Shinseki Koka (demotion from nobility to subject) (臣籍降下)

Shinseki koka is when a member of the Imperial Family leaves their position and becomes a common subject giving up their nobility status, after given a new surname. It is also called Shisei koka, and such Imperial members are called Shisei (Imperial Family who were given a surname). When a female member of the Imperial Family marries a subject and leaves the Imperial Family, this is called Shinseki koka (demotion from nobility to subject). There is also a description of 'Kosekiridatsu' (secession of a prince from the Imperial Family) based upon national sovereignty rights under the Constitution of Japan.

History

Under the statute, up to 4 emperors removed, relatives are still considered as members of the Imperial Family, those who are more than 5 emperors removed are not considered as members of the Imperial Family, however they still have the rank as emperor and receive the On I of the Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade), those with more than 6 emperors removed are not allowed to have the rank of the emperor. (However the rank was changed in March 706.)
Therefore, it was considered that Imperial Families not close to successive Emperors are to be demoted from nobility to subject.

Learning from the experience of Imperial blood in the Nara period being discontinued, in the Heian period the Imperial Family had many male children as potential successors of the Princes to secure Imperial succession. However there were a few Princes eligible to succeed to the throne, many Princes were not able to become Emperors from early to Middle Heian period.

Such Imperial Families were allowed to receive a certain income under the Statutes, but it caused too much financial strain, consequently, they were encouraged to accept demotion from nobility to common subject. The first and the second generations of the Imperial Families were assured their positions as upper court nobles in the Imperial Palace, in fact those after the third generations were ruined and went to the country, where they settled and became Samurai or a powerful clan.

By the Edo period, it had become a custom for all the Imperial Families to enter into the priesthood who were not related according to Imperial succession or who were not one of the heredity Imperial Family members (the Fushiminomiya family, the Katsuranomiya family, the Arisugawanomiya family, the Kan innomiya family), there was no Shisei Imperial Family existing. However, there were many examples of having adopted children to succeed the family during the Edo period and it did not matter whether someone was higher rank or lower rank, there were three examples of Imperial Family members being adopted to a Regent family who did not have any successors (Kobetsu regent family).

Under Imperial Family Law issued during the Meiji period, the permanent Imperial regulation was decided, to prevent having too many Imperial members, Marquis and Counts were demoted from nobility to subject to protect the Imperial palace.

After the Constitution of Japan was issued on October 14, 1947, 11 Miyake (families allowed to be in status of Imperial Family), 51 Imperial members were demoted from nobility to subject excluding three jikimiya (Imperial Family members who are directly related to the Emperor) (Emperor Taisho's Princes, Chichibunomiya, Takamatsunomiya, and Mikasanomiya). According to the Imperial Family Law (Showa 22, Law No. 3), Clause 11, one Imperial Prince, ten Emperors, and three Princesses were demoted from nobility to subject, based upon Clause 13 of Imperial Family Law, five Empresses of Emperors and lineal descendants (16 Emperors and nine Empresses) and their two Empresses did the same, based upon Clause 14, No. 1 of Imperial Family Law, five mistresses of former Emperors left the Imperial Family. On this occasion, Imperial members who were demoted from nobility to subject formed a group of Kikuei shinboku kai.

Surnames given to former Imperial Family members

Imperial Family members demoted from nobility to subject were given a surname to show their rank was reduced to subject.

Before Minamoto and Taira were used as surnames, there were various other surnames were given. The name of Minamoto started when Emperor Saga demoted his 32 Princes and Princesses from nobility to subject and gave them the surname of Minamoto.
This was mentioned in Gengaden of 'Gisho.'
The name of Taira originated with Emperor Kanmu giving the surname Taira to his fifth Prince, Imperial Prince Katsurahara's children in 825. This name was based upon the city, the Heian Palace (the ancient Capital of Heiankyo) that was built by Emperor Kanmu.

In ancient times when the concept of demotion from nobility to subject was not yet clear, Imperial Families with ancestors from after the era of the ninth Emperor Kaika, were given the surname Kimi (Kabane). After the eight honorary titles were issued, an Imperial Family with ancestors from after the era of the fifteenth Emperor Ojin, were give the surname of Mahito. Due to the circumstances, in some situations the surnames of Asomi or Sukune were given. Once the name was settled as Minamoto and Taira, the kabane was also settled as Asomi.

By the way when Emperors are demoted from nobility to subject, they keep their names although the title of the Emperor cancelled, however there are some cases where they changed their names from the original to another, for example, Prince Kazuraki (TACHIBANA no Moroe) to Moroe, Prince Mochihito to Mochimitsu.

