Fukuchiyama City (福知山市)

Fukuchiyama City is the second oldest city in Kyoto Prefecture and is located in the Tanba region in the northern part (old Tanba Province) of Kyoto Prefecture.

Summary

It is said that people lived in the surrounding area including Fukuchiyama City from the beginning of the Jomon period; many influential powerful families are thought to have lived here because many ancient tombs and dwellings were found across a wide area. A central place was not established because most lands were used as manors thereafter, but in the Sengoku period (period of Warring States), Mitsuhide AKECHI who was ordered to territorialize Tanba defeated Nobufusa SHIOMI, and established the modern-style Fukuchiyama-jo Castle (福智山城, later written as 福知山城) after repairing the Yokoyama-jo Castle which was the castle where Shiomi dwelled. Thereafter, Fukuchiyama developed into a castle town.

Mitsuhide was successful in executing flood prevention for the Yura-gawa River, which often caused heavy flood damage; today, similar work continues uninterrupted, continuing the history of his flood prevention works. Additionally, due to his favorable administration which included exemption from Jishisen tax (land tax), etc., Mitsuhide is extremely respected in Fukuchiyama even though the length of his reign was short, as shown by his enshrinement in Goryo-jinja Shrine (Fukuchiyama City); later, the Japanese bellflower, which was used as a family emblem of the Akechi clan, was also designated as the City flower, etc.

During the Meiji period, the Fukuchiyama Line, which was used as a military railroad, was improved by setting Fukuchiyama as a connecting point; this was carried out due to the fact that expanding the transportation network connecting Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe area) and Maizuru Port, which was one of the major military ports in Japan, was seen as an urgent issue in preparation for the Russo-Japanese War. Moreover, Fukuchiyama flourished as a 'Railroad City' due to several factors: The Sanin Main Line was upgraded eleven years after and the Railroad Administration was established in Fukuchiyama City, a rare event to occur besides prefectural capitals. From around 1987, the delayed improvement of expressways has started; many major companies are located in Fukuchiyama due to the convenient transportation and these companies comprise the urban area of Fukuchiyama, centered around Fukuchiyama City.

On the other hand, while Fukuchiyama used to flourish in the production of specialty goods and various agricultural products such as indigo-dyeing, such industries have declined over time due to a shortage of successors and have disappeared almost completely. Currently heavy industries and commerce are the main industries of Fukuchiyama due to the development of Osadano Industrial Park (comparatively large inland industrial parks), which started in 1974 after the rapid economic growth; the development of this park has spawned some movements by educational institutions to implement a comprehensive curriculum to teach former traditions and history, together with the formation of private organizations which aim to carry out such activities.

City symbol

The current city symbol of Fukuchiyama was chosen from about 2,000 entries from across Japan and was established in 1938; it was designed by laying side-by-side the nine katakana characters of 'Fu,' the initial letter of 'Fukuchiyama'; this design expresses 'Fuku' (good luck) with the 'nine Fu' pronounced as 'Fuku.'
The city emblem of Fukuoka established in 1967 was also designed by laying the nine katakana characters of 'Fu' side by side, therefore the two cities have this point in common.

Dokko-chan

Dokko of Dokko-chan originates from a unique phrase of 'Dokkoise' repeated in the Fukuchiyama Ondo dance song; Dokko-chan is based on the motif of a dancer. Additionally, it is said that the phrase of Dokkoise originated from calls in carrying stones for fences during the building of Fukuchiyama-jo Castle.

Shuten-doji

There is an Oni (ogre) legend that Shuten-doji used to live in the Oe-yama mountain range; the Oni is adored by the people, who hold the 'Oni Matsuri' (ogre festival) as a commercial and industrial event. In Oe-cho (municipal town before merger) at the foot of Oe-yama mountain range, a town was created based on the Oni and there are many things related to the Oni such as a statue of the Oni designed by Toru NARITA, a corridor with Oni-faced pillars and a Japan Ogre Exchange Museum, etc. Shuten-doji is also used as a character of the City even after the merger.

Mitsuhide-kun, Hiroko-san

Image character of Fukuchiyama Tourist Association
The characters are modeled on Mitsuhide AKECHI and his wife, Hiroko AKECHI, and were designed by Sobe AMAKO known as the cartoonist for Ninja Boy Rantaro.

Chronology

From the Sengoku period to the Edo period (from 1467 to 1867)

1579: Mitsuhide AKECHI territorialized Tanba (conquered the Yokoyama-jo Castle).

1580: This place was renamed as 'Fukuchiyama' through the building of the Fukuchiyama-jo Castle.

1600: A clan was established by Toyouji ARIMA (a castle town seemed to be formed during this period). Thereafter, the clan was named as Fukuchiyama clan (the name under the three-type administration system in the Meiji period) under the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

From the Meiji period to World War II (from 1878 to 1945)

1871: Fukuchiyama Prefecture was established by Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures).

November 1871: Fukuchiyama Prefecture was integrated into Toyooka Prefecture.

1876: Toyooka Prefecture was divided, then integrated into Hyogo Prefecture and Kyoto Prefecture, forming Amata-gun, Kyoto Prefecture.

1889: Fukuchiyama-cho was formed by the municipal system.

1898: The twentieth Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Japanese Army is stationed.

July 15, 1899: The entire rail line between Osaka and Fukuchiyama was opened through the completion of the section between Kashiwara Station (Hyogo Prefecture) and Fukuchi Minamiguchi Station on the Fukuchiyama Line.

August 25, 1910: The entire rail line between Kyoto Station and Fukuchiyama Station was opened by completion of the section between Sonobe Station and Ayabe Station on the Sanin Main Line. Along with the opening of the entire rail line between Osaka and Fukuchiyama in 1899 outlined above, Fukuchiyama Station started to play a role as the central station of the city.

