Sakanoue clan (坂上氏)

Sakanoue was one of the Japanese clans. SAKANOUE no Tamuramaro, who was the first Seii Taishogun (commander-in-chief of the expeditionary force against the barbarians), was the representative of the Sakanoue clan. Later, the Sakanoe clan gained the following hereditary titles: Kiyomizu-dera betto (Chief Priest at Kiyomizu-dera Temple), Chinju-fu shogun (Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North), Uhyoefu (Right Division of Middle Palace Guards), Yamato no kuni no kami (governor of Yamato Province), Myobo hakase (Professor of law), Saemon-fu taijo (Senior Lieutenant at the Left Division of Outer Palace Guards), Kebiishi taijo (chief official with judicial and police powers) and so on.

The Sakanoue clan is said to have been the descendant of Emperor Ling of the Later Han Dynasty, and the ancestor of the clan is said to have been Prince Achi (Achi no Omi), who was naturalized in Japan in the era of Emperor Ojin. Prince Achi (Achi no Omi) is considered to be the child of 石秋王, who was the child of the last emperor of the Later Han Dynasty, Kentei. The successive descendants of Prince Achi were '高尊王, TSUGA no Atai, 阿多倍王,' and so on, and the grandchild of 阿多倍王 is said to have been the founder of Sakanoue clan 志努 (Another theory suggests that 志努 was the child of Tsuka no Omi, who was the child of Achi no Omi). SAKANOUE no 志努 had several children such as 志多、刀禰、鳥、駒子. SAKANOUE no Tamuramaro was their descendant. The Sakanoue clan is blood related to the Ookura clan.

The genealogy and descendants of Sakanoue clan

The Sakanoue clan was based in Sakanoue, Soekami-gun, Yamato province. SAKANOUE no 弓束, the child of SAKANOUE no 駒子, who was one of the children of SAKANOUE no 志努, was followed by 首名, Okina, 大国, Inukai, SAKANOUE no Karitamaro, and SAKANOUE no Tamuramaro. As for the successive family members from 駒子 to Karitamaro, their achievements have been clarified to some extnet. There are two known facts, one is that SAKANOUE no Okina and SAKANOUE no Kunimaro sided with Emperor Tenmu, and did good performances in the Jinshin War, the other is that SAKANOUE no Inukai, who was recognized for his martial arts skills by Emperor Shomu, took the first step toward becoming a warrior.

Tamuramaro is said to have had many children including SAKANOUE no Ono, SAKANOUE no Hirono, SAKANOUE no Kiyono, SAKANOUE no Masano, and SAKANOUE no Haruko, who was the wife of Emperor Kanmu, as for the situation in the Sakanoue clan after Tamuramaro, it was SAKANOUE no Ono who had been a feudal lord of Hirano Sho, Sumiyoshi-gun Settsu Province (present-day Hirano-ward, Osaka city) that succeeded to the reigns of the head family of Sakanoue clan. however, as Ono died before his time, his younger brother SAKANOUE no Hirono took over Hirano Sho and reins of the family. After that, as Hirano also died early, his younger brother SAKANOUE no Kiyono scceeded to his position. SAKANOUE no Masamichi, who was the next generation of Kiyono, was engaged in operating of Tohoku district, the operation of which had been started by Tamuramaro, and operating of Hirano Sho, the operation of which had been started by his uncle Hirono (it is not clear whether Masamichi was the son of Kiyono or Hirono). SAKANOUE no Yoshikage, the son of Masamichi, played an active role as a warrior in Tohoku region, and his son SAKANOUE no Korenori, and his grandson SAKANOUE no Mochiki became famous as kajin (waka poets), then, their descendants successively served to Kebiishicho (Office of Police and Judicial Chief), where they took over the positions of Myoho hakase (professor of law) and Kebiishi police officer.

SAKANOUE no Mineo, the son of Hirono (if Masamichi was the son of Hirono, Mineo could have been the elder brother of Masamichi), was in the capital where he served as jiju (Imperial Household Agency staff), then SAKANOUE no 峯盆, the grandson of Hirono, and SAKANOUE no Yukimatsu, the great-grandson of Hirono, was also in charge of operating Tohoku district and serving in the capital. According to the records at the SAKANOUE clan's Uji-dera Temple (temple built for praying a clan's glory), after Masamichi, Yukimatsu SAKANOUE took over the management of Hirano Sho.