After the Meiji period, some examples can be seen where they kept the same original Miyago when they were demoted from nobility to subject. (Marquis Yoshimaro YAMASHINA, Marquis Kunihisa KUNI, Count Hirohide FUSHIMI). Also there were another examples where they kept the same Miya go title which was about to be or already discontinued, in order to succeed the ritual of the prince's family (Marquis Teruhisa KOMATSU, Marquis Hironobu KACHO, Count Kunihide HIGASHIFUSHIMI). On other occasions, the name of a place related to the prince's family was used.

Since secession (of a prince) from the Imperial Family on October 14, 1947, all the Miyake family used their Miya go title as their 'surname' when complying with the Family Registration Law, the same names like Yamashina, Kuni, and Fushimi who were previously demoted from nobility to subject were used as their surnames.

Returning to the Imperial Family

It was not allowed for Imperial members who were demoted to subjects, to come back to the Imperial Family again, however there were in fact some exceptions that can be seen. Among the following examples, Emperor Uda's children and Imperial Prince Tadafusa became members of Imperial Family although they were born as subjects. This example is classified as 'secession (of a prince) from the Imperial Family' in large scale and this issue is often discussed.

It is not easy to be strictly classified as secession (of a prince) from the Imperial Family, but one example is the Shirakawahakuo family (Emperor KAZAN's descendant, Kazan Minamoto clan's family line). It was allowed to be called 'Emperor' as soon as one was appointed Jingihaku (administrator of the institution for dedicating to religious ceremony).

Prince Wake (demoted from nobility to subject in 755, returned to the Imperial Family in 759)
Emperor Tenmu's great-grandchild
Prince Mihara
Prince Wake was demoted from nobility to subject in 755 and received the name of Mahito OKA, however he returned to the Imperial Family in 759. Later on he was killed while under suspicion for treason in 765. Prince Wake's children (Prince Otomo, Prince Nagaoka, Prince Nagusa, Prince Yamashina, Princess Uneme) were ordered to be demoted from nobility to subject due to their father's treason, however they returned to Imperial Family in 771.

YAMABE no Mahito Kasa (demoted from nobility to subject in 764, returned to the Imperial Family in 774)
Emperor Tenmu's great-grandchild
Prince Kasa
He received the name of 三長真人 in 764, and received another name of YAMABE no Mahito in 771, then returned to the Imperial Family in 774.

Imperial Princess Fuwa (demoted from nobility to subject in 769, returned to the Imperial Family in 773)
Emperor Shomu's Princess
Imperial Princess Fuwa
She was demoted from nobility to subject under suspicion of being involved in putting a curse on Emperor Shotoku, however three years later, she returned to Imperial Family and became Imperial Princess.

Imperial Prince Koretada
Emperor Koko's Prince

Emperor Uda (demoted from nobility to subject in 884 and returned to the Imperial Family in 887)

Imperial Prince Sadami demoted from nobility to subject after receiving the surname of Minamoto, then he came back to the Imperial Family and succeeded to the throne. (Emperor Uda)
After Emperor Uda's enthronement, his brothers also returned to the Imperial Family.

Emperor Daigo (He became a member of the Imperial Family in 887.)

He was the son of MINAMOTO no Asomi Teisei who was a subject at that time. (later became Emperor Uda)
After his father became a member of the Imperial Family, he also joined the Imperial Family and later succeeded to the throne. (Emperor Daigo)

Imperial Prince Tokinaka (He became a member of the Imperial Family in 887.)
He was the son of MINAMOTO no Asomi Teisei who was a subject at the time. After Teisei returned to the Imperial Family, he also returned.

Imperial Prince Tokiyo (He became a member of the Imperial Family in 887)
He was the son of MINAMOTO no Asomi Teisei who was a subject at the time. After Teisei returned to the Imperial Family, he also returned.

Imperial Prince Kaneakira (demoted from nobility to subject in 932 and returned to the Imperial Family in 977)
He was Emperor Daigo's Prince. He was demoted from nobility to subject after receiving the surname Minamoto, and became the Sadaijin (Minister of the Left). However he returned as Nakatsukasakyo (equivalent to Shoshiinojo) (Senior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade) after he was forced to return to the Imperial Family by Imperial order in 977. It is said that this was a plot of the Fujiwara clan who were aiming to the position of the Sadaijin since there was a tradition of an Imperial Family member not being allowed to become a Minister.