1918: Sogai-mura was incorporated into Fukuchiyama-cho.

1936: Anga-mura, Sasabe-mura and Shimotoyotomi-mura were incorporated, with the intent of reorganizing them as a city.

May 1936: Hanbei TAKAGI took office as the first mayor of Fukuchiyama City.

April 1937: Reorganization resulted in the birth of Fukuchiyama City. The population at that time was about 32,000.

December 1938: The city symbol of Fukuchiyama City was chosen from about 2,000 entries from across Japan and established.

June 1940: Kumataro KISHIMOTO took office as the second mayor.

July 1942: Shotaro TANAKA took office as the third mayor.

From World War II to the end of the Showa period (from 1946 to 1988)

June 1946: Masao TAKEUCHI took office as the fourth mayor.

March 10, 1948: Hitoshi ASHIDA who was designated as honorary citizen later took office as prime minister.

April 1949: Kamitoyotomi-mura, Shimokawaguchi-mura and Nishinakasuji-mura were incorporated.

1950: The Fukuchiyama Railroad Administration of Old Japanese National Railway (present-day Fukuchiyama Branch of West Japan Railway Company) was established.

April 1951: Gentaro MAKINO took office as the fifth mayor.

March 1954: Fukuchiyama Station which played a role of central station in present-day Fukuchiyama City later was completed.

August 1954: Hiroshi AMANO took office as the sixth mayor.

April 1955: 8 villages in total of Kamimutobe-mura, Nakamutobe-mura, Shimomutobe-mura, Kamikawaguchi-mura, Kanaya-mura, Kanayama-mura, Kumohara-mura and Mitake-mura were incorporated in Fukuchiyama City.

November 1955: The supply of city gas started.

September 1956: Saga-mura, Ikaruga-gun was divided and incorporated.

June 1959: Hitoshi ASHIDA, the prime minister from Fukuchiyama City, was selected as the first honorary citizen of Fukuchiyama in history at the same time as his passing.

August 1962: Seitaro SHIOMI took office as the seventh mayor.

June 1983: Senichi TANIGAKI, the Minister of Education from Fukuchiyama City, was selected as the second honorary citizen in history at the same time of his passing

June 1988: The Fukuchiyama City anthem was established.

After Heisei (after 1989)

August 1990: Minoru NAKAMURA (mayor) took office as the eighth mayor.

April 1991: Seitaro SHIOMI who was the seventh mayor was selected as a honorary citizen, and the Citizen Charter was established along with the flower, bird and tree of the City.

April 1993: Taisei SATO who was a Japanese-style painter coming from Fukuchiyama City was selected as an honorary citizen.

June 2004: Otohiko TAKAHI, current mayor, took office as the ninth mayor.

November 2005: The railroad running through Fukuchiyama City was inconvenient for people moving through the urban area, as the railroad did not run in a manner which connected directly north to south. As a solution, Fukuchiyama Station, together with surrounding railroads were elevated.

January 1, 2006: New Fukuchiyama City was born by incorporating three towns of Oe-cho (Kyoto Prefecture), Miwa-cho (Kyoto Prefecture) and Yakuno-cho.

Before the Kamakura period

Many ancient tombs and funerary goods of varying size, and holding significant archaeological value were found in this area as well as the surrounding regions of Ayabe City, Maizuru City, etc. Since the oldest finds of the Jomon period were found in Fukuchiyama City, it is speculated that people already lived here and that many influential powerful families ruled the area. In the case of Fukuchiyama City, one such finding supporting this speculation is a mirror called Banryu-kyo Mirror; it has been designated as a national heritage cultural property, and has the name of the period, 'Fourth Year of Jingchu,' engraved upon it.

However, it is speculated that such powerful families perished around the end of the Asuka period, since only the remains of dwelling sites dating up to the Heian period were found.

In the Heian period, this area acted as the manor of Sekkan-ke (Regent family), and in the latter half of the Heian period, most areas in Amada-gori were used as manor. In the Kamakura period, the owner of such manors were changed to Shugo (military commander and administrator) or Jito (manager and lord of manor) because a great number of people assigned as Shugo and Jito were dispatched.

Muromachi Period

In the latter half of the Muromachi period, Yorikatsu OGASAWARA who is considered to be a scion of Nagakiyo OGASAWARA in the Ogasawara clan, built the simple Fukuchiyama-jo Castle with only an empty moat and earthworks in the hilly area called 'Yokoyama' located in the central part of Fukuchiyama Basin. In time, Yorikatsu OGASAWARA changed his name to Yorikatsu SHIOMI, and his son, Yoriuji SHIOMI, ruled this area, based out of the Yokoyama-jo Castle, etc.

Sengoku period

During the Sengoku Period, Nobufusa SHIOMI, son of Yoriuji SHIOMI, took over the Yokoyama-jo Castle from his father, and ruled Fukuchiyama.

However, Mitsuhide AKECHI who was ordered by Nobunaga ODA to take over Tanba conquered Yokoyama-jo Castle in August 1579, and Nobufusa SHIOMI, its steward, killed himself, which brought about the end of the rule of Fukuchiyama under the Shiomi clan. In appreciation, Mitsuhide received Tanba Province, and subsequently ordered a castle keeper to simultaneously carry out large scale renovations of the castle. After the renovation, Mitsuhide changed the name of this castle to 'Fukuchiyama-jo Castle,' resulting in the birth of the area known as Fukuchiyama. Moreover, Mitsuhide formed the foundations for the castle town by carrying out activities such as improving the flow of the Yura-gawa River (which had often caused floods until then), and releasing farmers who were impoverished due to the repeated floods from their obligation towards Jishisen tax, etc.