Hirano Shichimyo-ke (seven branch families of Hirano clan) including the Sueyoshi clan, were generated from the Hirano clan founded by SAKANOUE no Yukimatsu (according to the record of Choho-ji Temple, the genealogy of the Sueyoshi clan) then they supported the head famiy Sakanoue clan which operated Hirano Sho, successively referred to themselves as "Minbu", and were in charge of operatting Hirano, an autonomous city in the medieval period which was a match for Sakai City. The head family Sakanoue clan, successively maintained matrimonial relations with Kuge (Court nobles) and they lived in a mansion near Choho-ji Temple until they moved to Tokyo in the Meiji period. Durint the Edo Period, Hirano Shichimyo family became daikan (local governor) of the Bakufu, and controlled the fief yielding 50 thousand koku of rice. Later, descendants of the Sueyoshi clan were divided into two, namely the Higashi Sueyoshi clan (the Suyoshi Kanbe family) and the Nishi Sueyoshi clan (the Sueyoshi Magozaemon family), and even to this day, the two clans still reside in Hirano.

Clans which are considered to be the descendants of Sakanoue clan are as follows.

The Hirano clan - the descendant of SAKANOUE no Hirono nicknamed 'Hirano-dono' originated from SAKANOUE no Yukimatsu (Yukimasu HIRANO), the son of Akitajo no suke Gon no kami SAKANOUE no 峯盆, the three generations after Hirono. The Hirano clan was a Meika (important family) which is said to have developed the Hirano Sho area in Settsu Province (present-day Hirano-ward, Osaka City).

The Sueyoshi clan - the descendant of Hirano clan originated from 平野利方(末吉勘兵衛利方), the younger brother of Rikichi Hirano, who was Hayato no Kami (the chief of the Imperial Guards) of Hirano Sho. The Sueyoshi clan was the highest rank of the Hirano Shichimyo families with a long history, which was engaged in the administration of an autonomous city 'Hirano district' in the Warring States period. The Sueyoshi clan was involved in trading with Spain and Portugal, trading with foreign countries which had a shogunal license called Syuinjo, and operating Fushimi Ginza (an organization in charge of casting and appraising of silver), and served as a local governor of Tokugawa Bakufu during the Edo period.

The Tamura Clan - originated from 古哲 Tamura, who was the great-grandson of SAKANOUE no Kiyono, in Tamura-gun, Mutsu Province. The Tamura clan was a leading Daigozoku (large local ruling family) in Oshu (northern Honshu); one of its members became the lawful wife of Masamune DATE, and the clan continued to flourish as a famous Daimyo family (feudal lord family) during the Edo period.

The Tokuyama clan - Zaichi ryoshu (resident landholder) in Mino Province. The Tokuyama clan was a Gozoku (local ruling family) which claimed to be the descendant of SAKANOUE no Sadamori, the younger brother of Tamuramaro.

The Kojima clan - Zaichi ryoshu (resident landholder) in Kii Province. The Kojima clan is said to have descended from SAKANOUE no Mochiki. Although the head family of the Kojima clan took sides with Toyotomi and perished in Osaka no Eki (The Siege of Osaka), later its branch family became the head of a large village.

The members of Sakanoue clan
SAKANOUE no Okina - lived in the late 7th century. He played an important role in the Jinshin War, taking sides with Prince Oama.

SAKANOUE no Kunimaro - He is possibly the brother of Okina, and is also said to be Okuni's father, but the truth is unknown.

SAKANOUE no Okuni - the son of Okina
He was Ueji no daijo (Senior Lieutenant of the Right Guards)
He lived from the end of 7th century to the early 8th century.

SAKANOUE no Inukai - lived from early to late 8th century. He was ranked as Shoshiinojo (Senior Fourth Rank Upper Grade). He was a warrior favored by Emperor Shomu for his valor.

SAKANOUE no Karitamaro - the father of Tamuramaro. He was ranked as Jusani (Junior Third Rank). He served as Chuefu chujo (Middle Captain of the Inner-Most Palace Guards). He was the Shogun who subdued the Rebellion of Emi no Oshikatsu.

SAKANOUE no Tamuramaro - the first Seii Taishogun (literally "great general" who subdues the barbarians). He was ranked as Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank). He served as Dainagon (a chief councillor of state). He was the Shogun who accomplished the suppression of the northern barbarians. He was conferred the Junii title (Junior Second Rank) after his death.

SAKANOUE no Takakai - the younger brother of Tamuramaro and the lord of Oga no Sho. He served as Yamato no kami (the governor of Yamato Province). He was ranked as Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank). He constructed the Oga Hachiman-jinja Shrine.