Imperial Prince Moriakira
Emperor Daigo's Prince

Imperial Prince Akihira (demoted from nobility to subject in 961, returned to the Imperial Family in 977.)
Emperor Murakami's Prince
He returned to the Imperial Family together with MINAMOTO no Asomi Kaneakira.

Imperial Prince Koreyasu (demoted from nobility to subject in 1270, returned to the Imperial Family in 1287.)

He was Emperor Gosaga's grandchild and the eldest son of Imperial Prince Munetaka. Initially he did not receive the Emperor's order and he was named Prince Koreyasu, later he became Seii Taishogun (literally, "Great General who subdues the barbarians"), he was demoted from nobility to subject and received the name of MINAMOTO no Asomi, he returned to the Imperial Family after that and received the title to become Imperial Prince from the Emperor. Later his position of Seii Taishogun was taken away and he was sent to Kyoto.

Imperial Prince Hisanaga (returned to the Imperial Family in 1330)
He was Emperor Gofukakusa's grandchild.

Imperial Prince Tadafusa (shifted his position in 1319)
He was Emperor Juntoku's great grandchild. He was born as a subject however, he was adopted by Emperor Uda and joined the Imperial Family.

Ienori KIYOSU (demoted from nobility to subject in 1872, returned to Imperial Family in 1888, he then demoted to subject again in 1888.)
Fushiminomiya Imperial Prince Kuniie
He was demoted from nobility to subject in 1872 to succeed the Fujiwara clan, the house of Shibuya. After he returned to Imperial Family in 1888, he was demoted from nobility to subject again in the same year and received the new family name of Kiyosu. Count Yukimo SANADA's third son, Yukiyasu KIYOSU succeeded Count Kiyosu's family.

An example of being demotion from nobility to subject

Examples of those who returned to Imperial Family are excluded.

The Nara period

TACHIBANA no Moroe (TACHIBANA no Sukene Moroe, 736)
Emperor Bidatsu's fifth or sixth grandchild
Later on he received the surname of Asomi in 750.
Shoichii (Senior First Rank)

TACHIBANA no Sai (TACHIBANA no Sukune Sai, 736)
Emperor Bidatsu's fifth or sixth grandchild
Prince Kazuraki's (Tachibana's Moroe) younger brother

OHARA no Takayasu (OHARA no Mahito Takayasu, 739)
It is said he was Emperor Bidatsu's descendant.

OMI no Mifune (Omi Mahito Mifune, 751)
Emperor Tenji's great great grandchild

FUNYA no chinu (FUNYA Mahito Chinu, September 12, 752)
Emperor Tenmu's second Prince

FUNYA no Ochi (FUNYA no Mahito Ochi, September 12, 752)
Emperor Tenmu's second Prince

Prince Hosokawa (OKA Mahito (755))
Emperor Tenmu's great grandchild
Prince Mihara
At this time his brother, Prince Wake was demoted from nobility to subject after receiving the name of 岡真人, however, Prince Wake returned to the Imperial Family in 759.

Prince Shioyaki (HIKAMI no Mahito Shioyaki, 757)
Emperor Tenmu's grandchild
Imperial Prince Niitabe
His Empress was Emperor Shomu's daughter, Imperial Princess Fuwa. He was ordered to be demoted from nobility to subject after he came under suspicion of being involved in the TACHIBANA no Naramaro Disturbance.

Morokatsu Hirone (Hirone Asomi Morokatsu, February 5, 787)
Emperor Konin' Prince

NAGAOKA no Okanari (NAGAOKA no Asomi Okanari, February 5, 787)
Emperor Kanmu's Prince
His mother was TAJIHI no Mahito Nagano's eldest daughter, TAJIHI no Mahito Mamune

Heian period

YOSHIMINE no Yasuyo (YOSHIMINE no Asomi Yasuyo) (802)
Emperor Kanmu's Prince

KIYOHARA no Natsuno (KIYOHARA Mahito Natsuno (804))
Emperor Tenmu's a descendant
He became Udaijin (Minister of the Right), Junii (Junior Second Rank).

NARIWARA no Yukihira (NARIWARA Asomi Yukihira, 826)
Emperor Heijo's grandchild

ARIWARA no Narihira (ARIWARA no Asomi Narihira)
Emperor Heizei's grandchild

MINAMOTO no Makoto (MINAMOTO no Asomi Makoto, 818)
Emperor Saga's Prince

MINAMOTO no Tokiwa (MINAMOTO no Asomi Tokiwa)
Emperor Saga's Prince

MINAMOTO no Hiromu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Hiromu)
Emperor Saga's Prince

MINAMOTO no Toru (MINAMOTO no Asomi Toru)
Emperor Saga's twelfth Prince
He became 融流源氏, of the Saga-Genji (Minamoto clan).