In June 1582, only three years later, Mitsuhide caused the Honnoji Incident, and temporarily obtained the top position; however, he was defeated by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI and died in the Battle of Yamazaki, leading to the downfall of the Akechi clan. The whole area of Tanba Province including Fukuchiyama came under Hideyoshi's rule, and Hideyoshi's vassals such as Shigekatsu ONOGI (also called Shigetsugu ONOGI or Shigekatsu ONOGI), Ietsugu SUGIHARA, etc. were ordered to take office as steward of Fukuchiyama-jo Castle by Hideyoshi, subsequently ruling the area.

After Hideyoshi passed away, Shigekatsu stood by the side of Mitsunari ISHIDA during Ieyasu TOKUGAWA's conflict with Mitsunari; in 1600, he attacked and conquered Tanabe-jo Castle protected by Yusai HOSOKAWA who stood at Ieyasu's side (the Battle of Tanabe-jo Castle). However, Shigekatsu who escaped when Mitsunari was defeated in the Battle of Sekigahara, was pursued and attacked by Tadaoki HOSOKAWA, and subsequently killed himself.

Edo period

Toyouji ARIMA whose achievement in the Battle of Sekigahara was recognized by the Tokugawa family was given an increased yield and ordered to move to Fukuchiyama from the Yokosuka clan. Toyouji ARIMA established a castle town by carrying out a land survey, and dividing the area into towns through modern urban development; the divided towns remain to this day. This is how the predecessor of Fukuchiyama City, the 60,000 yield Fukuchiyama clan was established.

Subsequently, after Toyouji ARIMA whose achievement in the Siege of Osaka was also recognized, he was ordered to move to the Kurume clan left Fukuchiyama, and in stead, the local magistrate, Masakazu KOBORI, and the Fushimi City magistrate, ruled the area; however, thereafter, Fukuchiyama went through a constant change of rulers due to transfer or forfeiture under the penal rules. During this time, the land survey carried out in 1649 by Tadafusa MATSUDAIRA, who joined the Fukuchiyama clan, acted as a benchmark for the land system in Fukuchiyama until the Land Tax Reform was carried out, and was called Matsudaira's land survey.

After Tanemasa KUTSUKI took on the clan administration in 1669, thirteen generations of the Kutsuki family were in charge of clan administration, and when Totsuna KUTSUKI took office as the fifth domain head, he changed the kanji character of the domain name from '福智山' to '福知山,' and allowed enshrinement of Mitsuhide in the Goryo-jinja Shrine (Fukuchiyama City) by residents who 'thanked Mitsuhide AKECHI for the prosperity of Fukuchiyama as a castle town through his flood prevention works.'

On the other hand, the financial situation of the Fukuchiyama clan at the time was dire ever since the rule of the second domain head of Tanemoto KUTSUKI in the Kutsuki family, and while the domain head repeatedly carried out fiscal reforms in order to improve the situation, these reforms resulted in failure due to frequent riots by farmers. The riots which started from the Kyoho Famine, and broke out in 1860 were especially massive.

Meiji period

The Fukuchiyama clan was abolished and Fukuchiyama Prefecture was established on July 14, 1871 by Haihan-chiken. Fukuyama-cho was born by a municipal system through incorporation into the Fukuchiyama Prefecture and division.

At this time, the Fukuchiyama Line and the Sanin Main Line were constructed with Fukuchiyama as a connection; this was due to the fact that expanding the transportation network connecting Keihanshin and Maizuru Port, one of the major military ports in Japan, was an urgent issue in the preparation for the Russo-Japanese War. Simultaneously, the twentieth Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Japanese Army was stationed at the present-day Camp Fukuchiyama.

Fukuchiyama flourished as a distributing point of Tajima (Tanba) Beef, and also as a core place for textile business due to the active cultivation of mulberries on the bank of the Yura-gawa River which contributed to the prosperity of sericultural industry, and was active also as a war industry.

Showa

Soon after start of the Showa period, the sericulture in Fukuchiyama was at it's zenith. Moreover, Fukuchiyama-cho incorporated Anga-mura, Sasabe-mura and Shimotoyotomi-mura, thus was born Fukuchiyama City with a population of about 32,000. The city simbol of Fukuchiyama was established, and Hitoshi ASHIDA coming from Fukuchiyama City, who became the first honorary citizen later, took office as prime minister.

However, as time went by, World War II ended, and Japan entered an age of economic growth, the aforementioned sericulture and other cultures such as indigo dyeing vanished almost completely. With the start of development of Osadano Industrial Park in 1974, signs of industrialization were seen in the industries of Fukuchiyama.

Heisei period and afterwards

The railroad running through Fukuchiyama City severed the north and south areas of the city, impeding transportation. Therefore, Fukuchiyama Station elevated using approximately thirty-five billion yen in total project expenses. Taking advantage of the boom in municipal mergers, known as the big merger of Heisei, the surrounding municipalities of Miwa-cho, Oe-cho and Yakuno-cho were merged together.

Geography

The city area extends around former Amata-gun, Tanba Province, and to Ikaruga-gun (part of Saga-mura), Yosa-gun, Tango Province (Kumohara-mura) and Kasa-gun (Oe-cho); the area consists of forest taking up 76% of the total, while agricultural lands make up approximately 7%. Flatlands extend from Ayabe City around the Fukuchiyama Basin, with the mountain regions surrounding the flatlands making up a large percentage of the city area.

Fukuchiyama City is located about 70 km from Osaka City, about 60 km from Kyoto City and Kobe City, and about 30 km each from Toyooka City and Maizuru City. The highest point above sea level in the city is Mt.Mitake at 839.17 m and the lowest point being 7.11 m. The urban area extends around the old castle town, and to a residential land on the outside of Osadano Industrial Park along the Yura-gawa River.

