Sakamai (rice for brewing sake) (酒米)

Sakamai is rice that is used as a material for sake brewing, mainly for the production of koji (malted rice). Officially, it is called shuzo kotekimai (literally, rice suitable for brewing sake) or jozoyo genmai (literally, unpolished rice for brewing). Because a specific quality is required, it is distinguished from typical food rice or general-purpose rice. With respect to the varieties and methods used, there have been remarkable changes in recent years.

Characteristics
Since 1951, it has officially been designated as shuzo kotekimai. This means the varieties that are classified as jozoyo genmai, as used in the official statistics under the Agricultural Products Standards Rule (Agricultural Products Inspection Law), but it has come to be distinguished from general-purpose rice. It is sometimes called shinpakumai. They belong to the grass family, and most of them are of Japonica origin.
With information on shuzo tekiseimai, refer to 'General-purpose rice used as a material for sake.'

External appearance
Although both of them are types of rice, compared to food rice, which is cooked and eaten at home using a rice cooker, sakamai usually has a longer stem length (height of the rice plant) and a longer ear length (length of the rice ear). In windy areas, however, in order to make the rice plant not as prone to falling, sakamai varieties with shorter stems and ears were developed through selective breeding, one after another (see 'Sakamai developed by the municipality').

Generally speaking, the rice grain is bigger. This size is one that is convenient for revealing the central structure through polishing.
Technically, this is expressed as 'seimai tokusei (properties of rice with respect to polishing) is durable due to its polishing ratio/high degree polishing.'
If the grain is as small as that of food rice, it is easily crushed when polished deeply.

Properties
It has a large shinpaku (white part in the center of rice) (refer to 'Structure'), and the protein content is small. Also, it has greater stickiness so that it isn't crushed even if highly polished and will easily dissolve in unrefined sake. The size of shinpaku is expressed as the shinpaku manifestation rate (%).

As with food rice, it's important that each has a suitable cultivating environment, including the climate and soil (area adaptive nature), so the difference in quality occurs depending on the growing district even if the breed is the same. Therefore, for popular breeds such as Yamada nishiki, classification by cultivation area exists depending on the cultivation area, such as toku-A (A major) districts and A districts.

Brewing aptitude
It means ease of brewing.
It is expressed as, 'It has high brewing aptitude.'
Also, it is written as '醸造適正' (appropriateness for brewing) or '酒造適性' (aptitude for brewing sake). Contents are the magnitude of the shinpaku manifestation rate, the aspect of seimai tokusei, the property of rice malt production (in other words, the ease of producing rice malt for sake), the merits and demerits for producing rice malt for sake (hazekomi), the nihonshumushi content of protein, etc.

To put it the other way, 'high brewing aptitude' means 'not good for eating.'
Also, boiling sakamai is difficult, and even expensive sakamai like Yamada nishiki from the toku-A district is hard to make it into tasty boiled rice. It is one of the reasons that 'sakamai' is distinguished from other types.

Structure
The opaque white part in the center of the rice grain is called "shinpaku." In the language of sake brewing, it's called 'mentama' (eyeball). It consists of starch.

The cause of its opaqueness is that it has minute voids that prevent the reflection of light. Another reason that shinpaku is desired for sake brewing is that koji molds enter into such voids and are then fermented.

On the other hand, the outer part, which is scraped off in the process of rice polishing, consists of a mixture containing not only starch but also protein and fat; therefore, as it reflects light even if air enters, it is white but transparent.

The requirements for sakamai that has good brewing aptitude (for the easy production of sake) are as follows:
Large grain size at a certain level

Having appropriate linear shinpaku

Low content of protein and fat

Gaikonainan
(It means the outside is hard and the inside is soft.)

Having good moisture retention

In the brewing process for sake, koji mold and yeast change starch and water into alcohol and carbon dioxide, and therefore the starch contained in the rice grain is considered important. The other ingredients contained in rice grain, such as protein and fat, are the cause of zatsumi (undesirable flavors in sake).

Therefore, with respect to the rice used as sakamai, the outer part (such as bran) is scraped off to a deeper level than it is with food rice.
This process is expressed as 'to mill rice for sake' or, more plainly, 'to polish rice' or 'scrape.'
The degree to which the outer part is scraped in comparison with the size (or the weight) of the original rice grain is shown as the polishing ratio (in units of percent). The polishing ratio shows the ratio of the part that remains after polishing: the smaller the value, the greater the degree of polishing. Incidentally, there is an expression "seihakudo" (degree of polishing rice), which shows the ratio of polished (scraped off) portion: the higher the value, the more the rice has been polished.

Shinpaku manifestation rate
The shinpaku manifestation rate shows the percentage of the size of shinpaku in comparison with a grain of that variety.
For example, it is said that the shinpaku manifestation rate for 'Miyama nishiki' is approximately 20%, but it's approximately 9% for 'Kura no hana.'

Up through the year 1998, it was stipulated that shinpaku must have 'the size of one half the fair surface of the grain or larger' for all varieties of shuzo kotekimai.
In keeping with the development of various new varieties, the regulation was loosened in 1998 through a notification by the Manager, Inspection Department of the Food Agency, to state that 'it should be determined by taking all characters into consideration based on the properties proper to the variety.'

Varieties and trends
Yamada nishiki and other sakamai
Generally, Yamada nishiki is called the 'king sakamai' and is the one most favored. Many breweries take part in the Sake Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai (National New Sake Appraising and Deliberating Fair) with sake produced from Yamada nishiki. In the Kanpyokai, taking into consideration the advantages of Yamada nishiki as sakamai, a separate section for the seiseishu produced from sakamai containing Yamada nishiki for 50% to 100% is established as the "Appraisal System of the Sake Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai."

Most probably as a result of the foregoing, among people in the sake brewery industry the term 'Yk35' became popular, having an air of official nature and meaning that 'if you use Yamada nishiki (Y) and Kyokai sake yeast (K) and increase the polishing ratio to 35%, you can obtain good-quality sake and can win the gold medal in the Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai.'
Needless to say, it isn't so easy to brew sake.

In and after the 1980s, many different varieties of sakamai, for which the properties of each prefecture are fully utilized, have been developed.
(Refer to 'Sakamai developed by the municipality.')
The number of varieties that have also acquired high appreciation from international markets, such as Gohyakumangoku Miyama nishiki and Hattan nishiki, has increased.

Although the reputation of Yamada nishiki is still high, the sense of value implying that 'without Yamada nishiki, we can't produce good quality sake' is becoming tired. The conditions have changed so that sake with various tastes and flavors are produced from various varieties of rice by utilizing the properties of rice.

