Oda Clan (織田氏)

The Oda clan was a clan in Japan. It was a samurai family and peerage.

The origin of the family name was Oda no sho, Echizen Province (Echizen-cho, Nyu-gun, Fukui Prefecture). The original surname was Fujiwara (later deceived to a line of Kanmu-Heishi [Taira clan]). In fact, it is said that it was traced back to the Inbe clan. Like the Kai clan of Echizen and the Asakura clan, the Oda clan was a shugodai (deputy military governor) of the Shiba-Buei clan of Sankanrei (three families in the post of kanrei, or shogunal deputy) and had the second rank after the Kai clan. In the Muromachi period, the Oda clan served as Owari Shugodai (the acting Military Governor of Owari Province) in Owari Province which was under control of the Shiba-Buei clan of Sankanrei (three families in the post of kanrei, or shogunal deputy). As a result of inter-clan conflicts in the Sengoku period (period of warring state), Nobunaga ODA of the clan (three magistrates of Kiyosu Danjonojo family) wielded his influence greatly. When Nobunaga was killed in the Honnoji Incident immediately before unification of the whole country, the clan fractionalized internally and the family's vigor decreased as a powerful vassal Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI appeared. After the Battle of Sekigahara, the main branch of the family fell and became extinct, and the branch family lineage survived as tozama daimyo (nonhereditary feudal lord), koke, hatamoto, or chief retainer of Owari Domain and Akashi Domain in the Edo period. Some clans, such as Fujikake and Tsuda clans, did not have the family name of Oda.

Four Oda families of daimyo were nominated viscounts after the Meiji restoration. The family crest is a swallow-tailed butterfly, Oda Mokko-mon and so on. The toshiji (or toriji, character-in-common, one of two Chinese characters adopted by members of the same family) was 'nobu' (信).

Origin

The Oda clan self-designated as the Kanmu-Heishi (Taira clan) lineage whose ancestor was TAIRA no Chikazane who was said to be a child of TAIRA no Sukemori on its family tree, but it is also said that it descended from a Shinto priest of Tsurugi-jinja Shrine in Oda no sho, Echizen Province (Echizen-cho, Nyu-gun, Fukui Prefecture).

According to an archive "Nobumasa FUJIWARA/Sukehiro HYOGO Documentation" that remains in Odatsurugi-jinja Shrine, Nobumasa FUJIWARA and Masahiro FUJIWARA (father and son) who seemed to be descendents of FUJIWARA no Toshihito, a father-in-law of Chinju-fu shogun (Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North) (or FUJIWARA no Arihito who was a father-in-law of Toshihito and a local ruling family of Tsuruga [Inbe clan?]) who made an offering to Tsurugi-jinja Shrine on August 3, 1393, and wrote a document were associated with an ancestor of the Echizen Oda clan. In fact, it is said that Nobunaga ODA called himself 'Nobunaga FUJIWARA' for this reason, and he wrote his name 'Nobunaga FUJIWARA' in Atsuta-jingu Shrine in Atsuta Yatsugamura in November, 1549 (from "Kato bunsho"). On July 20, 1554, Nobunaga ODA donated a picture of SUGAWARA no Michizane to Atsuta-jingu Shrine (owned by Atsuta-jingu Shrine). 'Kanjuro FUJIWARA ODA' was written on the picture scroll.

There is another theory that states that Chikazane himself descended from the Inbe clan.

The family name of Oda (read as Ota in Echizen Province) refers to a place name. The place name of Oda originated from Orita to which the ancient Inbenogo Tsuruganokori Echizen Province was renamed in commemoration of a female weaver who came from Goryeo (Orita changed to Oda). The Oda clan in Owari Province was named after the name of the birthplace. All furigana (kana over or beside kanji to indicate pronunciation) printed over or beside kanji '織田' in "Kanei shoka keizuden" (the Genealogies of the Houses of the Kanei period) (publication in kana alone) are 'Ota' except one place. There is, therefore, a theory that states 'Ota' was a correct pronunciation from the Sengoku period to this time (the early Edo period).