Major mountains and rivers

Mountains: Mt. Mitake (highest mountain in the city), Mt. Senjogadake (main peak in the range of peaks of Oe-yama mountain range), Mt. Karasugadake (only primary triangulation stand-point in the city), and Mt. Takura (Mt. Takara; only quaternary volcano in Kyoto Prefecture)
Rivers: Yura-gawa River, Haze-gawa River and Maki-kawa River

Neighboring municipalities

Kyoto Prefecture: Maizuru City, Ayabe City, Miyazu City, Yosano-cho Yosa-gun (old Kaya-cho and Nodagawa-cho), and Kyotanba-cho Funai-gun
Hyogo Prefecture: Tanba City, Toyooka City, Asago City, and Sasayama City

Sister and associated cities

Domestic
Shimabara City, Nagasaki Prefecture (affiliated as a sister city on March 1, 1983)
The move by Tadafusa MATSUDAIRA (domain head of the Shimabara clan) who was the domain head of the Fukuchiyama clan at the time, to the Shimabara clan (present-day Shimabara City) in 1669, was the catalyst for Fukuchiyama establishing a sister city relationship with Shimabara City.

International
None

Origin of place name

The name of Fukuchiyama originates from 'Fukuchiyama' (described as 福智山 in kanji differently from the current description of 福知山) which was named when Mitsuhide AKECHI carried out castle renovations. But, some people believe that the place name comes from a poem by Izumi Shikibu saying 'maple leaves in the mountain in Tanba may fall earlier than my expectation due to wind blowing (fukuchi in Japanese) to the mountain,' and 'Chi' (智 in kanji) of Akechi (明智 in kanji) was used, or from a the name of Mt. Fuji (another name of Mt. Fuji). The character for 'Chi' (智 in kanji) in Fukuchiyama (福智山 in kanji) was changed to 'Chi' (知 in kanji) by the Kutsuki clan in 1728.

City block

In Old Fukuchiyama City, there are two or more block names such as place names (Aza and Koaza), names of residents' associations, commonly-called names, etc., and the name of residents' association do not always correspond to the name of the city blocks, making the area very confusing.
(e.g.: the city block of residents' association named 'Iwaishinmachi' lies astride Aza 'Iwai' and 'Araga.'
Since the area commonly called 'Kashinokidai' includes 'Iwaishinmachi' and 'Arakawa,' the address is indicated in combination, and a residents' association named 'x-chome, Kashinokidai' also exists.)
As shown above, many examples exist, and this is due to the fact that while a new urban area was developed rapidly around the old castle town during the Showa period, city blocks and residents' associations were named without sorting out names of Aza in the old castle town. (e.g.: In 'Koaza Kimura Aza Amata,' there is a city block commonly called '1-chome Suehiro-cho,' and there is also an address called 'Minamihon-machi' as the name of the residents' association). This is why seven-digit postal codes are categorized and assigned per city block under the name of the residents' association; however it is inconvenient in that it is impossible to find a relevant address when searching for an address not indicated with the name of residents' association.

Distribution using water transportation via a river used to be popular in Fukuchiyama, and there are many place names including 'tsu' or 'zu' which refer to ports, such as 'Amazu, Takatsue and Tsunezu,' along the Yura-gawa River. Wakuichi ("ichi" meaning "market") located along the river, was also named after a market which was established due to water transportation.

Climate

The climate of Fukuchiyama, except old Miwa-cho, is categorized as peculiar to areas along the Japan Sea, with heavy snowfall. The basin regions, except for the old Tango area (Kumobara and Oe), are 'behind a mountain,' which results in a comparatively lower snow depth than that in the Tango region (the snow depth is about 30 cm for four to five days a year even in the flatlands). Fog rises in autumn and winter due to the formation of the basin. The fog is thick and the road surface freezes early morning in winter especially with regards to the mountain regions. The area has the stigma of being a relatively dark area, true to the name of 'Sanin' (behind a mountain) due to the shortened hours of daylight caused by fog in the morning, and snow clouds in winter.

In the flatlands (Fukuchiyama Regional Meteorological Observing Station), the average temperature is approximately fourteen degrees Celsius, the annual rainfall is approximately 1,500 mm, and the annual hours of daylight are approximately 1,400. The seasonal distribution of rainfall shows that rainfall is high during winter in the old Tango area due to snow, and high in summer in the southern area due to the rainy season and typhoons.

Within the Fukuchiyama Basin

Fossils of fresh water shellfish have been found in small numbers and concentrated in a limited area from within the basin. Based on the kinds of shell and their distribution, it is believed that the entire area used to be the bottom of a lake or pond during the Ice Age roughly 200 to 300 thousand years ago. This lake (pond) is called Fukuchiyama lake. According to surveys of watershed areas of each river, it is believed that the Yura-gawa River used to connect to the Kako-gawa River via the Haze-gawa River (Takeda-gawa River), and run southward. Based on this, it is believed that the lake was formed through a process whereby the southward flow stopped due to topographic subsidence, causing the water level of the lake to fall when flow channels to the Japan Sea were created due to further changes, resulting in the lake disappearing; the flow channels then turned into the present-day Yura-gawa River, the Haze-gawa River and the Maki-gawa River running in the city. This process is considered to be the reason that floods (Fukuchiyama and Yura-gawa River) frequently occur, since the river water is held up during times of heavy rain as a result of the very gradual inclination of rivers running in the basin, and the bottleneck caused around the outlet. Signs of this process still exist, including a large-scale river terrace with four layers around Aseri, Kyotanba-cho in Funai-gun located on the upper reaches of the Yura-gawa River, and a diluvial upland with high terrace surface at Osadano in the city.

