains the guest with charcoal temae, kaiseki (meal served in the tea ceremony), and koicha (thick tea) or usucha. The maximum number of guests are five and requires three to five hours.
The most common form is the afternoon chaji which incorporated kaiseki for lunch, but depending upon the mood, chaji is performed in the morning or evening, and also after meal times (called after meal tea function)
The meal is very simple or simplified. Depending upon the occasion, chaji is performed in the form of nodate (outdoor tea making) which uses the outdoors in place of the tea room and ryurei (table seated style) which uses tables and chairs.
Oyose chakai is tea ceremony that serves many guests. Charcoal temae and kaiseki is usually simplified, and often the examination of utensils are abbreviated as well. It requires about an hour per ceremony, and is performed in several tea rooms arranged side by side.
Chinese Tea (Art of Tea)
In China, people call the method of tea as 'Chagei.'
The way of pouring Chinese tea in Japan in the present day is the form called 'kufu cha' (gubu cha) that originated from Canton, Fujian Province. Kufu cha uses the way of pouring oolong tea and this does not apply to other tea leaves, but it is used as the main Chinese tea method and other leaves are used in the method of Kufu cha.
There are great types of Chinese tea and different ways of pouring tea depending on the tea leaves, that Chinese tea developed as 'the most beautiful way of pouring tea' and one form of performance.
It is believed that the tea drinking custom settled in the age of Han, but since then has spread as a drink to just enjoy its taste, sado did not develop as 'the art.'
As a result, when it is simply called 'sado' in China, it points to the 'Japanese sado.'
Chare of Korea
There is no artistic school of sado in Korea and the importance is placed on 'tare' (茶禮) as a ceremony.
Please refer to 'tea' category in Tea of Korean Peninsula article.
Music That Relates to Sado
The tegoto mono (central music for shamisen, koto and shakuhachi) of jiuta composed by Kengyo MATSURA, who was a blind musician who performed in Kyoto, during the Bunka and Bunsei era. The koto player was Kengyo YAEZAKI. Music such as 'Kisen' and 'Karigane' named several tea brands lined up in the order of four seasons, and it produced a calm atmosphere with the idea to walk around in the four seasons of Uji, a famous tea production area. It was a huge music success and was solid even in two parts of tegoto (partly played with just instruments), changed the key frequently, and is considered a technically difficult piece to play.
It is considered to be one of the 'Four best pieces of music by Matsura.'
"Cha ondo" (Jiuta, koto song)
It was composed by Kengyo KIKUOKA, the blind musician, who performed in Kyoto in Bunka and Bunsei era, and a tegotomono jiuta where Kengyo YAEZAKI played the koto.
There is a school that is called 'chanoyu ondo.'
Ondo' was originally the term used for court music, and was often used in general modern Japanese songs, and it should be noted that it is not related to any folk songs. It was a lyric selected from 'Onna temae' (Women's temae) written by the poet, Yayu YOKOI, and its content wished for good relations between a man and woman while calling out many names of tea utensils. The tuning of Shamisen used in this song was the unique 'six down' and produced a special atmosphere with this tune, while the passage of the music is solid, tegoto is long, and the koto player of Kengyo YAEZAKI is done skillfully as a symphony, and is often performed in symphonies even now. It is sometimes played to accompany temae.