Shike (teaching master) (師家)

Shike ([Zen] teaching master)

Shike is an honorific title in Zen sect for the one who possesses the ability to guide ascetic monks. It also implies the license. In old days, it was used for shiho (to inherit the dharma from a priest master) priestly teacher, but now it is a common name for those who preside a So-do Hall (A training hall for meditation) and are entitled to give inka (permission) to ascetic monks who reached Gotatsu (comprehension, understanding, Buddhist enlightenment, satori). In Rinzai sect, it is only Shike who is entitled to give koan (small presentations of the nature of ultimate reality, usually presented as a paradox) to ascetic monk and examine state of his life (mind).

From above meaning, Shike also implies leader of Japanese martial art (not necessary the head family).