In the hilly area in Hago and Osadano terrace, it is possible to see a layer consisting of sand, mud and gravel which is called the Fukuchiyama Layer. As the name shows, it is a layer which personifies Fukuchiyama, and has academic value in characterizing the aggraded layer in the intermountain basin within the Kinki Region. However as housing land development moves ahead, the existence of this Layer is threatened, and is listed in the Red Data Book of Kyoto Prefecture.

Outside the Fukuchiyama Basin

On the other hand, a new species of fossil ammonite which is approximately 220 million years old was found in Nukata, Yakuno-cho located outside the Fukuchiyama Basin. The fossil was named 'Yakunoceras nukataense' after the name of the place where it was found. Since ammonites originally lived at the bottom of the sea, it is conceivable that in the past, the bottom of the sea upheaved; however, the detailed history of topographic formation is still unclear.

Mt. Takura located in Ogura, Yakuno-cho in the city is the only volcano in Kyoto Prefecture which formed the Yakuno plateau; however, the columnar joint basalt at the foot of the Mountain still exists.

Various kinds of minerals used to be found here, and because Mt. Oe had many metal-bearing veins, copper-bearing ores, copper pyrites, sulfide ores, chrome iron ores and silver-bearing ores were mined in the Komori Mine, while molybdic (yellow lead) was mined in the Busshoji Mine. The Fukoku Mine in the Kamikawaguchi area was one of the best bismuth mines.
(the nickel mine in the Mt. Oe is located in the Yosano-cho area.)
In addition, every mine which is now dead, has been recorded in the Red Data Book of Kyoto Prefecture; the need to develop and conserve tunnels is still being debated.

Fukuchiyama and Yura-gawa River

The Yura-gawa River used to run to the area around present-day Fukuchiyama Station; it was a violent river which caused serious damage to the surrounding people, buildings and agricultural products due to floods which frequently occurred whenever it rained heavily.

When Mitsuhide AKECHI became the ruler of Fukuchiyama, he drastically changed the course of the river by building an embankment as long as one km for the purpose of developing the castle's residential area which later became a castle town, and improved the flow of the river; however, since floods still occurred, subsequent administrators spared no effort towards flood control. To this day, there still exists a yabu (bushes in English) known as 'Akechi-yabu' to protect the embankments; today, the monitoring of water levels by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism all stem from his works.

For example, when the same embankment broke down by two floods in 1896 and 1907 due to heavy rain, the urban area was flooded above floor level on the second floor; people had to live on the roofs of their houses, and moved by boat until flood waters receded. While the damage was smaller than those before them, despite this, the area was almost completely destroyed. Since the Otonase-bashi Bridge over the Yura-gawa River was also washed away twice, tolls of four rin (rin is an old auxiliary currency used until 1953; one rin is equivalent to 0.001 yen) for adults, two rin for children and five rin for cattle were collected to make up for the cost of repairs. In addition, the overflow of the Yura-gawa River caused on September 25, 1953 by typhoon No.13 in 1953 (twentieth year of the Showa period), resulting in a large volume of water with a floodmark as high as 7.8 m covering the entire urban area of Fukuchiyama, resulting in approximately 940 casualties including approximately 40 deaths, and at least 1,100 demolished and partially-destroyed houses, with at least 5,300 houses flooded above floor level. The damage caused by this typhoon is known by local residents as the twenty-eight flood (twenty-eight damage), and a signboard showing the water level at this time is posted in Goryo Park within the city, as information material concerning Fukuchiyama and flood damage.

The Teibo-jinja Shrine in Japan was built on the premise of Goryo-jinja Shrine (Fukuchiyama City), with the embankment itself a divine symbol, in order to honor those predecessors who setup the embankment, as well as a sign to remind others of the dangers caused by the floods, and on August 15 of every year since 1931, the 'Teibo Matsuri' (embankment festival) is held, in which a portable shrine tours the city. The present-day 'Dokkoise Fukuchiyama Hanabi Taikai' (fireworks event) originally started as one of the events in the Festival. In the tradesmen's houses in the old urban area, there remains a vaulted ceiling called 'Taka' which is peculiar to this place and is equipped with a pulley used for lifting up household goods to the second floor or attic when a flood occurs. Additionally, there is a bridge designed to be submerged during floods, like the Bito-bashi Bridge, Sogo-bashi Bridge, etc., as well as various relics which remain in the facilities of Fukuchiyama City, which tell the history of those citizens who lived with the floods.

However, the Yura-gawa River is designated as a first class river, a classification designated by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism indicating rivers which are especially important to the national economy; these days, the river is essential to people's lives, as its water is used to supply water to the city via a purification plant for agriculture; moreover, various events, such as the release of young sweetfish and salmon are also held by citizens at the river as well.

Old urban area

In the castle town in Fukuchiyama which is also the old urban area, commerce and industry managed to flourish early on due to Mitsuhide AKECHI, who did not impose the Jishisen tax. During the Edo period, the town layout as a castle town was improved by Toyouji ARIMA; place names such as Gofuku-machi, Imoji-machi, Kaji-machi, Koya-machi, etc. remain to this day, and towns divided during urban development which took place during the Edo period remain in the old urban area almost as they were. Although many temples exist in the Tera (temple)-machi as exemplified by its name, there are no kimono shops (Gofuku) or dye shops (Koya) in Gofuku-machi and Koya-machi which were named after such shops.
(The Tonya-machi and Atsunakatonya-machi in the new urban area were newly named during the land readjustment in 1975, and many wholesalers (tonya) still stand side by side as exemplified by the name.)

