Shinno (Imperial Prince) (親王)

Shinno is the title given to the male members in an Imperial family in East Asia, or is somebody who owns the title.

In the Japanese Imperial family, it is the male members who has been given the title of Imperial prince.
It also means the received rank or title (otherwise known as Shinnougou)

Shinnou is the highest rank in an Imperial family of the Qing dynasty. The formal name is Hosho=I=Chinwan.

It is the highest rank in an Imperial family in the Korean Empire.

Japanese Shinno

Presently, the Emperor's legitimate sons and the sons of the Emperor's legitimate sons (Imperial grandson), along with the brothers of the Emperor are called Shinno (Referenced Imperial House Act article 6, 7). Further, the Shinnogo for females are called Naishinno, and the Imperial family who are not Shinno are called king (Imperial family) or queen (Imperial family).

Presently, the term Shinno is only used mainly for the Japanese Imperial family, but is sometimes used as a name for foreign Imperial families or Royal families, or as one translation for the title Prince.

In accordance with Kozoku Shinirei (Koshitsu-rei , already abolished), when one becomes a legal adult, he is bestowed the order of supreme merit, and is given the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. Further, the Imperial Princess was bestowed the Order of First Class and received the Order of the Precious Crown, the King was bestowed the Order of First Class and received the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flower, and the Queen (of Imperial family) was bestowed the Order of Second Class and received the the Order of the Precious Crown, Peony. Even after the war, the Shinno was given the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum, the Imperial Princesses were given the Order of the Precious Crown (the present Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown), and the Queens were given the Order of the Precious Crown, Peony (the present Order of the Precious Crown, Peony).

History

With the Ritsuryo system, the emperor's child along with his siblings were the Shinno, and they received Ikai (Court rank), kyuden (provided rice field) and horoku (stipend), and a Keishi (household superintendent) was attached. From the second to the fourth generations (sometimes more) of Imperial descendants were called Shoo (princes without imperial proclamation). Because Emperor Junnin ascended the throne as a second generation king, it became a custom to give the title of Imperial Prince to those after the second generation and make them an Imperial Prince.

Before Meiji Period, even a child of an emperor could not announce himself as Shinno unless he received the title of Imperial Prince (Reference Prince Mochihito). On the other hand, there were cases where even an Imperial family who corresponds to younger generations than the Imperial grandchild, such as the head of a hereditary Shinno family, would become a Shinno by receiving the title of Imperial Prince. From the Heian period to the Edo period, due to the Ritsuryo code, a Shinno would be bestowed a honi (rank) from 'Ippon' (First Order of an Imperial Prince) to 'Shihon' (Fourth Order of an Imperial Prince). A Shinno who received the Ippon was called Ippon Shinno, and a Shinno who did not receive a honi (or those whose honi was stripped because of a crime) were called Muhon-Shinno (Imperial Prince without court rank). A Shinno who became a priest before the Edo period was called Nyudo Shinno, and an Imperial family who received the title of Imperial prince after they became a priest was called Cloistered Imperial Prince.

In the Heian period, a plan was put out for making the Shinno, who was not able to become a Togu (crown prince) due to Emperor Kammu's policy, a Minister for one of the eight central ministries, but later, from a passive viewpoint towards putting political responsibility on a Shinno, it became a custom for a Shinno to take the position of an honorary office such as the Ministry of Central Affairs, Ministry of Military (Treasury code), Ministry of Ceremonial, Danjoin, and Dazai no sochi, where they received only stipends and did not participate in state affairs. An example of one person who, following this custom, was put aside from political affairs, was Imperial Prince Kaneakira.

Imperial Prince of the Qing dynasty

The highest rank in the Qing dynasty Imperial family Aishinkakura clan peerage. There is the hereditary Imperial Prince and the non hereditary Imperial Prince. Along with 6 Imperial Princes and 2 guno (second highest rank of the court rank in ancient China), who were active during the nation-building time and whose hereditary privileges were recognized, there are 4 Imperial Princes who were allowed heredity because of their great achievements during the middle period and the end of the Qing dynasty. The other non hereditary Imperial Princes' peerage would go lower with every lifetime until he reached Chinkokuko, and from then on, it would become hereditary.