Varieties and polishing ratios
Such multipolarity of sakamai varieties brought significant change to the technology of polishing ratios.
For example, as Yamada nishiki, which is good for matured finishing, has such a large grain size that, only after polishing up to 35% does the shinpaku appear; therefore, it was referred to with the term 'YK35.'
To the contrary, Gohyakumangoku, which is good for fruity finishing, has a comparatively small grain and, therefore, if it is polished up to 35%, there is a risk that the grains will be crushed. Then, automatically, the figure of the polishing ratio becomes smaller than this figure.

The definition of tokutei meisho shu (sake with a specific class name) such as daiginjo sake (top-quality sake brewed at low temperature from rice grains milled to 50% of weight or less) and junmai daiginjo sake (daiginjo with no added alcohol) is closely related to the polishing ratio (see 'Nihonshu tokutei meisho shu'). Therefore, given the above facts it is sometimes said that 'Daiginjo can't be produced from this variety of sakamai,' but given the above-described reasons their quality isn't graded as sakamai.

Extinct varieties and revived varieties
Many varieties of sakamai that were typical sakamai until the Taisho period but were 'extinguished' due to the drastic change in rice-polishing technique and unstable conditions in Japan.
(Refer to 'History of sake in the Taisho period.')

However, certain varieties of which seed rice or rice husks that existed (even in very small quantities) were revived as sakamai through the application of biotechnology, by repeating breedings for several years and obtaining quantity sufficient for sake production; today these varieties are gradually being delivered again. Such varieties are called fukkokumai (revived rice).

Tanmaishu (sake with a single variety of sakamai)
Heretofore, sake has usually been produced with a mixture of several varieties of shuzo koteki mai, but recently the number of breweries that use a single variety has increased. Such sake that is produced with a single variety is called 'tanmaishu' or 'ichimaishu/ikkomezake' in the language of sake brewing.
In the Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai, it is classified as the primary section in the Appraisal System of the Sake Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai, namely, kanseishu (literally, completed sake) as the 'single use of a variety other than Yamada nishiki or a Yamada nishiki usage ratio of 50% or less.'

It is said that "Juyondai," by Takagi Shuzo, was the pioneer that was produced with such a method and for which it was clearly shown on the label that shuzo koteki mai has been used. In recent years, many breweries have adopted this method and, preparing various conditions other than the variety of rice, have sought to identify consumer preferences for varieties of rice or pursue brewing methods suitable for each variety of rice.

On the other hand, the emergence of tanmaishu didn't necessarily mean the degradation of quality of fukumaishu (literally, sake with multiple varieties of rice), namely sake other than tanmaishu. It was because, for fukumaishu, breweries would often blend multiple varieties of sakamai with their own ratios to create specific tastes according to their concepts. The outline of such blend is usually indicated on the back label.

Use as kakemai (rice used to produce moromi (raw unrefined sake))
If we understand nihonshumai (rice for sake) as raw material for sake, other than kojimai (rice for koji) and shubomai (rice for shubo), there is kakemai that is added during the preparation for unrefined sake. In the past, ordinary cooking rice was often used for nihonshumai, but since the start of the 2000s there has been an increasing tendency among breweries to use shuzo koteki mai for kakemai as well.

The back label usually indicates which variety of sakamai is used for kojimai and kakemai.

The quality and volume of sakamai, and the growing method
One bag of rice weighs 60 kg, and the basic unit for the area of agricultural land for growing rice (paddy field) is one tan (approximately 992 square meters). While close to ten bags of average cooking rice can be harvested from one tan, an average of just four to seven bags can be harvested from one tan. If we try to increase the yield unreasonably, since the amount of nutrients per tan is fixed, the quality of rice degrades. Although it is possible to replenish nutrients artificially with chemical fertilizer, the rice thus obtained is more fragile than its organically grown counterpart, and it has less quality. Therefore, we can basically say that the yield is inversely proportional to the quality of the rice.

Because this inverse relationship exists individually for each variety of sakamai, the variety of the higher grade doesn't necessarily have better quality than the rice of the lower variety. As an easy-to-understand example, even for Yamada nishiki, which is called the 'king of sakamai,' there are many grades of quality depending on the land, soil and growing method as well as the farmer. For example, the quality of Omachi, which was originally an excellent variety, was degraded because of efforts to increase the yield in various places.

The price of the average shuzo koteki mai is approximately 14,500 yen per bag, while the average Yamada nishiki costs about 17,000 to 18,000 yen per bag. High-quality Yamada nishiki, of which the yield is 4.5 bags per tan, costs around 40,000 yen per bag, but the price fluctuates depending on the harvest in any particular year.

Currently, when a brewery makes an arrangement with a farmer who produces sakamai, they don't contract on the unit of a bag of rice but usually on the basis of the area of the rice field with the unit of one tan in order not to degrade the quality of rice. This is because the farmer can concentrate on the production of sakamai with an assurance of yearly income.

If the rice plants are flattened due to a typhoon just before harvesting, the farmer doesn't sell rice to the brewery because of their pride as an expert in rice production, even if the degree of damage is such that a harvest could be expected by making the plants stand. Then, because the brewery is obliged to spend more to purchase materials, the price of sake rises in such a brewing year. In most cases, the price rises in the order starting from the price-leading breweries. It is interesting to forecast the price of sake to be marketed in the coming year, remembering the climate of each year.

Changes in the modes of growing and distribution
In the era of the Staple Food Control Law, because the cultivation of rice that gave large yields was promoted, many excellent sakamai varieties were extinguished. Until the 1980s, most breweries (sake manufacturers) bought sakamai collectively from agricultural cooperatives and polished such rice for brewing.
In such distribution through agricultural cooperative, trade was conducted on the basis of 'price per bag.'
This is said to be one of reasons that the quality of sakamai degraded in a certain period.

Under such situations, chief sake brewers couldn't fully pursue the sakamai that best suited the quality of their sake. The so-called 'distribution system without seeing face' (in which the producer couldn't be identified) became one of the causes of decline in consumption since the Showa period.

Consequent upon the foregoing, since 1990s, the number of breweries that have their own agricultural land (paddy fields) in which to produce sakamai and carry out rice growing from spring to autumn and sake brewing from autumn to spring, and other breweries that conclude contracts for growing to unify their production systems, has rapidly increased. Such a system is called "nojo ikkan" (integration of growing and brewing), and breweries that grow rice by themselves are called "jisaigura" (breweries growing rice) or "domaine" breweries, being likened to French wineries that grow wine grapes.

It is said that the obsession for sakamai, meaning the material for sake, has become strong and the era of sake production started with rice. From a historical point of view, we can say that the production system returned to its form in the Taisho period or earlier.