MINAMOTO no Hikaru (MINAMOTO no Asomi Hikaru)
Emperor Ninmyo's Prince

MINAMOTO no Yoshiari (MINAMOTO no Asomi Yoshiari)
Emperor Montoku's first Prince

MINAMOTO no Tsunemoto (MINAMOTO no Asomi Tsunemoto)
Emperor Seiwa's grandchild
He became the successor of the Seiwa Genji (Minamoto clan).

MINAMOTO no 経生(MINAMOTO no Asomi 経生)
Emperor Seiwa's grandchild

Prince Takamune (TAIRA no Asomi Takamune, 825)
Emperor Kanmu's grandchild

MINAMOTO no Sadamu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Sadamu, 828)
Emperor Saga's Prince

MINAMOTO no Masaru (MINAMOTO no Asomi Masaru, 835)
Emperor Ninmyo's Prince

Prince Sakai (862)
Emperor Tenmu's grandchild

TAIRA no Takamochi (TAIRA no Asomi Takamochi, 889?)
Emperor Kanmu's grandchild or great grandchild
On May 13, 889 he was demoted from nobility to subject after receiving an Imperial order from Emperor Uda to have the name of Taira.

MINAMOTO no Takaakira (MINAMOTO no Asomi Takaakira, 920)
Emperor Daigo's tenth Prince. He was demoted from nobility to subject when he was seven years old. Later he became the Sadaijin, he was demoted because of the Anna Incident.

MINAMOTO no Hiromasa (MINAMOTO no Asomi Hiromasa)
Emperor Daigo's grandchild

MINAMOTO no Shigemitsu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Shigemitsu)
Emperor Daigo's grandchild
Imperial Prince Yoriakira

MINAMOTO no Yasumitsu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Yasumitsu)
Emperor Daigo's grandchild
Imperial Prince Yoriakira

MINAMOTO no Nobumitsu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Nobumitsu)
Emperor Daigo's grandchild
Imperial Prince Yoriakira

MINAMOTO no Tomitsu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Tomitsu)
Emperor Daigo's grandchild
Imperial Prince Yoriakira

MINAMOTO no Masanobu (MINAMOTO no Asomi Masanobu, 936)

Emperor Uda's grandchild
Sadaijin

TAIRA no Kanemori (TAIRA no Asomi Kanemori, 950)
Emperor Koko's grandchild

MINAMOTO no Arihito (MINAMOTO no Asomi Arihito, 1119)
Emperor Gosanjo's grandchild
His father was Imperial Prince Sukehito, and his mother was MINAMOTO no Morotada's daughter. He was adopted by the Retired Emperor Shirakawa, however he was removed from the position of Imperial successor and demoted from nobility to subject. Thereafter, he became the Sadaijin, Juichii (Junior First Rank).

Minamoto no Morofusa (MINAMOTO no Asomi Morofusa, December 26, 1020)
Emperor Murakami's grandchild
His father was Imperial Prince Tomohira, his mother was Imperial Prince Tamehira's daughter. After the arranged adoption together with FUJIWARA no Yorimichi, who was his older brother in law, he received the name of Minamoto and demoted from nobility to subject. He became the Udaijin after that. His descendants became the Genji choja (the top of the Minamoto clan).

MINAMOTO no Takahime (MINAMOTO no Asomi Takahime)
Emperor Murakami's grandchild
His father was Imperial Prince Tomohira and his mother was Imperial Prince Tamehira's daughter. His mother was Prince Sukesada's older sister. She was the wife of FUJIWARA no Yorimichi.

MINAMOTO no Yorisada (MINAMOTO no Asomi Yorisada)
Emperor Murakami's Grandchild

MINAMOTO no Nobuzane (MINAMOTO no Asomi Nobuzane, 1024)
Emperor Kazan's grandchild
His descendants became the Shirakawahakuo family. The family was treated special to successively inherit Jingihaku (the Minister of God) and name themselves as part of the Imperial Family.

Prince Mochihito (MINAMOTO no Asomi 以光, 1180)
Emperor Goshirakawa's Prince
After he issued the Ryoji (a document issuing the Crown Prince or Princess's order) to kill TAIRA no Kiyomori, he was, however, later killed by TAIRA no Tomomori. TAIRA no Kiyomori demoted Prince Mochihito from nobility to subject after he died, to escape the punishment for killing Imperial Family.

The Kamakura period

MINAMOTO no Hikohito (MINAMOTO no Asomi Hikohito, 1294)
Emperor Juntoku's grandchild (It is said he was from Iwakuranomiya.)
He was promoted to Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank) of Konoe Marshal.