Gekokujo (an inverted social order when the lowly reigned over the elite)

In the Muromachi period, the Oda clan became a hikan (low-level bureaucrat) of the daimyo (feudal lord), the Shiba clan which was a Kanryo family (family in the position of the shogunal deputy) of the Muromachi bakufu and which served as Shugo (Military Governor) of Echizen and Owari Provinces and some moved to Owari. The Oda clan that became Owari no Shugodai (the acting Military Governor of Owari Province) came to the front gradually, replaced the Shugo (Military Governor), the Shiba clan, which weakened at the war time of disorder, and became a daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) in the Sengoku period. The Oda clan was divided into the Iwakura Oda clan and the Kiyosu Oda clan and struggled against each other.

Emergence of Nobunaga ODA
Nobusada ODA of the Oda Danjo no jo family, which was one of three Karo (chief retainers) of the Kiyosu Oda clan and his son Nobuhide ODA got stronger than the main family due to their wisdom and economic power, Nobuhide stepped up his military operations and struggled for unification of Owari Province, and contended with the Saito clan in Mino Province, the Matsudaira clan in Mikawa Province and the Imagawa clan in Suruga Province to raise military prestige.

His son Nobunaga solved internal troubles of the Oda clan that occurred after the death of his father, expelled the Shiba clan that was the Shugo (Military Governor) of Owari Province, and unified Owari Province in a short time. In the Battle of Okehazama, he defeated the Imagawa clan that was Shugo (Military Governor) of Suruga Province and that intruded Owari Province, formed an alliance with the Tokugawa clan of the adjacent province, Mikawa Province, expanded its influence to Mino Province and Ise Province, went to the capital (Kyoto) and intervened in the race for successor of the Ashikaga Shogun family. Nobunaga made Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA a leader, but expelled him later. He actually exterminated the Muromachi bakufu. He defeated and exterminated the Asakura clan of Echizen Province and the Takeda clan of Kai Province, submitted resisting daimyo (feudal lords) with military power and promoted unification of the whole country. But Nobunaga was killed by Mitsuhide AKECHI in the Honnoji Incident. Since Nobutada ODA who was a legitimate son of Nobunaga and the family head of the Oda clan was also killed in Nijo-jo Castle, the Oda regime lost the leaders and collapsed.

Fate of orphans of Nobunaga
At the Kiyosu conference, Sanboshi (Hidenobu ODA) who was an orphan of Nobutada was nominated as a successor of the Oda clan and the real power of the Oda clan and the realm were transferred to Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI who became a conservator. Nobutaka ODA, the third son of Nobunaga, who opposed Hideyoshi, lost a battle and forced to kill himself. Hidenobu became the lord of Gifu-jo Castle in Mino Province under the Toyotomi regime later. Hidenobu was punished by being deprived of his fief because he took the part of the 'western' army in the Battle of Sekigahara.

Nobukatsu ODA, the second son of Nobunaga, had a fief of 1,000,000 koku as the lord of Kiyosu-jo Castle in connection of the Oda clan under the Toyotomi regime and became a minister of the center, but was punished by being deprived of his fief because he refused transference between domains after the Siege of Odawara. He was forgiven later and served Hideyoshi. A lot of sons of Nobunaga, such as Nobuhide ODA (chamberlain), the sixth son, Nobutaka ODA, the seventh son, and Nobuyoshi ODA, the eighth son, became vassals of Hideyoshi. However, many sons sided with the 'western' army in the Battle of Sekigahara and ruined.

Nobukane ODA, a younger brother of Nobunaga, was given favorable treatment as the lord of Tsu-jo Castle in Ise Province under the Toyotomi regime, but fell into disgrace with Hideyoshi and was punished by being deprived of his fief. He was forgiven later and served Hideyoshi again. Nagamasu ODA, another younger brother of Nobunaga, served Hideyoshi in charge of tea ceremony.

Descendants of Nobutada (legitimate son of Nobunaga)

Nobutada ODA, a legitimate son of Nobunaga ODA, was killed together with Nobunaga in the Honnoji Incident. His son, Hidenobu ODA (Sanboshi), succeeded the Oda Danjo no jo family according to the decision made at the Kiyosu conference. However, the real power was seized by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI and Hidenobu became a daimyo of Gifu-jo Castle in Mino Province with a fief of 133,000 koku. Since he sided with the 'western' army in the Battle of Sekigahara, he was punished by being deprived of his fief and exiled to Mt. Koya. The main branch of the Nobunaga family was exterminated after the death of Hidenobu.