SAKANOUE no Ono - the son of Tamuramaro
He served as Mutsu no Gon no suke (provisional vice governor of Mutsu Province). He succeeded as the head of the family, but died young.

SAKANOUE no Hirono - the son of Tamuramaro
He could possibly be the father of Masamichi. He served as Uhyoe no kami (Captain of the Right Division of Middle Palace Guards). He was ranked as Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank). Known as 'Hirano-dono,' he was the kaihatsu-ryoshu (local notables who actually developed the land) of Hirano Sho in Settsu Province (present day Hirano-ward, Osaka City), and also had a reputation as a warrior. He is said to be the ancestor of the Hirano clan which originated there.

SAKANOUE no Kiyono - the son of Tamuramaro
He served as Uhyoe no kami (Captain of the Right Division of Middle Palace Guards). He was ranked as Shoshiinojo (Senior Fourth Rank Upper Grade). He lived in Adachi-gun, Mutsu Province. Both his son Masamune and grandson Yoshimune became Chinju-fu shogun (Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North), and maintained their authorities.

SAKANOUE no Masano - the son of Tamuramaro
He served as Uhyoe no kami (Captain of the Right Division of Middle Palace Guards). He became Kiyomizu-dera betto (Chief Priest at Kiyomizu-dera Temple). He was ranked as Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank).

SAKANOUE no Haruko - the daughter of Tamuramaro
She became the wife of Emperor Kanmu. She was the mother of Prince Kadoi. In her old age, she lived in Hirano Sho under her brother, Hirono's care, and found the SAKANOUE clan's Choho-ji nunnery.

SAKANOUE no Sadamori - the son of SAKANOUE no 鷹主, the younger brother of Tamuramaro
He served as Tango no kami (the governor of Tango Province). He is said to have been the ancestor of the Tokuyama clan in Mino Province. He had a reputation as a warrior.

SAKANOUE no Takimori - the grandson of Takakai
He served as Ukon no jo (Lieutenant of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards). He became Yamato no kami (the governor of Yamato Province). He was a warrior in the Jogan era (859-877) and highly trusted by Emperor Seiwa.

SAKANOUE no Yukimatsu - the son of Kiyomizu-dera betto (Chief Priest at Kiyomizu-dera Temple) SAKANOUE no 峯盆, who was born three generations after SAKANOUE no Hirono. He served as Akitajo no suke (provincial governor of Akita-jo castle) and Gon no kami (Provisional Governor) of Dewa Province.
Yukimatsu HIRANO (Yukimasu)

SAKANOUE no Masamichi - the younger brother of 当峯, who was the son of Kiyono, or the younger brother of 清野, who was the son of Hirono.
He served as Sahyoe no suke (Assistant Captain of the Left Division of Middle Palace Guards)
He became Mutsu no Kami (governer of Mutsu Province)
He lived from 813 to 867. He is said to have founded Kumata-jinja Shrine in Hirano Sho, Settsu Province.

SAKANOUE no Yoshikage - the son of Masamichi
He became Mutsu Gon no suke (provisional vice governor of Mutsu Province), and aided Chinju-fu shogun (Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North) ONO no Harukaze, playing an important military role in suppressing the rebels in the Gangyo War (a rebellion staged by Ezo (northerners) in Akita-jo castle). He was promoted to Jushiijo (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade), and served as Uma no kami (Captain of the Right Division of Bureau of Horses) and Ukon no shosho (Minor Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards).

SAKANOUE no Korenori - Kajin (Waka poet) lived from the end of 9th century to the middle of 10th century
He was ranked as Jugoi (Junior Fifth Rank). He served as Kaga no suke (Assistant governor of Kaga Province). He became Kiyomizu-dera betto (Chief Priest at Kiyomizu-dera Temple). He was not only a kajin but also a brilliant player of Kemari (Japanese ancient Imperial court game like kick-ball). He was one of the Thirty-six Master Poets. A collection of his waka poems is called "Korenori Shu". His waka poems were selected in such anthologies as Kokin Wakashu (A Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poetry), Shinkokin Wakashu (New Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poetry), Gosen Wakashu (Later selected collection of Japanese poetry), Shui wakashu (Collection of Gleanings of Japanese Poems), and Shinshui wakashu (New Collection of Gleanings of Japanese Poems).

SAKANOUE no Mochiki - the son of Korenori
He was a Kajin (waka poet) from the early to the late 10th century. He was a wakadokoro yoryudo (a key member of waka house). He became Mino no suke (assistant governor of Mino Province), then was promoted to Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) and served as Iwami no kami (governor of Iwami Province). He was a kajin (waka poet) whose poems were chosen for Gosen Wakashu and other collections. He was a selection judge for the Gosen Wakashu (Later selected collection of Japanese poetry).