The Muromachi period

Yoshinari YOTSUTSUJI (MINAMOTO Asomi Yoshinari, 1356)
Emperor Juntoku's great grandchild. He was the fourth Yotsutsujinomiya.

The Edo period

Prince Tadayuki (MINAMOTO no Asomi Tadayuki)
Emperor Ogimachi's great grandchild
He became the husband of Yoshinao TOKUGAWA's daughter of the Nagoya Domain. His descendants became the Hirohata family of the Seiga family.

Meiji period

Except for following two examples, two illegitimate children of Kitashirakawanomiya Imperial Prince Yoshihisa, who were common subjects, became nobility on July 1, 1897, (Count Yoshiyuki FUTARA and Count Masao UENO) however, this was not considered as a demotion from nobility to subject, since their rank had been subject.

Ienori KIYOSU of the Fushiminomiya family (Ienori KIYOSU, June 28, 1888)
Fushiminomiya Imperial Prince Kuniie's son
He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Kiyosu family. Please refer to "Return to the Imperial Family" for details.

Teruhisa KOMATSU of the Kitashirakawanomiya family (Teruhisa KOMATSU, July 1910)
He was the fourth son of Kitashirakawanomiya Imperial Prince Yoshihisa. He was born on August 12, 1888.
When he was twenty one years old, while he was a Rear Admiral candidate student, he was demoted from nobility to subject and he established the family of Marquis Komatsu. (He succeeded the ritual of the Komatsunomiya family.)
After that he became Vice Admiral.

Taisho period

Yoshimaro YAMASHINA of the Yamashinanomiya family (Yoshimaro YAMASHINA, July 24, 1920)
He was the second Prince of Yamashinanomiya Prince Kikumaro. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Marquis Yamashina family. He left the navy when he was Vice Admiral and became an ornithologist.

Kunihisa KUNI of the Kuninomiya family (Kunihisa KUNI, December 7, Taisho 12)
He was the second son of Kuninomiya Prince Kuniyoshi. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Marquis Kuni family.

Hironobu KACHO of the Fushiminomiya family (Hironobu KACHO, December 7, 1926)
He was the third son of Fushiminomiya Prince Hiroyasu. He was born on May 22, 1905.
He demoted from nobility to subject when he was 20 years old while he was Rear Admiral and established the Marquis Kacho family. (He succeeded the ritual of the Kachomiya family.)
He married Prince Kotohito's fifth Princess, Kaninnomiya Princess Hanako on December 13, 1926.

The early Showa period

Fujimaro TSUKUBA of Yamashina no miya family (Fujimaro TSUKUBA, July 20, 1928)
He was the third son of Yamashinanomiya Prince Kikumaro. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Marquis Tsukuba family. He became the chief priest of Yasukuni-jinja Shrine in 1946.

Hagimaro KASHIMA of the Yamashinanomiya family (Hagimaro KASHIMA, July 20, 1928)
He was the fourth son of Yamashinanomiya Prince Kikumaro. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Kashima family.

Shigemaro KATSURAGI of the Yamashinanomiya family (Shigemaro KATSAURAGI, December 24, 1929)
He was the fifth son of Yamashinanomiya Prince Kikumaro. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Katsuragi family. The War finished while he was an Army Commander. His wife died in 1993.

Kunihide HIGASHIFUSHIMI of the Kuninomiya family (Kunihide HIGASHIFUSHIMI, April 4, 1931)
He was the third son of Kuninomiya Prince Kuniyoshi.
He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Higashifushimi family. (He succeeded the ritual of the Higashifushiminomiya family.)

Hirohide FUSHIMI of the Fushiminomiya family (Hirohide FUSHIMI, April 1, 1936)
He was the fourth son of Fushiminomiya Prince Hiroyasu. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Fushimi family. He used to belong in headquarters, Third Allied Communication Unit, but he died in the War on August 21, 1943, his promotion was accelerated to Lieutenant Commander.

Tadahiko OTOWA of the Asakanomiya family (Tadahiko OTOWA, April 1, 1936)
He was the second son of Asakanomiya Prince Yasuhiko. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Marquis Otowa family. He died in the War on February 6, 1944 and his promotion was accelerated to Lieutenant Commander.

Akitsune AWATA of the Higashikuninomiya family (Akitsune AWATA, October 25, 1940)
He was the third son of Higashikuninomiya Prince Naruhiko. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Marquis Awata family.