General-purpose rice used as material for sake
We cannot consider that 'rice for producing sake' is 'sakamai.'
That is because, with respect to the material used, sake is also produced from general-purpose rice that isn't classified in jozoyo genmai (literally, unpolished rice for brewing), or, in other words, a variety that is classified by the Agricultural Products Standards Rule in suito uruchi genmai (literally, unpolished paddy non-glutinous rice).

Such general-purpose rice is generally low-priced compared to shuzo koteki mai, and it's often used for nihonshu futsushu (ordinary sake). However, it should be noted that excellent kanseishu are produced from low-priced general-purpose rice with low brewing aptitude, thanks to the excellent capabilities of the chief sake brewers. This taste from this rice material' is a measure for evaluating the chief sake brewer's capability.

The following are varieties that aren't classified in shuzo koteki mai but are well known as materials for sake. There are varieties that are called "shuzo tekisei mai" (literally, rice appropriate for sake brewing) in order to avoid being deemed as general-purpose rice or food rice.

Sakamai developed by a private-sector institution
This means a variety of sakamai that isn't one of the conventional varieties that existed naturally since the old times but has been artificially developed by breweries, as well as through changes in the methods of growing and distribution, in keeping with the quality of sake they aim for through their own cross-fertilization or development by educational institutions or private-sector companies.

Sakamai developed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (MAFF)
This means varieties of sakamai that have been developed by the agricultural experiment stations under the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan. Currently, an independent administrative institution is responsible for it. The Hokkaido and Nagano Prefectures, for which developments were conducted as part of the national agricultural policies, correspond to this.

Sakamai developed by the municipality
This means varieties of sakamai that are developed by municipal experimental and research institutions such as agricultural experiment stations and brewing laboratories, so that the natural conditions of each prefecture--such as climate and soil quality--can be fully utilized. It is also assumed or taken as ideal from the developmental stage to used with sake yeast developed by the municipality.

Background
Given the situation in which the local consumption of locally produced products is required, the development of sakamai having local adaptability (together with sake yeast) is an important key for the municipality with respect to improvement in the quality of locally produced sake as well as the vitality of the local economy and the reconstruction of local industries. Thus the development of new varieties became popular and, in 2006, only the Tokyo, Kagoshima and Okinawa Prefectures didn't have their own brand varieties or growing districts for sakamai.

However, the developed varieties of sakamai aren't necessarily distributed in the same prefectures. They are used in other prefectures and are often used as parents for cross-fertilization in order to develop new varieties that adapt within and outside the district.

Local adaptability
As the concept of development, from the following points of view, they seek local adaptability or, in other words, suitability for the local climate and soil.

The season when the ears of rice appear and mature
In a cold area, an early-maturing type is used, and for a warm area a late-maturing type is used, and so on.

Ear germination

Resistance to cold
In a cold area, strong resistance to cold weather is required.

Resistance to lodging, stem length and quality of stem and ear length
The stem length means the height of the rice plant, and the ear length means the length of the ear of rice. If they are long, the rice plants tend to lodge, particularly in windy areas.
Such a phenomenon is expressed as 'having weak resistance to lodging.'

Resistance to disease
What is important is the resistance to blast, the sheath blight disease and theleaf stripe disease.

Yields
Varieties that give high yields are preferred.

Ease of koji production (malted rice)
Whether or not rice has a structure that allows the easy production of koji
The point is the gaps that exist in the structure.

Recommended variety and brand variety of the growing district
Usually, under the Major Agricultural Products Seed Act, the agricultural experiment stations of the municipality and so on carry out tests to determine the recommended varieties of sakamai and recommend excellent varieties to farmers. More specifically, guidance for cultivation technique is given, or grants, subsidies and so on are provided by the municipality.

If it is acknowledged as a cultivated variety that fits the natural environment of the territory, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (MAFF) will classify it under the Agricultural Products Inspection Law to a brand variety of growing district separately for each prefecture or growing district. In the case of rice, it is determined for each type, shuzo kotekimai (jozoyo genmai (unpolished rice for sake brewing)), dehulled paddy non-glutinous rice, dehulled paddy glutinous rice, unpolished paddy non-glutinous rice and unpolished paddy glutinous rice.

As opposed to a variety recommended by the prefecture, the brand varieties of growing districts are often designated as brands for multiple prefectures. For example, as of 2006, 'Yamada nishiki' was designated as the brand variety of growing districts in 28 prefectures.

List of sakamai by prefecture
The following is a list of the main sakamai (including shuzo kotekimai and shuzo tekiseimai) and a brief explanation of each. For more information, please refer to the link for each item.

When a specific variety is grown in multiple prefectures, as a general rule it's allocated to the prefecture in which it was originated (e.g., Yamada nishiki, which is designated as a brand variety of growing districts in 28 prefectures, is allocated to its place of origin, Hyogo Prefecture). In the case of fukkokumai from a precinct variety, if its existence is largely own to the effort of the prefecture in which it is revived, such variety is allocated to the prefecture of its revival (e.g., Shinriki's place of origin is Hyogo Prefecture and it's grown in Hyogo Prefecture even today, but it was allocated to Kumamoto Prefecture where is was revived).

If the parents are described at the same time, as a general rule it's in the order of 'mother/father.'

Hokkaido Prefecture
Hatsushizuku
It's a later generation of a variety born through the cross-fertilization of Hokkai No. 258 and F1, which was born in 1987 through the cross-fertilization of Matsumae/Jo 116 by the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station under the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (currently an independent administrative institution).
It was tested under group number of 'Hatsushizuku,' and in 1998 it was registered with the name 'Norin No. 354.'
In 2000, it became a recommended variety as the first shuzo kotekimai of Hokkaido Prefecture.
At the time of application, the name was 'Yukishizuku.'
Although it has a low shinpaku manifestation rate, it has an excellent brewing aptitude and area adaptive nature. Because it was an epochal development for Hokkaido, where the climate is generally cold, a certain brewery uses the group number '278' as the name of its sake.

Ginpu
In 1989, it was born through the cross-fertilization of F1, which was born through the cross-fertilization of Hattan nishiki No. 2/Joiku No. 404 and Kirara No. 397, by the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station under the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (currently an independent administrative institution), and it was developed under the name Kuiku No. 158. In 2000, it was registered as the second shuzo kotekimai produced in Hokkaido Prefecture. It has a higher shinpaku manifestation rate than that of Hatsushizuku, and in 2003 a kanseishu produced exclusively with this variety was awarded a gold prize in Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai, thus evidencing its ability to compete with sakamai produced in mainland Japan on an equivalent basis.