The aforementioned tradesmen's houses, and many other wooden three-story Japanese restaurants and inns built from the Taisho to the early Showa periods, which made the castle town attractive are disappearing due to deterioration by aging and road extension carried out by urban planning. While this used to be a busy shopping district, with the taste of a 'commercial town,' shops are closing down, like the rest of Japan, leaving the area mostly residential now.
However, many business establishments still have their head or principal offices in the old urban area, and the old urban area is known as a 'town where many presidents live.'

In the district called central city, there is a new urban area around Fukuchiyama Station which lies on the west of the old castle town. In the station area, a local company built an urban-style large shop, and during Japan's period of rapid growth, the area was fairly busy. New business offices were also built side by side in the area of readjusted land thereafter, forming the present-day urban area. Although shops in the conventional commercial land lost ground to a large suburban shop recently built along the national route as well as other roadside shops, efforts are being made, under the catchphrase of creating the capital of Kitakinki, to vitalize the central city by elevating the station, and developing the area around it including the undeveloped area in the south of the station. However, difficulties including vitalizing the old castle town still exist.

Suburb

In the surrounding area, while the surrounding lands have been developed, with suburban shopping centers such as Jusco, old town colonies still exist, but the majority consist of agricultural fields extending in most areas. The suburb is mountainous geographically, and many wild animals such as bears, deer and boar live in the area.
Since these wild animals consume agricultural products including the Tanba chestnut, one of the specialty goods of Fukuchiyama, in some years they have sometimes caused serious damage to farmers; as a result, there is an incorporated nonprofit organization seeking joint owners for a 'cage.'

Old Japanese Military

The camp for the twentieth Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Japanese Army used to be stationed in Camp Fukuchiyama where the present-day seventh Infantry Regiment of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force now is stationed. Because the Fukuchiyama Line and the Sanin Main Line were developed and promoted for military reasons as railroads connecting Maizuru Port, one of the best military port in Japan, to Keihanshin, Fukuchiyama, a connecting point of these Lines, also flourished as a military city.

During the final days of the Pacific War, an air base called 'Isa Airport' for the Old Japanese Military, the Imperial Japanese Navy, existed, and the runway ran from Maeda in the city to Toda across Isa, measuring up to approximately 1,700 m long. However, when the war was over, since local farmers removed concrete from the runway by themselves, and restored it as agricultural land, the runway no longer exists; however, an antiaircraft gun and storage locker still exists around it, and were the target of machine gun attacks by the U.S. military. The whole plan was never completed, and the airport was mainly used for practice, but, it is said that since Fukuchiyama was a military hub at the time, Fukuchiyama City may have been the target of an air attack if the war had persisted a bit longer.

Around this airport, a reinforced concrete semisubterranean bomb shelter called Entaigo was built which was concurrently used as an evacuation center and waiting room for soldiers. This was a hog-backed big shelter which measured up to approximately 1.5 m in width and 10 m in length and was used as a storage for agricultural instruments after the war. Since this airport was one of the important items representing 'Fukuchiyama City and the War,' people living around it objected to its removal through a signature campaign, but, it was demolished despite this in January 2007 to increase agricultural land. Although part of the scraps have been conserved on the community hall premises, the removal of the airport also meant that one more item which represented the war was lost.

Japan Self-Defense Forces

Even after World War II was over, Fukuchiyama still plays a role as a military point connecting Keihanshin and Maizuru Port. As mentioned above, Camp Fukuchiyama is located in Fukuchiyama City, where the seventh Infantry Regiment is stationed. Additionally, a practice ground for the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force was also built, and Kyoto Prefecture and the northern part of Hyogo Prefecture have been designated as a security area.

The Japanese Self-Defense Forces play an important role in holding annual events in the city as well as conducting rescues during disasters. For example, rescue operations in 2004 caused by typhoon No. 23, the holding of the Fukuchiyama marathon and land improvement of Mt. Himekami as Mt. Daimonji for 'Mt. Himekami Farewell Fires' could not be not implemented without cooperation of the Japan Self-Defense Forces.

Industry

Industrial population
Primary industry: approximately 2,000
Secondary industry: approximately 12,000
Tertiary industry: approximately 21,000
Major industries
Wholesale, retail, manufacturing, construction

Major companies

Due to the ease of accessibility to each city in Kitakinki, Maizuru Port and Keihanshin, it allows for two factors, 'people' and 'goods,' from the three factors governing business 'people,' 'goods' and 'money,' to move about easily. Therefore, many companies have placed their bases in Fukuchiyama around which their branch offices and business offices operate. Many companies listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Osaka Securities Exchange or Jasdaq Securities Exchange, Inc. or their subsidiaries, have their bases located in the Osadano Industrial Park which is one of the largest inland industrial parks, and the Annex Kyoto Miwa Industrial Park (nicknamed Ecotopia Kyoto Miwa) located in the city, and have a large influence on local employment.

Head office

Unlisted company
Amato Pharmaceutical Products, Ltd. Company manufacturing Borraginol known as hemorrhoidal preparation, has its head office in Fukuchiyama City and also has another head office for operational base in Chuo Ward, Osaka City (Osaka City). All products are produced in a plant in the Osadano Industrial Park. As a group company of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Amato has a business partnership with Takeda Healthcare Products Co., Ltd., one of Takeda's subsidiaries.

Sato (Kyoto Prefecture)
Retailer established in 1666 and represents Kitakinki. Main business is in the supermarket business rooted in the area. Sato has as many as forty-five stores, and implements wide-ranging business including do-it-yourself stores, stores specializing in clothing, restaurants, and agents of insurance, tourism and home delivery service.

MAKINO inc. eyewear shop
Long-established company selling eyeglasses
Although its scale is small, the company has a long history being established in 1894.