Iehiko UJI of the Kuninomiya family (Iehiko UJI, October 5, 1942)
He was the second son of Prince Taka of Kuninomiya family. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Uji family.

Norihiko NASHIMOTO of the Kuninomiya family (Norihiko TATSUTA, June 7, 1943)
He was the third son of Kuninomiya Prince Taka. He was demoted from nobility to subject and established the Count Tatsuta family. He married Kuninomiya Princess Masako, who was the eldest daughter of Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira, on April 22, 1945.

The renouncement of membership in the Imperial Family on October 14, 1947.

The Imperial Family and eleven other Miyake (prince's house) renounced their Imperial Family membership with the exception of the members of the direct prince families of Chichibunomiya, Takamatsunomiya, and Mikasanomiya.

The Fushiminomiya family

The head of the family and other four members renounced their membership in the Imperial Family.

Fushiminomiya Prince Hiroaki (Hiroaki FUSHIMI)
The twenty sixth head of the Fushiminomiya family
He was the first son of Fushiminomiya Prince Hiroyoshi of Fushiminomiya family. He was fifteen years old when he renounced his membership in the family, and after that he worked for Mobil Sekiyu K. K.

Prince Hiroyoshi's wife, Tokiko (Tokiko FUSHIMI)
She was the daughter of Prince Saneteru ICHIJO.
The mother of the head of the family

Princess Mitsuko (Mitsuko FUSHIMI)
She was the first daughter of Prince Hiroyoshi of the Fushiminomiya family

Princess Ayako (Ayako FUSHIMI)
She was the second daughter of Prince Hiroyoshi of the Fushiminomiya family.

The Yamashinanomiya family

Only the head from the Yamashinanomiya family renounced membership in the Imperial Family.

The Yamashinanomiya (Takehiko YAMASHINA)
The third head of the family
He died in 1985 and the Yamashinanomiya family discontinued. (Excluding the Yamashina marquis family)

The Kayanomiya family

Eight people including the head of the Kayanomiya family renounced their memberships in the Imperial Family.

Kayanomiya Prince Tsunenori (Tsunenori KAYANOMIYA)
The second head of the family
Prince Tsunenori's wife, Toshiko (Toshiko KAYANOMIYA)

Prince Kuninaga (Kuninaga KAYA)
He was the first son of Kayanomiya Prince Tsunenori, and an adopted son of the Kayanomiya family. He was an Army Captain when the War ended, and he became the manager of Kayanomiya political and economic Institute.

Prince Harunori (Harunori KAYA)
He was the second son of Kayanomiya Prince Tsunenori. He graduated seventy fifth from the Japanese Naval Academy and from The faculty of Law at Tokyo University. He became a diplomat.

Prince Akinori (Akinori KAYA)
Kayanomiya Prince Tsunenori's third son

Prince Fuminori (Fuminori KAYA)
He was the fourth son of Kayanomiya Prince Tsunenori.

Prince Munenori (Munenori KAYA)
He was the fifth son of Kayanomiya Prince Tsunenori. He worked for Ajinomoto Co., Inc.

Prince Takenori (Takenori KAYA)
He was the sixth Kaya Prince Tsunenori.

The Kuninomiya family

The following ten people, including the head of the Kuninomiya family, renounced their membership from the Imperial Family. This was the largest number to renounce membership in the Imperial Family, from within a prince's family. This was the family from which Empress Kojun came from, however, this was not an exception.

Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira (Asaakira KUNI)
The third head of the Kuninomiya family

Kuniaki KUNI (Kuniaki KUNI)
He was the first Prince of Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira
The War ended when he was the seventy seventh student at the Japanese naval academy. His eldest daughter was Akiko KUNI who was born after he renounced membership in the Imperial Family.

Asatake KUNI (Asatake KUNI)
He was the second Prince of Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira.

Asahiro KUNI (Asahiro KUNI)
He was the third Prince of Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira.

The wife of Prince Kuniyoshi, Chikako (Chikako KUNI)
Kuninomiya Prince Kuniyoshi's Empress

The wife of Prince Taka, Shizuko (Shizuko KUNI)
The former Prince Taka's (the prince was passed away) Empress

Princess Asako (Asako KUNI)
She was the second Princess of Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira.

Princess Michiko (Michiko KUNI)
She was the third daughter of Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira.

Princess Hideko (Hideko KUNI)
Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira's forth daughter

Princess Noriko (Noriko KUNI)
Kuninomiya Prince Asaakira's fifth daughter

The Nashimotonomiya family

The head of the family and his two Empresses renounced their memberships from the Nashimotonomiya family.

