Watanabe-shi (the Watanabe clan) (渡辺氏)
Watanabe-shi (the Watanabe clan) or Watabe-shi (the Watabe clan) is the Japanese surname, the clan name, the family name, or the last name.
As the different surnames with the same sound, there are 渡邊, 渡邉, 渡部 (Watanobe or Watabu), 亘鍋, 綿鍋, 綿奈部, 綿辺, 渡那部, 渡邁, 渡鍋(Watashinabe) and 綿部.
As the same surnames with the different sound (pronounced as Watanobe), there are 渡野辺, 渡延 or 渡野邊.
As the same surnames with the different sound (pronounced as Watari), there are 渡利、渡里、亘理、渡、亘、渉、弥、和多利、済、日理、日理、和田利.
As the same surname with the different sound (pronounced as Watarida), there is 渡田.
The lineage of MINAMOTO no Toru of Saga-Genji
The patriarch of the Watanabe clan of Saga-Genji was MINAMOTO no Toru who was the Minister of the Left and the Emperor Saga's prince. MINAMOTO no Tsuko, a grandson of Toru, was appointed as Governor of Musashi Province and left the capital Kyoto for Mita, Adachi County in Musashi Province (present-day Konosu City, Saitama Prefecture). MINAMOTO no Tsuko stayed in the place and became a samurai, carrying Mita, the name of the place, as his surname. Tsuko MITA's son was Atsuru MITA (Atsuru Genji MITA).
Watanabe, Settsu Province and Settsu-Genji
MINAMOTO no Atsuru (Atsuru MITA)'s son, MINAMOTO no Tsuna was adopted by MINAMOTO no Atsushi, an adopted son-in-law of MINAMOTO no Mitsunaka who formed an armed group consisting of Seiwa-Genji (the Minamoto clan originated from the Emperor Seiwa) in Tada, Settsu Province (present-day Kawanishi City, Hyogo Prefecture), and lived in Watanabe, Settsu Province (present-day Chuo Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture), his mother's hometown. He called himself WATANABE no Tsuna (渡辺源次綱; '源次' was a common name for the legitimate child since the era of Tsuna's father) and became the founder of the Watanabe clan. WATANABE no Tsuna became a retainer of MINAMOTO no Yorimitsu of Settsu-Genji (the Minamoto clan based in Settsu), who was the brother of the wife of MINAMOTO no Atsushi, Tsuna's father-in-law. He is regarded as the leading member of the four loyal retainers of Yorimitsu.
As a retainer of MINAMOTO no Yorimasa who, as a descendent of MINAMOTO no Yorimitsu, was based in Watanabe no Tsu in Settsu Province, the Watanabe clan had Habuku WATANABE, MINAMOTO no Sazuku, MINAMOTO no Tsuranu, MINAMOTO no Okoru, and Kio WATANABE participate in the Hogen Disturbance. They fought against the large force of the Taira family at the Battle of Uji during the anti-Heike uprising staged by MINAMOTO no Yorimasa, and died in the battle.
Oe Mikuriya Sokan (the military officer in charge of imperial manors in Oe) and Takiguchi no Musha (samurai guards of the Imperial Residence)
The descendants of WATANABE no Tsuna formed the 'Watanabe Party,' an armed group based in Watanabe no Tsu in Settsu Province, the seaport area at the mouth of the Kyu-Yodo-gawa River and were involved in the water transportation business in the Seto Inland Sea. They became the leaders of the Setouchi (Seto Inland Sea) Navy and also took charge of Oe Mikuriya (the imperial manors in Oe). In Kyoto, in addition to serving by succession as Takiguchi no musha (samurai guards of the Imperial Residence and the forerunner of the Konoe troops), the members of the Watanabe clan held some central governmental posts including Emonfu (Headquarters of the Outer Palace Guards) and Hyoefu (Headquarters of the Middle Palace Guards).
Sumiyoshi, Settsu Province and the Watanabe Party
The Watanabe clan members were engaged in the imperial purification ritual (Yasoshima Festival) held in the beach of Sumiyoshi County, Settsu Province. Furthermore, they were scattered all over Japan through the maritime traffic, producing the clan's branch families in various places. The Matsuura clan in Hizen Province and its branch clan, the Matsuura Party, the Kamachi clan in Chikugo Province related to the Yamashiro clan who belonged to the Matsuura clan, Masaru WATANABE (military commander in the Sengoku period) who was the senior vassal of the Mori clan, and Tads WATANABE, a vassal of the Toyota clan, are the descendants. Also, the Fuji family of Zama-ninja Shrine in Osaka is a descendant of 渡辺契, and the shake (family of Shinto priests serving a shrine on a hereditary basis) of Tsuyunoten-jinja Shrine at Sonezaki, Osaka, commonly known as Ohatsu-tenjin, is a descendant of 渡辺薫. The Watanabe clan, a fudai daimyo (a daimyo in hereditary vassal to the Tokugawa family) starting with Moritsuna WATANEBE, claimed to be a descendant of the Watanabe clan.
The Watanabe clan of Mikawa Province as Tokugawa fudai
The Watanabe clan members in later days, who claimed to be the descendants of WATANABE no Tsuna, are reportedly descended from his great grandchildren (源次正, 小源次正, 源公頼). According to a genealogical record, they served as the direct vassals of the Ashikaga Shogun family, and later moved to Mikawa Province. Although the Watanabe Party members in Mikawa worked well for the Matsudaira clan for generations, they, as the followers of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism), rebelled against Ieyasu MATSUDAIRA (Ieyasu TOKUGAWA) when the Mikawa Ikko Ikki (an uprising of Ikko sect followers in Mikawa Province) broke out, and many members of the party died in the battle.
Moritsuna WATANABE, a survivor of the Mikawa Ikko Ikki, who received a pardon from a Ieyasu after the suppression of the uprising and served him, was given the territory of 3,000 koku crop yields in Hiki County, Musashi Province when he entered the Kanto region in 1590. In 1613, Moritsuna was assigned to the Owari-Tokugawa family and received the territory of 14,000 koku crop yields in Terabe, Kamo County, Mikawa Province (present-day Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture). Shigetsuna, the legitimate son of Moritsuna, became the chief retainer of the Owari Domain, and his descendants inherited the territory of 10,000 koku crop yields as the senior vassals of the Owari Domain. After the Meiji Restoration, the descendants of the Watanabe clan were raised to the peerage and baronized.
Shigetsuna passed down the territory in Musashi of 3,000 koku crop yields, which was given to his father directly from bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), to his third son Tadatsuna. After the early death of Tadatsuna, the territory was given to his younger brother Yoshitsuna who became the jikisan (immediate) hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu). Appointed as a Guard of Osaka-jo Castle, Yoshistsuna received the territories in Izumi and Kawachi Provinces totaling 10,000 koku crop yields and was raised to daimyo (feudal lord). After having stayed in Izumi Obadera, his descendants moved to Hakata (Izumi City, Osaka Prefecture) and served as the lord of the Hakata Domain of 13,000 koku crop yields. This family was appointed viscount during the Meiji period.
Japanese housewives who are engaged in foreign exchange trades can have an influence on the world economy. They are sometimes called Mrs. Watanabe collectively.