Nishiyamakanshoji Co., Ltd. (Supermarket NISHIYAMA)
Company in the supermarket business
Its sales method was featured on the Move! TV program.

Kitakinki Tango Railway
Third-sector railway company with investments by Kyoto Prefecture, etc. The company manages the Miyazu Line and the Miyafuku Line.

Ryotan Nichinichi Shinbun
Local paper dealing with topics within the area of Fukuchiyama City. Only publishes an evening paper.

Fukuchiyama FM broadcast
Nicknamed 'FM-CASTLE'
Community broadcast station

Branch office

Listed company
West Japan Railway Company (JR West) Fukuchiyama Branch
Branch office which succeeded operations by the Fukuchiyama Railroad Administration from the Old Japanese National Railway period. The branch office has jurisdiction over the northern area of Shinsanda Station on the Fukuchiyama Line, a section between the Sonobe Station and the Igumi Station on the Sanin Main Line, as well as the Maizuru Line and the Bantan Line.

Takebishi Corporation
Trading company listed in the Second Section of the Osaka Securities Exchange which deals with products from the Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Its branch office in Fukuchiyama is named Kihoku Branch, and as the name suggests, it covers the whole area of Kitakinki.

Plant

Most plants located in Fukuchiyama are concentrated in the Osadano Industrial Park, together with a large portion of companies.

Listed company
ESPEC Corp. Major manufacturer of environmental testing equipment used to perform duration tests on products. With management centered mainly in Asia, it holds a domestic share as high as approximately 60% in the field of environmental testing equipment. All environmental testing equipment supplied within Japan is produced here.

Nippon Pillar Packing Co., Ltd. Major company producing a 'seal' which prevents leakage of liquids during processes such as packing. Holding the highest share of metal seals in the industry, it is ranked fourth overall in the seal industry. In addition to the plant in Fukuchiyama City, it has large-scale plants in Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture and Koshi City, Kumamoto Prefecture.

Tatsuta Electric Wire & Cable Co., Ltd. Company listed in the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the Osaka Securities Exchange: major business lines are electric wires and cables. Its sole domestic plant is located in Fukuchiyama City, and produces all products.

Fuso Chemical Co., Ltd. Company listed in the Jasdaq Securities Exchange, Inc. which produces malic and citric acid, and is ranked as one of the biggest chemical makers. Its sole domestic plant is located in Fukuchiyama City, and produces all products.

SEC Carbon, Limited
Major carbon article maker listed in the Second Section of the Osaka Securities Exchange. Owning the largest site in the Osadano Industrial Park, it consumes the largest amount of electric power in Kyoto Prefecture. In the field of carbon electrodes for aluminum smelting, SEC Carbon enjoys approximately 45% of the world-market share, with all main products being produced in its site in Osadano Industrial park.

Hitachi Maxell, Ltd. Major storage media maker producing DVDs and compact discs known under the brand name of Maxell, which is a subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd. The plant in Fukuchiyama is a main factory which mainly produces magnetic tapes.

Unlisted company
Hien Electric Industries, Ltd.

Maker of electric cables
It holds an approximately 70% share in the field of marine cables.

KOBE Welding Wire Co., Ltd.
One of the subsidiaries of Kobe Steel, Ltd., which deals with the manufacturing and sales of wires for welding

Panasonic Photo & Lighting Co., Ltd. (old WEST Electric)
A subsidiary of Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. The company mainly supplies OEM products such as electronic flashes, which are in turn supplied to Nikon and Leica. Its plant in Fukuchiyama produces incandescent bulbs, fluorescent bulbs and digital cameras as well as electronic flashes.

Kracie Holdings, Ltd. (old Kanebo, Ltd)
Company which used to be listed in the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the Osaka Securities Exchange, but was delisted due to accounting fraud performed to hide deficits. Its plant in Fukuchiyama produces paper products such as tissue paper, Scottie.

Takeda Healthcare Products Co., Ltd. Company wholly owned by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, which produces and ships over-the-counter medicines to all of Japan including the vitamin mixture Alinamin, and the cold medicine known as Benza Block, etc. which are sold by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. It also has a plantation for the gathering of raw materials for natural medicines and Chinese herbal preparations.

Kawai Cable, Ltd. Company wholly owned by Kawai Trading, Ltd., which has a long history being established back in February 1, 1915. As the company name indicates, it's main business is in manufacturing wires, and the plant in Fukuchiyama produces all products shipped by this company, together with its plant located in Ayabe City.

Roads

Although the area around Fukuchiyama has a basin which is topographically closed and surrounded by mountains, its roads were developed long ago by people who have lived in this area from at least the Jomon period, allowing Fukuchiyama City to flourish as an important place for transportation connecting areas along the Japan Sea and in the Sanin Region with Keihanshin. Ikuno, which appears in the beginning of one of the Hyakunin Isshu (one hundred waka poems by one hundred poets) was composed by Koshikibu no Naishi saying 'The road going over the Oe-yama mountain range and via Ikuno is so far that I have not set foot on Ama no Hashidate or seen a letter from my mother yet,' and is a place name in Fukuchiyama City; this poem illustrates the long relationship between Fukuchiyama and transportation. Around 1987, the development of Maizuru Wakasa Expressway, an expressway connecting Keihanshin with areas along the Japan Sea, finally commenced, making the roads in Fukuchiyama to play a central role in transportation in Kitakinki, together with the railroads.

In the mountain area, the fog is thick and the road surface freezes early morning in winter. There are some areas where the melting of snow and freezing of roads are prevented by sprinkling water with a sprinkler over part of National Route 9, but are limited; driving a car without using winter tires is basically very risky in winter.