"Kogen Bukan" (literally, the Directories of Bakufu Officialdom of the Minamoto clan of Omi Province; and this book relates the time of the last four generations of the Sasaki Rokkaku clan in the form of a diary) says that Hidenobu had a daughter and Ujisato ROKKAKU was born between the daughter and Yoshisato ROKKAKU. There is a record that descendants in the direct line of the Oda family were indigenized as goshi (country samurai), the Nishiyama clan and Orita clan, and if it is true, the descendants lost formal samurai status, but stayed in the samurai class and survived. If this statement is correct, descendents in the direct male and female lines of Nobunaga survived. However, since Ujisato ROKKAKU had no children, the direct female line ceased to exist. "Kansei Choshu Shokafu" (A record of family trees of samurai warriors of Edo bakufu) says that Hidenobu had no children in the official genealogy.

Descendants of Nobukatsu (the second son of Nobunaga)

The lineage that succeeded the genealogy of Nobunaga ODA after the Honnoji Incident and that continued to the Meiji period was mainly the descendents of the second son, Nobukatsu ODA, the seventh son, Nobutaka ODA, and the ninth son, Nobusada ODA. Nobukatsu allied with Ieyasu TOKUGAWA and fought against Hideyoshi in the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute, but conciliated and yielded allegiance to him. After Odawara Campaign, he conflicted with Hideyoshi regarding transference between domains and was punished by being deprived of his fief. He was forgiven after a while and served Hideyoshi and his son Hideyori TOYOTOMI as otogishu (adviser). He was approved as an independent daimyo by the Tokugawa bakufu after the fall of the Toyotomi clan.

For descendents of Nobukatsu ODA, the fourth son Nobuyoshi ODA became a daimyo of Obata Domain of Kozuke Province and later the Takahata Domain and Tendo Domain of Dewa Province with a fief of 20,000 koku. The fifth son, Takanaga ODA, became a daimyo of the Uda-Matsuyama Domain in Yamato no kuni, and later Kaibara Domain of Tanba Province. Because both families were descendents of Nobunaga, they received preferential treatment like landed daimyo though they had small domains, until they were involved in Uda Disturbance and the Meiwa Incident in the middle of Edo period. In modern times, both families were raised to the peerage and given the title of a viscount.

Nagamasa ODA (hatamoto [bannermen])), the third son of the lord of the Uda-Matsuyama Domain, Takanaga ODA, was given 3,000 koku and moved out and set up a new branch family, became kotaiyoriai (alternate yoriai, a family status of samurai warriors in the Edo period) and his descendents became Koke hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu, who were in a privileged family under Tokugawa Shogunate). Kazuma ODA, an artist who played an active role from the Meiji period to the Showa period, was a direct descendent. Nobukiyo ODA (hatamoto [bannermen]), the second son of Nagamasa was given 300 koku, moved out and set up a new branch family, and became hatamoto.

The illegitimate children of the Oda families of both the Tendo Domain and Kaibara Domain were given a family name of Tsuda and moved out and set up new branch families as vassals. They include, specifically, the lineage of Yorifusa TSUDA, the fifth son of Takanaga ODA, the lord of the Uda-Matsuyama Domain, and Nagasato TSUDA, the tenth son of Nobuchika ODA, the lord of the Takahata Domain.

Descendents of other sons of Nobunaga

The lineage of Nobutaka ODA, the seventh son of Nobunaga ODA, became a hatamoto (bannermen) of the Tokugawa bakufu and later became a Koke hatamoto (direct retainer of the bakufu, who were in a privileged family under Tokugawa Shogunate). He had a fief of about 2000 koku in Omi Province. Nobunari ODA (figure skater) (the 17th generation from Nobunaga) is said to be a direct descendent of Nobutaka. Since the seventh, Nobunao ODA succeeded as an adopted son, however, Nobushige is a descendent of Takanaga, the fifth son of Nobukatsu, and the second son of Nobunaga in the lineage.
(The family tree is Nobukatsu, Nobunaga, Nagamasa, Nagataka, Nobuyosh, Nobunao in chronological order, and the number of generations counted from Nobunaga remains unchanged.)