Nashimotonomiya Prince Morimasa (Morimasa NASHIMOTO)
The second head of the family
He died three years after renouncing his membership in the Imperial Family.

Itsuko NASHIMOTO (Itsuko NASHIMOTO)
Prince Morimasa's Empress
Marquis Naohiro NABESHIMA's daughter

The Asakanomiya family

The head of the Asakanomiya family, and other two Princes, one Empress, three Princesses renounced their memberships in the Imperial Family.

Asakanomiya Prince Yasuhiko (Yasuhiko ASAKA)
He was the first generation of the head of the family. He was the eighth Prince of Kuninomiya Imperial Prince Asahiko.

Takahiko ASAKA (Takahiko ASAKA)
He was the first Prince of Prince Yasuhiko. He became an Army Commander at the end of the War.

Tomohiko ASAKA (Tomohiko ASAKA)
He was the first Prince of Prince Takahiko.

The wife of Prince Takahiko, Chikako (Chikako ASAKA)
Prince Takahiko's Empress

Princess Fukuko (Fukuko ASAKA)
She was the first daughter of Prince Takahiko.

Princess Minoko (Minoko ASAKA)
She was the second daughter of Prince Takahiko.

The Higashikuninomiya family

The following seven people, including the head of the family, renounced their membership in the Higashikuninomiya family. Imperial Princess Toshiko was Emperor Meiji's Imperial Princess, Shigeko HIGASHIKUNI was Emperor Showa's first Prince, however they both became targets to renouncement their memberships in the Imperial Family.

Imperial Princess Toshiko (Toshiko HIGASHIKUNINOMIYA)
Higashikuninomiya Prince Naruhiko's Empress
She was the ninth Princess of Emperor Meiji.

Shigeko HIGASHIKUNI (Shigeko HIGASHIKUNI)
Prince Morihiro's Empress
She was the first Princess of Emperor Showa.

Higashikuninomiya Prince Naruhiko (Naruhiko HIGASHIKUNI)
The first head of the family
He was the ninth Prince of Kuninomiya Imperial Prince Asahiko. The head of Higashikuninomiya family.
The former Prime Minister

Prince Morihiro (Morihiro HIGASHIKUNI)
He was an adopted child of the Higashikuninomiya family.

Toshihiko TARAMA (Toshihiko TARAMA)
The fourth son of Prince Naruhiko
He was adopted by Kinu, the mistress of Tetsusuke TARAMA, a consul general of Sao Paulo.

Nobuhiko HIGASHIKUNI (Nobuhiko HIGASHIKUNI)
He was the first son of Prince Morihiro.

Princess Fumiko (Fumiko HIGASHIKUNI)
The first daughter of Prince Morihiro

The Kitashirakawanomiya family

The four people including the head of the Kitashirakawanomiya family renounced their memberships in the Imperial Family.

The wife of Prince Naruhisa, Imperial Princess Fusako (Fusako KITASHIRAKAWA)
The third family head of the family, the Empress of former Kitashirakawanomiya Prince Naruhisa.
Emperor Meiji's seventh Princess

Michihisa KITASHIRAKAWA (Michihisa KITASHIRAKAWA)
The fifth head of the Kitashirakawanomiya family
He renounced membership from the Imperial Family when he was ten years old and worked for Toshiba. Later on he worked for Ise Shrine.

Sachiko KITASHIRAKAWA (Sachiko KITASHIRAKAWA)
She was the Empress of the fourth head of the former Kitashirakawanomiya Prince Naruhisa.

Princess Hatsuko (Hatsuko KITASHIRAKAWA)
She was the first daughter of former Prince Naruhisa. (the prince was passed away)

The Takedanomiya family

Six people from the Takedanomiya family renounced their memberships in the Imperial Family.

Takedanomiya Prince Tsuneyoshi (Tsuneyoshi TAKEDA)
He was the second head of the Takedanomiya family. His grandchild was Tsuneyasu TAKEDA.

The wife of Prince Tsuneyoshi, Mitsuko (Mitsuko TAKEDA)
Prince Tsuneyoshi's Empress
Prince Kinteru SANJO's second daughter

Tsunetada TAKEDA (Tsunetada TAKEDA)
Tsuneharu TAKEDA (Tsuneharu TAKEDA)
Princess Motoko (Motoko TAKEDA)
Princess Noriko (Noriko TAKEDA)

The Kaninnomiya family

The head of the Kaninnomiya family and two of his Empresses renounced their memberships in the Imperial Family. The Kaninnomiya family discontinued in 1988.