SAKANOUE no Atsunori - the son of Mochiki
He served as Sanshi (an accountant) at Kazue (budget bureau).

SAKANOUE no Norichika - the son of Atsunori
There is a record that he was appointed as Kazue no kami (the head of budget bureau).

SAKANOUE no Sadashige - the son of SAKANOUE no Norichika, who was Kazue no kami. He was ranked as Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade). He served as Kawachi no kami (the governer of Kawachi Province). He was also a Kajin (waka poet) whose waka poem was selected in Goshui wakashu.

SAKANOUE no Akikane - lived from the late 11th century to the early 12th century. He is said to be the writer of a book titled 'Hososhiyo-sho' (The Essentials for the Judiciary) related to criminal justice. He was also a Kajin whose waka poems were selected in the Senzai Wakashu (Collection of Japanese Poems of a Thousand Years) and the Shika wakashu (a kind of anthology of poems collected by Imperial command). Akikane's father SAKANOUE no Norimasa, (who was Sadashige's adoptive son, and one of the ancestors of the Nakahara clan which specialized in Myobodo (study of Codes)), reverted to his original family name, Nakahara.
Due to this, Akikane sometimes penned his name as 'Akikane NAKAHARA,' but usually used the name, 'SAKANOUE.'

SAKANOUE no Kaneshige - lived from early to late 12th century. He was the son of Akikane. He was a Myobo hakase (professor of law) at the time of the Hogen War and the Heiji War. During the Heiji War, he accepted defeat from the general FUJIWARA no Shigenori, the second son of FUJIWARA no Shinzei.

SAKANOUE no Akimoto - lived from 1138 to May 7, 1210. He is said to be the author of 'Hososhiyo-sho' (The Essentials for the Judiciary) and 'Saibansiyo-sho' (The Essentials for judicial proceedings). He was the son of Kaneshige, and the grandson of Akikane. He was assinged to serve as Myobo (law) hakase in 1185.

SAKANOUE no Sadatoki - Kebiishi (an official with judicial and police powers) at the end of the 10th century.

SAKANOUE no Tokimichi - Kebiishi (an official with judicial and police powers) at the beginning of the 11th century. He was the son of Sadatoki. He was listed in 'Yukichika-ki' (The diary of Yukichika) as Saemon-fusho (Left division of palace gate guards) and Kebiishi (an official with judicial and police powers).

SAKANOUE no Koreyasu - lived in the late 18th century
He was the elder brother of Yoshikage, and the descendant of Tsunekage. He was called Machiguchi daihanji (a judge) and Machiguchi Shimousa-no-kami (the governor of Shimousa Province).

SAKANOUE no Korehisa - the son of Koreyasu
He was born in 1805, but his age at death unknown. His nickname was SAKANOUE no Machiguchi goi, and he served as Ecchu no kami (Governor of Ecchu Province).

The members of the Sakanoue clan with unknown lineage

SAKANOUE no Imatsugu - Geki (Secretary of the Grand Council of State) and Kiden hakase (the professor of the histories) in the early Heian period. He was one of the editors of 'Nihon Koki' (Later Chronicle of Japan).

Sakanoue no Tsuneyuki - a government official (lower or middle ranked), stationed in Kyoto. He served as Sadaishi (First Secretary of the Left). It is mentioned in 'Nihongi Ryaku' (Summary of Japanese Chronologies, that he was attacked by a group of robbers.

SAKANOUE no Katsutaka - Busho (Japanese military commander) who sided with Masakado in TAIRA no Masakado's War.

SAKANOUE no Haruzumi - a warrior from Ito-gun, Kii Province in the late 10th century. He was a retainer of TAIRA no Koretoki. He appears in 'Konjaku Monogatari-shu' (The Tale of Times Now Past). He is said to have been the descendant of SAKANOUE no Takakai.

SAKANOUE no Kiyozumi - lived in the late Kamakura period
He was a Gokenin (shogunal retainer) in Kii Province.

Others

杉原氏盛 - Jitoshiki (manager and lord of manor) of Kada Sho in Kii Province
He is said to have been the desendant of Tamuramaro, and his main name was Sakanoue.

The Kuroki clan - the descendant of the Yamatonoaya clan

Achi-jinja Shrine - the Shito shrine located in 1 Honmachi, Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture, derived from Prince Achi (Achi no Omi), who was the ancestor of Sakanoue and Yamatonoaya clans,