Fukuchiyama Domain (福知山藩)

The Fukuchiyama Domain was located in Amada County in Tanba Province (present-day Naiki, Fukuchiyama City, Kyoto Prefecture). The domain was based in Fukuchiyama-jo Castle.

The history of the domain

During the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) in 1579, when Mitsuhide AKECHI, Nobunaga ODA's vassal, was given the whole of Tanba Province, he entrusted this domain to one of his family members, Hidemitsu AKECHI. In 1582, when Mitsuhide raised a rebellion against Nobunaga, Hidemitsu supported Mitsuhide's military operation, and captured the Azuchi Castle after defeating Nobunaga at Honno-ji Temple. However, when Mitsuhide was defeated by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI in the Battle of Yamazaki, Hidemitsu, who abandoned the Azuchi-jo Castle, and carried out the famous 'Kosui-watari' (rapid crossing of Lake Biwa), stabbed Mitsuhide's wife and children in the Sakamoto-jo Castle in Omi, and ultimately, killed himself. Tanba Province was then under the control of Hideyoshi, and Ietsugu SUGIHARA and Shigetsugu ONOGI (Court Noble) took over Fukuchiyama. Shigetsugu was on the side of the western army in the Sekigahara Battle in 1600, and became a commander in chief after conquering the Tanabe-jo Castle in Tango (Maizuru-jo Castle), but when the western army was completely defeated in the main battle, he was tracked down by Tadaoki HOSOKAWA of the eastern army, and killed himself.

At the end of the year, Toyouji ARIMA, who had served with distinction in the rear guard of the eastern army in the Sekigahara Battle, was transferred from the Yokosuka Domain in Enshu which had a yield of 30,000 koku to Fukuchiyama where his income increased to 60,000 koku, and this led to the establishment of the Fukuchiyama Domain. When Toyouji's father, Noriyori ARIMA, died in 1602, Toyouji inherited the Sanda Domain in Settsu Province which had a yield of 20,000 koku to bring the total yield of territories under his control to 80,000 koku. He went on to serve with distinction on the side of Tokugawa in the Osaka Siege, and was rewarded with a transfer to the Kurume Domain in Chikugo Province with increased income of 200,000 koku in December 1620.. Masakazu KOBORI, a magistrate of Fushimi, then ruled the domain for a short period.

In August 1621, Nagamori OKABE came to the domain from the Kameyama Domain in Tanba Province with 50,000 koku, but he was transferred to the Ogaki Domain in Mino Province in September 1624. Norimichi INABA took over the domain with 45,700 koku from the Nakajima Domain in the Settsu Province, but was punished by Kaieki (removal of samurai status and expropriation of territories) in August 1648. The domain then became an imperial fief for six months, after which Tadafusa MATSUDAIRA (the lord of the Shimabara Domain) took over with 45,900 koku on February 28, 1649. However, he was transferred to the Shimabara in Bizen Province with an income increased 70,000 koku on June 8, 1669. After Tanemasa KUTSUKI took over the domain with 32,000 koku from the Tsuchiura Domain in Hitachi Province, the Kutsuki clan ruled for 13 generations, stabilizing the domain administration.

The Fukuchiyama Domain was abolished under Haihan-chiken (the abolition of the feudal domains and establishment of prefectures) on July 14, 1871, becoming Fukuchiyama Prefecture. On October 2 of the same year, it became Toyooka Prefecture, before being incorporated into Kyoto Prefecture on August 21, 1876.

The administration of the domain

Before Fukuchiyama was established as a domain, during the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States), Mitsuhide implemented land-tax exemptions, developed the castle town, and constructed the early-modern Fukuchiyama-jo Castle. The first lord, Toyouji ARIMA, sured up the domain administration by improving the Fukuchiyama-jo Castle and the castle town, and implementing a land survey. The reign of the Okabe clan was short, and there were no notable achievements during their tenure.

Norimichi INABA, who took over the domain after the Okabe clan was a tyrant, who ruled over his retainers and people with incompetence. Due to conflict Norimichi had with Takahiro KYOGOKU, the lord of the Miyazu Domain in Tango province, in 1648, a rumor began circulating that he was plotting a rebellion. If Norimichi had been raising a rebellion, it would have been very limited in its scope due to his income of 45,700 koku and military force of less than 1,500. The shogunate, however, took the rumor seriously, and ordered several neighboring domains to send troops, with the result that Norimichi committed shot himself dead in the Fukuchiyama-jo Castle on August 20, 1648, and the Inaba clan was punished by Kaieki (removal of samurai status and expropriation of territories).

Tadafusa MATSUDAIRA implemented Kenchi (a land survey) in the domain. This formed the basis for the land system of the Fukuchiyama Domain untill the land-tax reform came into force in the Meiji period, and was called Matsudaira's Kenchi (the land survey). In addition, he was charged with the handing over of Miyazu-jo Castle in 1666.