Aomori Prefecture

Ao-kei sake No. 140

Kojo nishiki

Toyo sakazuki

Okuhomare

In 1967, developed by the municipality
It was cross-fertilized in the agricultural experiment station of Aomori Prefecture.

Hanafubuki

In 1974, developed by the municipality
The agricultural experiment station of Aomori Prefecture cross-fertilized Okuhomare/Fu-kei No. 103, and it was adopted in 1986 as the recommended variety of Aomori Prefecture; the variety was registered in 1988.

Hanaomoi

In 1987, developed by the municipality
The agricultural experiment station of Aomori Prefecture cross-fertilized Yamada nishiki/Hanafubuki. In 2001, it was developed and the variety was fixed.

Iwate Prefecture
Gin otome
In 1990, developed by the municipality
The agricultural experiment station of Iwate Prefecture cross-fertilized Akita sake/Kokoromachi, and it was registered in 2003.

Ginginga
In 1991, developed by the municipality
The Brand Rice Development Laboratories of the Iwate Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center cross-fertilized Dewa sansan/Akita sake, and in 2002 the variety was registered.

Akita Prefecture
Kairyo shinko
In 1959, developed by the municipality
It was adopted by secondary selection from Takane nishiki (Shinko No. 190) by the prefectural agricultural experiment station of Akita Prefecture. It might be called an improved 'Takane nishiki,' and it was used as the standard for comparison when Miyama nishiki was introduced into Akita Prefecture in the 1980s.

Aki no sei

In 1986, developed by the municipality
The prefectural agricultural experiment station of Akita Prefecture cross-fertilized Toyo nishiki/Miyama nishiki, and in 2000 the variety was registered.

Akita sake komachi

In 1992, developed by the municipality
The agricultural experiment station of Akita Prefecture cross-fertilized Aki-kei sake 251/Aki-kei sake 306, and carried out selection and fixation. In 2000, from F8, the group name 'Akita sake No. 77' was chosen, and in 2004 the variety was registered. Miyama nishiki was the main standard for comparison. It is compatible with Akita Kobo sake yeast, and it became the sakamai that Akita Prefecture promoted best.

Misato nishiki

Gin no sei

Sendai bozu

Miyagi Prefecture

Kura no hana

In 1987, developed by the municipality
Cross-fertilized in the Miyagi Prefecture Furukawa Agricultural Experiment Station (MFAES)

Hoshi akari
In 1987, developed by a private-sector institution
Shokubutsu Kaihatu Kenkyusho of Kirin Brewery Company Limited cross-fertilized Hatsuhoshi/Miyama nishiki. In 1988, the second-generation hybrid was assigned. Kakomai Ikushu Kenkyusho, a subsidiary of Tohoku-Electric Power Co., Inc., developed and fixed the variety, and in 2001 the variety was registered.

Yamagata Prefecture
Kame no o (tail of turtle)
Native variety
The original description was "亀ノ尾." Although Kame no o is often considered a representative sakamai, it is classified as general-purpose rice under the Agricultural Products Standards Rule enforced in 1951. In 1893, it was selected by Kameji ABE from a native variety, Sobe wase (early ripening variety). Initially it was called 'Niiho,' 'Kamiho' or 'Shinbo,' but a proposal for the name 'Kame no o' (king of turtles) was devised, taking a character from the name of the selector. However, despite his opinion that it was 'too much,' the present name was adopted. Nearly all the representative rice varieties in Japan after the war, such as Norin ichigo, Koshihikari, Sasanishiki, Gohyakumangoku and Takane nishiki, have been later generations of this variety. Also, like shuzo tekiseimai, it is used in large quantities even today.

Triptych of Ushu hana (flowers of Dewa Province)

Sake no hana, Kyo no hana and Kuni no hana

Since Kichibe KUDO in Kyoda-mura, Nishi tagawa-gun, developed the so-called triptych of Ushu hana--namely Sake no hana, Kyo no hana and Kuni no hana--through artificial crossing at the beginning of the Showa period, the development of sakamai in the private sector was a popular activity in Yamagata Prefecture. Such genius and high level of technology were inherited by rice developed in the private sector, such as Yamasake No. 4, Kamesui, Sake mirai, Tatsu no otoshigo and Ushu homare.

Toyokuni

Dewa sansan

Although many varieties of sakamai had been developed in Yamagata Prefecture since the old times, partly due to the decline of Kame no o for a certain period, Iwate Prefecture lacked a unique sakamai of its own and was obliged to rely on supplies from other prefectures. Requests for 'sake produced in this prefecture with rice unique to the prefecture' had been accumulated among breweries in Yamagata Prefecture. Also, when ginjo sake (high-quality sake brewed at low temperatures from rice grains milled to 60% weight or less) was born, the requirements for 'ginjo sake produced in Yamagata Prefecture' appeared.

At the beginning of the 1980s, the project for 'Yamagata sanga' (ginjoshu produced in Yamagata Prefecture) was launched, and sake yeast, Yamagata yeast and Seisei yeast were developed. Because Yamagata yeast was appraised in Zenkoku Shinshu Kanpyokai, the development of a matching sakamai commenced. In 1985, the Yamagata Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station cross-fertilized Miyama nishiki/Hanafubuki (Ao-kei sake No. 97) and selected 'Yamagata sake No. 49' from its later generations, named it 'Dewa sansan' and developed it. During development, the target for comparison (deemed as a rival) was Miyama nishiki. In 1995, it was adopted as a recommended variety for Yamagata Prefecture, and in 1997 the variety was registered. It has excellent resistance to cold, resistance to lodging and good rates of shinpaku manifestation and steamed rice absorption, and it's generally agreed that 'thin and sharp, clean sake quality' can be obtained, but it's weak in its resistance to disease.

Taking this sakamai as a linchpin, Yamagata Prefecture introduced a new system in which a brand 'DEWA 33' is licensed for the sake produced in Yamagata Prefecture satisfying five conditions, namely, 'Dewa sansan is used 100%, Yamagata yeast is used, Olize Yamagata, which is a koji mold developed by Yamagata Prefecture, ginjo sake with no added alcohol, and a polishing ratio of 55% or more.'

Dewa no sato

In 1994, developed by the municipality
The Shonai Branch of the prefectural agricultural experiment stations of Yamagata Prefecture cross-fertilized Ginfubuki/Dewa sansan and, in 2004, it was adopted for the approved variety of the prefecture and applied for registration in the same year. The further improvement of Dewa sansan was pursued, whereby the quality of unpolished rice was improved and the yield was slightly decreased. Yamagata Prefecture has been developing sparkling same made in Yamagata Prefecture using Dewa no sato.