The lineage of Nobusada ODA, the ninth son of Nobunaga ODA, served the Tokugawa bakufu as hatamoto (bannermen) and later became Koke hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu, who were in a privileged family under Tokugawa Shogunate). They had a fief of about 1000 koku in Omi Province. The fief was reduced to about 700 koku due to subdivision of the domain. Sadanori ODA, the third son of the second Sadaoki ODA, and Sadateru ODA, the fourth son, moved out and set up new branch families and became hatamoto. Izumi ODA who served Iesato TOKUGAWA, the lord of Shizuoka Domain, was a descendent of Sadateru.

Nagatsune TSUDA, a grandson of Sadaoki ODA, was a legitimate child of Koke Oda clan, but lost the position of the legitimate child due to illness and lived in seclusion in Kawaidera Village, Kanzaki Country, Omi Province. Shitsushitsu ODA (Masae, the first daughter of Sadahide TSUDA), who was one of his descendents, was known as a painter in the late Edo period.

Nobutsugu ODA, the first son of Nobusada ODA, could not take over as head of the family due to illness, Sadamoto ODA, the first son of Nobutsugu, was employed by Mitsutomo TOKUGAWA, the lord of the Owari Domain, and promoted to Karo (chief retainer). Nagaoki ODA, the second son of Sadamoto, moved out and set up a new branch family and became an Owari clansman.

Descendents of younger brother of Nobunaga

Lineage of Nobuyuki ODA

Two families of descendents of Nobuyuki (Nobukatsu) ODA, a younger brother of Nobunaga ODA, became hatamoto. Masazumi ODA, a grandson of Nobuyuki, served Takatora TODO and Hideyori TOYOTOMI, and after the downfall of the Toyotomi clan, he became hatamoto with a fief of 2000 koku in Omi Province. His son Nobutaka ODA (hatamoto) gave 500 koku to his third son, Nobuhide ODA, and got him move out and set up a new branch family.

Lineage of Nobukane ODA

Nobukane ODA, a younger brother of Nobunaga ODA, sided with the 'western' army in the Battle of Sekigahara, but was allowed to survive as a daimyo. He was the lord of the Kaibara Domain of Tanba Province, but his grandson Nobukatsu ODA had no children and his family line became extinct. At the time of dismissal and deprivation of the position, Nobumasa ODA, the fourth son of Nobukane, was given 3000 koku and employed as hatamoto by the bakufu.

Nobushige ODA, the first son of Nobukane, was a daimyo with a fief of 10,000 koku in Hayashi Domain, Ise Province, but after the death of his father, he made a dispute with his younger brother over inheritance of his father's territory and was punished by being deprived of his fief. His descendents became vassals of the Hosokawa clan of Kumamoto Domain, Higo Province.

Lineage of Nagamasu ODA (Uraku school)

Urakusai or Nagamasu ODA, the younger brother of Nobunaga ODA, sided with the 'eastern' army in the Battle of Sekigahara, gained more territories, and became a daimyo of Mashita, Settu Province with a fief of 30,000 koku. However, he assisted Hideyori TOYOTOMI in Osaka-jo Castle after the war. After the fall of the Toyotomi clan, Nagamasu retired and gave 10,000 koku to Nagamasa ODA (daimyo), the fourth son, and Naonaga ODA, the fifth son. A descendent of Nagamasa became the lord of Yamato-Kaiju Domain and Shibamura Domain and a descendant of Naonaga became the lord of Yamato-Yanagimoto Domain. They could not receive special treatment like daimyo of the lineage of Nobukatsu ODA. In modern times, both families were raised to the peerage and given the title of a viscount. The illegitimate children of each of the lords had different family names, such as Watarai and Mizoguchi, and became vassals.

After the Battle of Sekigahara, Nagataka ODA, the first son of Nagamasu ODA, became a daimyo of Nomura Domain, Mino Province with a fief of 10,000 koku, but his son Naganori ODA was deprived of his fief because he had no children. However, a descendent of Nagamasa ODA, a younger brother of Naganori, became a vassal of the Maeda clan of Kaga Domain.