The Kutsuki clan is famous thanks to Mototsuna KUTSUKI. The first lord, Tanemasa KUTSUKI's father, Uetsuna KUTSUKI (the lord of the Tsuchiura Domain) who served as Okosho Bangashira (the chief of the bodyguard of the Shogun) and Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies) under Iemitsu TOKUGAWA was treated well as a fudai daimyo (a hereditary daimyo) with an award of 30,000 koku in Hitachi Tsuchiura.
Many of the lords served as Sojaban, Okosho Bangashira, and Jisha-bugyo (a magistrate of temples and shrines) because of their lineage
Already in financial difficulty under Tanemasa, in 1691 it halved its retainer's wages for five years. Under the fifth lord, Totsuna KUTSUKI, an upheaval known as Kyoho's direct petition occurred as a result of the Great Famine of Kyoho, and the domain fell into confusion. Note that Totsuna permitted Goreihokai (the religious service for the spirit of the dead) for Mitsuhide AKECHI (start of the Goryo Festival).

Among the successive lords of the domain, the seventh lord, Nobutsuna KUTSUKI, and the eighth lord, Masatsuna KUTSUKI, were known as men of letters, and the former who wrote "Gidokugo" (miscellaneous notes) established the foundation for a domain school. The latter learned Western studies by associating with scholars of Western studies like Gentaku OTSUKI, and left many valuable books, such as the introduction of "Rangaku-kaitei" (a guide to foreign languages), "Taisei-yochizusetsu" (a foreign topography), and "Kokon-senka-kagami" (a reference book of coins). The ninth lord, Tomotsuna KUTSUKI, also wrote "Iwama no mizu," spring water issuing from among rocks (a moral book) to educate his people.

Under the pressure to rebuild its finances, the lords made several attempts to reform the administration of the domain, but repeatedly failed in their attempts. The reason for failure was that direct petitions were always made by the peasants. The direct petition in the Kyoho era mentioned above and one in 1860 at the end of Edo period were large in scale.

The Arima family

60,000 koku=>80,000 koku
The fudai daimyo (hereditary daimyo)

Toyouji ARIMA Genba no kami (Chief interpreter/diplomat)
Chamberlain> "appointed as the lord of the domain on December 3, 1600 - transferred on December 8, 1620"

The Imperial fief

Masakazu KOBORI

The Okabe family

50,000 koku
The fudai daimyo (hereditary daimyo)

Nagamori OKABE Naizen-no-kami (First cupbearer to the Emperor)> "appointed as the lord of the domain in August 1621 - transferred in September 1624"

The Inaba family

45,700 koku
The tozama daimyo (the allied daimyo of the Tokugawa shogun)

Norimichi INABA Governor of Awaji Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain in September, 1624 - suicide on 20 August 1648, and Kaieki (punishment by removal of samurai status and expropriation of territories)"

The Imperial fief

Tozaemon OGAWA and Heikuro HIKOSAKA

The Matsudaira (Fukozu) family

45,900 koku
The fudai daimyo

Tadafusa MATSUDAIRA (the lord of the Shimabara Domain) Tonomo-no-kami (Director of the Imperial Palace Keeper's Bureau)> "appointed as the lord of the domain on February 28, 1649 - transferred on June 8, 1669"

The Kutsuki family

32,000 koku
The fudai daimyo

Tanemasa KUTSUKI Governor of Iyo Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on June 8, 1669 - retired on June 25, 1708"[Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies)]

Tanemoto KUTSUKI Minbu-taifu (First assistant to the Minister)> "appointed as the lord of the domain on June 25, 1708 - died on November 24, 1721"[Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies)]

Tanetsuna KUTSUKI (the lord of the Fukuchiyama Domain) Governor of Iyo Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on December 25, 1721 - died on May 5, 1726"

Taneharu KUTSUKI Governor of Tosa Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on May 11, 1726 - retired on November 23, 1728"[Okoshogumi Bangashira (the chief of the bodyguard of the Shogun)]

Totsuna KUTSUKI Governor of Tosa Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on November 23, 1728 - died on August 30, 1770"[Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies)
Jisha-bugyo (a magistrate of temples and shrines)]

Tsunasada KUTSUKI Oi no kami (Chief storekeeper/Palace kitchens manager)> "appointed as the lord of the domain on October 24, 1770 - retired on August 6, 1780"

Nobutsuna KUTSUKI Governor of Iyo Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on August 22, 1780 - died on September 19, 1787"

Masatsuna KUTSUKI Governor of Omi Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on November 22, 1787 - retired on April 9, 1800"

Tomotsuna KUTSUKI Governor of Tosa Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on April 9, 1800 - died on December 20, 1805"[Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies)]

Tsunakata KUTSUKI Governor of Tosa Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on January 12, 1806 - retired on June 3, 1820"

Tsunaeda KUTSUKI Governor of Oki Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on June 6, 1820 - died on May 28, 1836"

Tsunaharu KUTSUKI Governor of Omi Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on July 29, 1836 - died on February 25, 1867"[Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies) twice]

Moritsuna KUTSUKI Governor of Omi Province> "appointed as the lord of the domain on April 17, 1867 - relieved of Governor's post on July 15, 1871"