Yamasake yuongo
In 1983, developed by a private-sector institution
Yamagata Prefectural Murayama Agricultural High School cross-fertilized Yamada nishiki/Kinmon nishiki.

Kissui
In 1987, developed by a private-sector institution
Yoshihiro SHIGA of Yonetsuru Sake Brewery selected and developed it from a rice mutant of Kame no o, and in 1993 the variety was registered.
At the time of application, the name was 'Tsuru no mai.'

Sake mirai
In 1999, developed by a private-sector institution
Tatsugoro TAKAGI of Takagi Shuzo cross-fertilized Yamasake No. 4/Miyama nishiki and developed it. ASK CO., LTD., a wholesaler of rice and cereals, owns the right to register the trademark.

Tatsu no otoshigo
In 1999, developed by a private-sector institution
Tatsugoro TAKAGI of Takagi Shuzo cross-fertilized Yamasake No. 4/Miyama nishiki and developed it. ASK CO., LTD., owns the right to register the trademark.

Ushu homare
In 2000, developed by a private-sector institution
Tatsugoro TAKAGI of Takagi Shuzo cross-fertilized Miyama nishiki/Gyokuryu F10 and developed it over a period of 18 years. It has a short stem and excellent resistance to cold, and the rice grain is large and has a round, board-shaped shinpaku.

Fukushima Prefecture

Yume no kaori

In 1991, developed by the municipality
The prefectural agricultural experiment station of Fukushima Prefecture cross-fertilized Hattan nishiki No. 1/Dewa sansan, and in 2003 the variety was registered.

Ibaraki Prefecture

Hitachi nishiki

In 1991, developed by the municipality
The prefectural agricultural experiment station of Ibaraki Prefecture cross-fertilized Gi-kei No. 89/Tsuki no hikari, and in 2003 the variety was registered. Because Miyama nishiki, which was heavily used in Ibaraki Prefecture, was weak in the prefectural environment in terms of its resistance to lodging and disease, it was developed to overcome those problems.

Wataribune

Tochigi Prefecture

Tochigi sake 44

In 1996, developed by the municipality
The prefectural agricultural experiment station of Tochigi Prefecture cross-fertilized it, and in 2005 the variety was designated as a brand variety of the growing district of Tochigi Prefecture.

Gunma Prefecture

Sake bikari

Niigata Prefecture
Shirafuji
There is a view that this variety was born in the Tokoku district in the latter half of the Edo period (though the details aren't known) and, in or around 1893, it became a parent of general-purpose rice (but there are also different views in this regard). It was a representative variety of sakamai of Niigata Prefecture until the beginning of the Showa period, and the record of Kanpyokai in this district at the beginning of the Showa period recorded an evaluation of Shirafuji that is feminine in comparison with Kame no o, which was masculine, but it became extinct once in the 1930s. Revival commenced in 2004 with approximately 800 grains of seed rice, and in 2007 a quantity sufficient for brewing was yielded.

Kikusui

Gohyakumangoku
In 1956, developed by the municipality
It was born through cross-fertilization between Shin No. 200, which was the later generation of Kame no o, and Kikusui, which was in turn the later generation of Omachi, at the prefectural agricultural experiment station of Niigata Prefecture. The variety was so named in order to commemorate that the yield of rice in Niigata Prefecture exceeded gohyakumangoku (approximately 750,000 tons). This is a representative variety that gives a so-called 'fruity flavor' and has served as a main actor in the birth of ginjo sake since the 1980s. It is grown not only in Niigata Prefecture but also in the Hokuriku district, but it's weak in terms of its resistance to cold and bacterial blight of rice (leaf blotch). The disease resistance differs depending on the prefecture or district in which it is grown. In most cases, resistance to blast, sheath blight disease and rice stem maggot is of an average level, and it's weak against bacterial blight of rice (leaf blotch). Because the grain size is small, its appearance isn't good and it's said that the limit of polishing ratio is approximately 50%. In order to overcome the weak points, it has been crossbred with various varieties as a parent for new varieties.

In Yoshikawa-ku, Joetsu City, which is the largest Gohyakumangoku growing district in Niigata Prefecture, efforts to grow it with the Nagata agricultural method have been made since the 1980s and sakamai with improved brewing aptitude (such as sugar content, hardness and structure) have been produced. It is said that the Nagata agricultural method helps produce particularly high sugar content and low protein content, which is the cause of Satsuma (undesirable taste in sake). Gohyakumangoku from this area is delivered to famous breweries in Niigata Prefecture.
In the brewery 'Yoshikawa Toji no Sato,' which is the base of Yoshikawa toji, a sub-branch of the Echigo toji branch, it was handled as a specialty local sake consisting of 'rice, water and technique, all of which are 100% Yoshikawa products.'

Koshi tanrei
Although Niigata prefecture was blessed with staple revived varieties, namely Kame no o and Gohyakumangoku, in the past those varieties couldn't stand a high degree of polishing. Therefore, Yamada nishiki were brought from other prefectures for daiginjo sake. Based on such facts, the development had been carried out with the concept of 'daiginjo with 100% rice from Niigata Prefecture;' in 1989 the Agricultural Products Research Center of the Niigata Agricultural Research Institute cross-fertilized Yamada nishiki/Gohyakumangoku, and the variety was registered in 2004 and designated as the brand variety of the growing district for Niigata Prefecture.
Another name is 'Niigata sake No. 72.'
It is said that 'soft and rich in taste' sake could be produced, but this variety has a long stem, so it tends to lodge and is weak against blast.

Ipponjime

It was developed through the artificial cross-fertilization of Gohyakumangoku/Toyosakazuki in 1994 by the Agricultural Products Research Center of the Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, and the variety was fixed. It is early rice with a strong, short stem, a somewhat large yield, a large grain size and an excellent shinpaku manifestation rate. It's a heavy-ear type and a variety with a stem that's more than ten centimeters shorter than that of Gohyakumangoku. The stem is rather stiff and the ear length is long--the same as that of Gohyakumangoku--and the grain density is somewhat high. The color of the glume and ふ先 is yellowish-white, but it has no beard. The leaf color is somewhat dark, and it has short, rather broad leaves. The top leaf is rather small and upright, and the plant has a good figure. Vivipanity is difficult, its resistance to lodging is somewhat strong, and its resistance to blast is medium. The number of breweries that prefer this Ipponjime has recently increased.

Saitama Prefecture

Sake musashi

In 1992, developed by the municipality
The Saitama Agriculture and Forestry Research Center cross-fertilized Kairyo Hattannagare/Wakamizu, and in 2004 the variety was approved by Saitama Prefecture. It is still in the improvement stage.