Kaninnomiya Prince Haruhito (Sumihito KANIN)
He was the sixth head of the Kaninnomiya family. He was the second Prince of Kaninnomiya Imperial Prince Kotohito.

The wife of Prince Haruhito, Nahoko (Naoko KANIN)
Prince Saneteru ICHIJO's daughter

The Higashifushiminomiya family

One Empress of the Imperial Prince renounced her membership in the Higashifushiminomiya family.

The wife of Imperial Prince Yorihito, Kaneko (Kaneko HIGASHIFUSHIMI)
The Empress of Higashifushiminomiya Imperial Prince Yorihito. He died in 1955.

He was demoted from nobility to subject due to an adoption arrangement.

It is a custom for Imperial Family, who are demoted from nobility to subject, to establish a new prince's house, but there was another option of being adopted by the family who are common subjects. It was not mentioned in the Imperial House Law, but it is presume to be not allowed, however, according to the clause 2 of the Imperial Family Law 增補, the Princes are permitted to become a successor to a nobleman. However under the Meiji Imperial Household Law, there are no examples of a Prince becoming successor to nobility.

Prince Ishizu (757)
He received the name of FUJIWARA no Asomi and was adopted by FUJIWARA no Nakamaro.

FUJIWARA no Genshi (1037)
She was a grandchild of Emperor Ichijo
Imperial Prince Atsuyasu's daughter
She was adopted by FUJIWARA no Yorimichi and became the Empress of Emperor Gosuzaku.

Princess Mitsuko (1724)
She was the Princess of Fushiminomiya Imperial Prince Kuninaga and her initial name was Princess Mitsuko. She was adopted by Yoshimune TOKUGAWA and married Nobusumi MATSUDAIRA.

FUJIWARA no Asomi Nobuhiro (Nobuhiro KONOE, 1605)
Emperor Goyozei's fourth Prince. He was adopted by Nobutada KONOE and succeeded to his mother's house, the Konoe family.

FUJIWARA no Asomi Kaneto (Akiyoshi ICHIJO, 1609)
He was the ninth Prince of Emperor Goyozei. He was adopted by Uchimoto ICHIJO and succeeded to the Ichijo family.

FUJIWARA no Asomi Sukehira (Sukehira TAKATSUKASA, 1743)
He was the grandchild of Emperor Higashiyama. He was adopted by Kaneka ICHIJO and succeeded to Mototeru TAKATSUKASA.

FUJIWARA no Asomi Kinzumi (Kinzumi SAIONJI)
Arisugawanomiya Imperial Prince Tsunahito
He was adopted by Hirosue SAIONJI.

FUJIWARA no Asomi Ienori (Ienori KIYOSU, 1872)
He was adopted by the Shibuya family and returned to the Imperial Family, they again demoted him from nobility to subject. Please refer to the details for "Returning to the Imperial Family."

The demotion from nobility to subject due to a Princess's marriage. (Shinsekikoka)

Under a government based upon the ritsuryo legal code, the right was granted for Imperial Princes and Princesses to keep their rank as Imperial Family after marrying partners who were not from the Imperial Family, however according to Imperial House Law they must renounce their membership in the Imperial Family.

Kazuko TAKATSUKASA (Kazuko TAKATSUKASA, 1950)
She was the third Princess of Emperor Showa. She renounced her membership from the Imperial Family on May 21, 1950, when she married Toshimichi TAKATSUKASA, who was the successor of the Takatsukasa family.

Atsuko IKEDA (Atsuko IKEDA, 1952)
She was the fourth Princess of Emperor Showa. She renounced her membership from the Imperial Family on October 10, 1952, when she married Takamasa IKEDA of the Okayama Domain.

Takako SHIMAZU (Takako SHIMAZU, 1960)
She was the fifth Princess of Emperor Showa. She renounced her membership from the Imperial Family on March 10, 1960, when she married Hisanaga SHIMAZU of the Shimazu clan.

Yasuko KONOE (Yasuko KONOE, 1966)
She was the first daughter of Mikasanomiya Imperial Prince Takahito. She renounced her membership from the Imperial Family on December 18, 1966, when she married Moriteru KONOE (later called Tadateru KONOE) of the Konoe family.

Masako SEN (Masako SEN, 1983)
She was the second daughter of Mikasanomiya Imperial Prince Takahito. She renounced her membership from the Imperial Family on October 14, 1983 when she married Masayuki SEN of the Urasenke school of tea ceremony.

Sayako KURODA (Sayako KURODA, 2005)
She was the first Princess of the present emperor. She renounced her membership from the Imperial Family on November 15, 2005, when she married Yoshiki KURODA.