Chiba Prefecture

Fusa no mai

Tokyo Prefecture

Kanagawa Prefecture

Yamanashi Prefecture

Shizuoka Prefecture

Homare fuji

Developed by the municipality
In the past, Shizuoka Prefecture wasn't famous as a sake-producing area, but thanks to the birth of the Shizuoka sake yeast in the 1980s the prefecture came to be called the 'Kingdom of ginjo sake.'
Since the early 1990s, Shizuoka Prefecture had endeavored to develop sakamai that matches such yeasts and, in 1998, the prefectural agricultural experiment station conducted the gamma irradiation of Yamada nishiki. From approximately 100,000 rice plants of the first generation for which seeds were obtained from gamma irradiation, approximately 500 individuals that seemed to be prospective mutants, such as plants with short stems and early rice, were selected in 1999. The scale of this individual selection was one of the biggest in the breeding of mutants in Japan in the past 50 years.

Since 2000, the narrowing of the scope of varieties was carried out through line selection and fixed to 'Shizu-kei No. 88,' which was very close to Yamada nishiki but had a lower height. Trial growing was carried out for a total of 45 hectares in Yaizu City, Kikugawa City, Kakegawa City, Fukuroi City and Iwata City; brewing tests were conducted in seven breweries in Shizuoka Prefecture, and the variety was registered in 2006.
From the candidates obtained by public proposal, Yoshinobu ISHIKAWA, the Governor of the Prefecture, gave it the name 'Homare Fuji.'
In the same year, it was designated as a brand variety of the growing district of Shizuoka Prefecture. Shinpaku appears in the cross section of unpolished rice in the line-like shape, and because the variety has a short stem it doesn't lodge easily.

Nagano Prefecture
Takane nishiki
In 1939, developed by the municipality
The prefectural agricultural experiment station of Shizuoka Prefecture cross-fertilized Hokuriku No. 12/Tohoku No. 25 (Norin No. 17), and the line name was designated as 'Shinko No. 190.'
Although it took a long time, spanning the War of the Pacific, the variety was fixed and registered in 1952.

Kinmon nishiki

In 1956, developed by the municipality
The prefectural agricultural experiment station of Shizuoka Prefecture cross-fertilized Takane nishiki/Yamada nishiki.

Miyama nishiki

In 1972, developed by MAFF
MAFF caused mutation by 30 Kr gamma irradiation of dry seed of Takane nishiki, and Nagano Agricultural Experiment Station carried out the individual selection of the second generation.
Fixation by selection was then carried out through line breeding and, in 1976, the line name 'Shin-ho sake No. 1' was given to it; subsequently, after further review, the seventh generation was adopted to the recommended variety of Nagano Prefecture in 1978 and called 'Miyama nishiki.'
It's a long-stem, heavy-ear type that has good resistance to fertilizer and cold. Eventually, it became a parent that gave birth to new varieties for the cold districts of other prefectures. All of Dewa sansan of Yamagata Prefecture, Gingin of Iwate Prefecture, Aki no sei of Akita Prefecture and Yume no ka of Fukushima Prefecture are descendants form Miyama nishiki.

Shirakaba nishiki

In 1973, developed by MAFF
MAFF caused mutation through the 30 Kr gamma irradiation of dry seed of Reimei, and Nagano Agricultural Experiment Station conducted the line breeding. In 1977, the line name 'Shi-ho sake No. 4' was given to it, and in 1983, after further review, the variety was registered.

Hitogokochi

In 1987, developed by the municipality
It was cross-fertilized by Nagano Agricultural Experiment Station and the variety was registered in 1997; subsequently, in 1998 it was adopted as a recommended variety of Nagano Prefecture.
The name at the time of application was 'Mizuho nishiki.'

Toyama Prefecture

Oyama nishiki

In 1986, developed by the municipality
The agricultural experiment station of Toyama Agricultural Research Center cross-fertilized Hidahomare/Akita sake and conducted breeding, and beginning in 1996 brewing tests were carried out as 'Toyama sake No. 45;' it was given the name 'Obama nishiki' in 1998, and the variety was registered in 2001. As of 2007, an application for seed and seedling registration was pending, and the plan was to adopt this variety as a recommended variety of Toyama Prefecture. Gohyakumangoku was the standard for comparison during development. It has an excellent steamed rice absorption rate so as to produce good rice malt for full-bodied sake.

Ishikawa Prefecture

Hokuriku No. 12

Ishikawa sake No. 30

Fukui Prefecture

Kuzuryu

Dai-kei No. 5

Aichi Prefecture

Wakamizu

In 1972, developed by the municipality
The crop research institute of Aichi Agricultural Research Center cross-fertilized A-kei sake 101/Gohyakumangoku; the variety was adopted as a recommended variety of Aichi Prefecture in 1983 and registered in 1985.

Yume sansui

In 1988, developed by the municipality
The institute for agriculture in the mountainous area of Aichi Agricultural Research Center cross-fertilized the variety, which was then registered in 2001.

Gifu Prefecture

Hida homare

In 1972, developed by the municipality
The registered name for the variety is written in hiragana as 'Hidahomare.'
The institute for agriculture in the cold upland of Aichi Agricultural Research Center cross-fertilized Hidaminori/Fuku no hana, and variety was obtained with Fuku nishiki. In 1981, it was adopted as a recommended variety of Gifu Prefecture, and registration followed in 1982. It has a large grain size and excellent resistance to cold.

Hida minori

Hi-kei sake No. 61

Shiga Prefecture

Tamasakae

Ginfubuki

Kyoto Prefecture
Iwai
In 1933, developed by the municipality
It was obtained by the Tango branch of Kyoto Agricultural Experiment Station through pure-line selection from Nojobo, which had been obtained through pure-line selection from a local variety called Naraho. A large shinpaku is one of its features. In 1974, growing was discontinued, but in 1991 the Fushiimi Breweries Association and Kyoto Prefecture played a central role in its revival.

Mie Prefecture

Ise nishiki

Kami no ho

Nara Prefecture

Tsuyuhakaze

Wakayama Prefecture

Osaka Prefecture

Hyogo Prefecture

Hyogo Prefecture, that became the center of sake brewing centering around Nada gogo (five districts in Nada) after Miyamizu (water welling up in Nishinomiya City, which is said to be suitable for sake brewing) was discovered in the later stage of the Edo period, has since the Meiji period aggressively carried out the development of sakamai. There are many varieties that have narrowly survived the Pacific War and were highlighted after the war.

Yamadabo

It was obtained through selection from local varieties, but there are three different opinions on its origin.

(1) It was begun by Shinbe TANAKA in or around the end of the Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period, who brought back ears he had found in Uji-Yamada on his way back from a pilgrimage to Ise (Shrine) and then grew in Yoshikawa Town, Mino County, Hyogo Prefecture (Hyogo Prefecture) (the present-day Miki City).

(2) In Aina, Yamada-cho, Kita Ward, Kobe City (Town), it is said that seeds obtained in Megaki-mura (the present-day Ibaraki City) grew into high-quality sakamai, which, as it was honored as Japan's best at the exhibition of 1890, it was named Yamadaboafter the name of the place.

(3) It was begun around 1877 by Seizaburo YAMADA, a wealthy farmer in Yasuda, Nakacho (currently Takacho), Taka-gun, Hyogo Prefecture, who recommended large ears that were found in his own rice field to farmers in the neighborhood and delivered rice in bags carrying the 'Yamadabo' brand.

Although it has a high stem, because the stem is very hard it has excellent resistance to lodging. Although its shinpaku manifestation rate is low, the rice has excellent water absorbability and digestive property. It is a rice with high amylose content and low protein content. Therefore, it was adopted as a recommended variety of Hyogo Prefecture in 1912. Hyogo Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, having given birth to many sister varieties, conducted the pure-line selection of Shin yamadabo in 1921 and Shin yamadabo in 1922. Later, in 1923, it was cross-fertilized with Omachi (Tankan wataribune) and became a mother variety of Yamada nishiki.

Subsequently, as Yamada nishiki became the mother of many new varieties, Yamadabo became an ancestor of most sakamai after the Meiji period. Then, in the Showa period, it disappeared as if giving place to Yamada nishiki, which is easier to grow, but Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Co., Ltd. revived Shin yamadabo.
(Reference:)

Shin yamadabo

The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station pure-line selected No.1 in 1921 and No.2 in 1922.

Yamada nishiki

In 1923, developed by the municipality
The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station cross-fertilized general-purpose rice (which was used as a material for sake) with Omachi; the variety was fixed in 1931 and was given the line name 'Yamato 50-7' and named 'Yamada nishiki' in 1936, after which it was adopted as a recommended variety of Hyogo Prefecture.
In those difficult times, the amount of production didn't increase immediately (refer to 'History of sake: Showa period and later'), but it became nationally popular after the war and came to be called the 'king of Sakamai.'
It has a somewhat thick stem. With respect to disease resistance, it's weak against blast and leaf stripe disease. It is believed that the clay soil of the semi-mountainous area is suitable for growing.

Hayaozeki

Benkei

In 1924, developed by the municipality
The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station selected it from Benkei 1045.

Harima nishiki

In 1925, developed by the municipality
The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station conducted pure-line selection from local varieties.

Tajima goriki

In 1928, developed by the municipality
The Tajima branch of the Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station conducted pure-line selection from the local variety, Goriki, of Tottori Prefecture.

Nojoho

In 1933, developed by the municipality
The Tajima branch of the Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station conducted pure-line selection from the local variety, Goriki, of Tottori Prefecture.

Hyogo omachi

In 1935, developed by the municipality
Akashi Agricultural Improvement Experiment Station of Hyogo Prefecture cross-fertilized Aichi mikawa nishiki/Funaki omachi, and in 1951, after the Pacific War, breeding was fixed.

Improved Yamada nishiki

In 1936, Yamada nishiki/Aichi mikawa nishiki No.4 were cross-fertilized, and in 1958, after the Pacific War, breeding was fixed.

Aiyama

In 1941, developed by the municipality
Akashi Agricultural Improvement Experiment Station of Hyogo Prefecture cross-fertilized Aifune 117/Sanyu 67, and in 1949, after the Pacific War, breeding was fixed. Even today, it is still in production and used for tanmaishu and so on.

Nada hikari

In 1966, developed by the municipality
Sakamai Experiment Station of Hyogo Agriculture Institute cross-fertilized Hei-kei No.25/Tokin-kei 1011, and breeding was fixed in 1977.

Rokko nishiki

In 1966, developed by the municipality
Sakamai Experiment Station of Hyogo Agriculture Institute cross-fertilized Hei-kei No.25 F1/Tokin-kei 1011; the result was used in a survey for the determination of recommended varieties in 1977, and in 1983 the variety was registered.

Nada nishiki

In 1970, developed by the municipality
Sakamai Experiment Station of Hyogo Agriculture Institute cross-fertilized Yamada nishiki/Chugoku No.31; it was adopted as a recommended variety of Hyogo Prefecture, and the variety was registered in 1983.

Hyogo yume nishiki

Hyogo kita nishiki

Fuku no hana

Shinriki

Refer to the section for Kumamoto Prefecture.

Hei-kei sake No.18

Hei-kei sake No.65

Hei-kei sake No.66

Tottori Prefecture
Goriki
Shinpei WATANABE, of Shimogi, Shimo-nakayama Village, Tohaku-Gun, Tottori Prefecture, selected it from 21 local varieties. In 1915, the Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station conducted the pure-line selection of Goriki No.2. It was adopted as a recommended variety in 1921, and this is the direct ancestor of the present bred variety that was revived. It was grown extensively in Tottori Prefecture until the prosperous time at the beginning of the Showa period, but since it wasn't suitable for modern growing method due to its large ear height, it became distinct in the middle of the Showa period. Around 1985, when efforts for recovery from stagnation began, Nakagawa Shuzo, the producer of 'Fukujukai' and Yamane Shuzojo, the producer of 'Hiokizakura,' both breweries being in Tottori Prefecture, were given a handful of seed rice that had been kept as materials in the Faculty of Agriculture at Tottori University and started their revival with cooperation by farmers; in 1990, the yield reached a quantity sufficient to produce a minimum unit of moromi. Characteristically, it doesn't give a strong flavor as new sake but, as its maturity increases the flavor becomes strong.
Although there are several branched varieties, such as Tajima goriki, Tottori Prefecture and the Tottori Japanese Sake Association have endeavored to keep the main lines from leaving the prefecture in order to prevent the power of the variety from being degraded by becoming widespread as 'rare sakamai.'

Okayama Prefecture
Omachi
It was found in 1859 by Jinzo KISHIMOTO, who lived in Omachi, Takashima-mura, Joto-gun in Bizen Province, who called it 'Nihongusa.'
This is the direct ancestor of the present Bizen omachi, and Omachi was obtained through the pure-line selection of it in 1922. Subsequently, it gained popularity centering on Okayama Prefecture, but it declined after the war. Until around 1970, the area planted was decreased to six hectares, but the demand has grown rapidly since the 1990s. Depending on the growing district, there are many branch varieties, including Bizen omachi, Akaiwa omachi, Sanshu omachi, Hiroshima omachi, Hyogo omachi, Kinai omachi, Funaki omachi, Hiba omachi and Kairyo omachi.
As Omachi (Wataribune) was a line selected from Bizen omachi in 1895 by Shiga Agricultural Experiment Station, it is often described as 'Omachi wataribune.'
Wataribune with excellent resistance to lodging is also called Tankan wataribune (Wataribune with a short stem), and this type became the father of Yamada nishiki. It is a variety that has become an ancestor of numerous other varieties. In the past, it was famous as a very good rice and was valued as "illusory sakamai," but because the growing area expanded too rapidly, the power and quality of the variety was degraded. Currently, only Akaiwa omachi remains as a powerful rice among the many varieties of Omachi, but since the yield is too small it isn't practical enough for widespread consumption.

Hiroshima Prefecture
Hattan (Hattan sanjugo)
Hattanso, which is a local variety, was line-bred and given the name 'Hattan No.10.'
This was taken as the father and cross-fertilized with Shuho, which was born from Norin No.6/Futaba, and in 1960 and it was named after the year of Showa. In 1962, it became a recommended variety of Hiroshima Prefecture.
Hattan' has many sister varieties, but when it's simply called 'Hattan' it usually means this 'Hattan 35.'

Hattan nishiki No.1
Developed by the municipality
Hattan,' as a local variety that had been highly accepted nationwide as sakamai since the old times, had weak points such as low yield and small grains that fell off easily. In 1973, so as to improve such weak points, the Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station cross-fertilized Hattan 35/Akitsuho and bred through selection. Beginning in 1978, large-scale brewing tests were conducted, and in 1983 it was adopted as a recommended variety for the middle district of Hiroshima Prefecture with an altitude of 200 to 400 meters above sea level; the variety was registered in 1984. It has a large grain size, the grains don't fall off easily, and it has an excellent shinpaku manifestation rate; thus it's considered to be good for ginjo sake. It is a sister variety of Hatton nishiki No.2. Currently, there are many varieties that have been obtained by further improving the original Hattan nishiki.

Hattan nishiki No.2
In 1973, developed by the municipality
The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station cross-fertilized Hattan 35/Akitsuho; it was adopted as a recommended variety of Hiroshima Prefecture in 1983, and in 1984 the variety was registered. It's a sister variety of Hattan nishiki No.1 and the process of development was the same as that for Hattan nishiki No.1, but it's believed that this variety is suitable for a growing district with a higher altitude of about 400 meters above sea level, as opposed to No.1.

Koi omachi

In 1977, developed by the municipality
The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station conducted cross-fertilization, and it was adopted as a recommended variety of Hiroshima Prefecture in 1994; the variety was registered in 1996.

Senbon nishiki

Shimane Prefecture
Improved omachi

Kami no mai

Saka nishiki

In 1985, developed by the municipality
Cross-fertilization was conducted by the Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station as sakamai suitable for ginjo sake with no added alcohol, and selection and fixation were conducted. In 2002, it was adopted as a recommended variety of Shimane Prefecture. Since 2004, making good use of supported enterprises such as the exhibition and popularization of local products by the prefecture, sake breweries have been produced and sold as a unified brand 'Saka nishiki' for Shimane Prefecture.
The origin of its name is the Saka-jinja Shrine in Hirata City, which is worshiped as the 'ancestor of sake breweries.'
Currently, it is also used for "special junmai" sake and junmai sake (sake in which only ingredients are rice and yeast).

Kogyoku

Yamaguchi Prefecture
Kokuryo miyako
In 1889, Otoichi ITO, who lived in Yamaguchi Prefecture, gave birth to this variety by improving the Miyako breed, a local variety grown in Hyogo Prefecture. It has been grown as an excellent sakamai with large shinpaku manifestation rate in western Japan and the Korean Peninsula, and upon the occasion of Emperor Showa's enthronement it was used for the presentation of rice. In 'Seishu Seizo Seigi' (a detailed explanation of sake brewing), which is a textbook for sake brewing issued at the beginning of the Showa period, Kokuryo miyako was high appreciated for its ability to produce high-quality sake comparable to Kamenowo, a parent of Gohyakumangoku, and the general-purpose rice that was a parent of Yamada nishiki and used as material for sake. However, because it's weak against lodging due to the high position of its ear, and because considerable labor is required in growing it, cultivation was discontinued after the war and it became extinct. Then, in 1996, a farmer who specialized in sakamai production tried to revive it from twelve grains of seed rice kept by Kyushu University, and in 1999 his effort succeeded.

Saikai
Saikai No.134 and Saikai No.135 are famous.

Saito no shizuku

In 1997, developed by the municipality
The Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station cross-fertilized an extinct variety and revived variety/Saikai No.222 (Yamada nishiki-89H624), and in 2005 it was designated as a brand variety of the growing district of Yamaguchi Prefecture.

Kagawa Prefecture
Oseto
Native variety
It's classified as general-purpose cooking rice, but depending on the year of production the rice has strong power and high brewing aptitude. Capable breweries can give the flavor of ginjo sake even to junmai sake.

Tokushima Prefecture

Ehime Prefecture
Matsuyama Mitsui

Kochi Prefecture

Tosa nishiki

Developed by the municipality
Although sake brewing had been popular in Kochi Prefecture, it depended on areas outside the prefecture for supplies of sakamai. In 1991, Chugoku No.81 was grown on a test basis as cooking rice. Tests to determine its aptitude for sake brewing were repeated, and in 1994 it was improved as Tosa nishiki. It produces a thin, sharp and dry Tosa sake having low acid and amino acid content.
Shuzo tekiseimai

Gin no yume
In 1990, developed by the municipality
Kochi Agricultural Research Center cross-fertilized Yamada nishiki/Hinohikari and its selection was fixed in 1998; in 2002 the variety was registered.
The first shuzo kotekimai developed by the prefecture
It's good for the production of ginjo sake.

Kaze naruko
Crossbred in 2002
Developed by the municipality
Good for early season culture
The second shuzo kotekimai developed by the prefecture

Fukuoka Prefecture

Saga Prefecture
Saga no hana

Nagasaki Prefecture

Oita Prefecture

Kumamoto Prefecture
Shinriki
Originally, it came from Hyogo Prefecture. Although growing was once discontinued, it was revived in Kumamoto Prefecture.

Miyazaki Prefecture
Hanakagura

Kagoshima Prefecture

Okinawa Prefecture