Buses

Since most of Fukuchiyama City features mountain areas, as well as being part of a basin, a broad area is interspersed with many small-scale colonies, making it hard to provide bus and railroad service to all areas. Therefore, private cars are essential when moving within the city, and the ownership ratio is fairly high. According to a survey on the ownership ratio of private cars per household carried out in fiscal year 1996 by the then Ministry of Transport, the ratio in all of Kyoto Prefecture was 75.3%, but, Fukuchiyama City was 94.2% at the time. Based on this, it is evident that one car per household is almost a given. The result also shows that in many households, both spouses tend to have their own car, with this tendency being stronger in areas further from the urban areas of Fukuchiyama City. Especially in agricultural areas, many households have one truck for agricultural work in addition to cars owned by each spouse.

Therefore, use of bus and taxi has been decreasing, with some bus and taxi companies running in the red. Buses have been especially hard hit, and have been forced to discontinue service of some routes or transfer business. In order to overcome this situation, the West JR Bus Company has made various efforts, including providing demand responsive transport (DRT) starting in March 1, 2007, etc., but, the situation remains dire.

Available routes

Zentan Bus operates in the northern part of Hyogo Prefecture, but has bus stops within Fukuchiyama City. In opposition to this, Fukuchiyama City Bus operates buses in old Miwa-cho up to Ayabe City, Kyotanba-cho, and Sasayama City, Hyogo Prefecture.

Public service
Fukuchiyama City Bus
Autonomously operated bus in Fukuchiyama City
Private operation
West JR Bus Company
Kyoto Kotsu (Maizuru)
TANGO KAIRIKU KOTSU Co., Ltd.
Zentan Bus

Access

From Tokyo
Departure from Shinagawa Bus Terminal: Keihin Kyuko Bus Co., Ltd.
From Osaka
Departure from Umeda Station: TANGO KAIRIKU KOTSU Co., Ltd.
From Kobe
Departure from Sannomiya Bus Terminal: Nihon Kotsu Co., Ltd.
Departure from Sannomiya: Kyoto Kotsu (Maizuru)
From Miyazu
Departure from Miyazu Station: TANGO KAIRIKU KOTSU Co., Ltd.

Taxi

Nihon Kotsu Co., Ltd. (Fukuchiyama City)
Keitan Taxi

Access

Expressway
Fukuchiyama Interchange of Maizuru Wakasa Expressway

Railroads

During the Meiji period, Japan had to expand the transportation network connecting Maizuru Port in preparation for the Russo-Japanese War, which started the development of its railroads early on.
Moreover, the Railroad Administration was established as a base in the Kitakinki Region after the war, and Fukuchiyama also flourished as a 'railroad city.'
At present, West Japan Railway Company (JR West) Fukuchiyama Branch and rail yard (Fukuchiyama Depot) of JR West, and the head office of Kitakinki Tango Railway are located in Fukuchiyama City. Fukuchiyama is widely known as railroad central, as shown by the color of the coating on the trains, known as Fukuchiyama color; the city also has many tourist facilities and holds events related to railroads. In "Poppo Land" Fukuchiyama Railway Hall and the SL Park established on the site where Fukuchiyama Nishi Station used to exist, SLs and their replicas have been preserved and are on exhibition; there is also a plan to put a Turntable on display at the south exit of Fukuchiyama Station.

There is some misunderstanding concerning the derailment accident on the JR Fukuchiyama Line (Amagasaki Derailment Accident), which occurred in a section between Tsukaguchi Station (JR West) and Amagasaki Station (JR West) in Amagasaki City, Hyogo Prefecture, but did not occur in Fukuchiyama City.

Stations in the city

In Fukuchiyama City, Kitakinki Tango Railway and West Japan Railway Company provide train service, while Fukuchiyama Station acts as the central city station for both companies. In particular, Fukuchiyama Station of JR West plays a key role in the North Kinki Big X Network promoted by JR-West, and since it is a junction of Sanin Main Line, Fukuchiyama Line, and Miyafuku Line of Kitakinki Tango Railway; people can travel to Kyoto Station, Osaka Station, Miyazu Station, Amanohashidate Station, Wadayama Station, Toyooka Station (Hyogo Prefecture) and Kinosaki Station by limited express train without transferring. The Fukuchiyama Line starts from Fukuchiyama Station, while the Maizuru Line starts from Higashi-Maizuru Station and ends at Ayabe Station, but, Fukuchiyama Station is essentially a terminal due to its status as an end-of-line for most trains. Many train lines in Fukuchiyama City are single-track, and although some people have requested that the Fukuchiyama Line be converted to double tracks, it is practically impossible due to the small number of users.
(For details, refer to double tracking of the northern section of Sasayamaguchi Station on the Fukuchiyama Line, and the current situation)

West Japan Railway Company (JR West)
Fukuchiyama Line: From Fukuchiyama Station (starting station) to Osaka Station
Sanin Main Line: Between Kyoto Station and Kinosakionsen Station through Isa Station (Kyoto Prefecture), Fukuchiyama Station, Kamikawaguchi Station, Shimoyakuno Station, Kamiyakuno Station, etc.
Kitakinki Tango Railway (KTR)
Miyafuku Line: Between Fukuchiyama Station (starting station) and Amanohashidate Station through Atsunakatonya Station, Araga Kashinokidai Station, Maki Station, Shimoamazu Station, Gujo Station, Oe Station (Kyoto Prefecture), Oe Kokomae Station, Futamata Station, Oe Yamaguchi Naiku Station, etc.

Access

Limited express trains, rapid trains and local trains operate along the Fukuchiyama Line, Sanin Main Line and Kitakinki Tango Railway. Since the North Kinki Big X Network uses Fukuchiyama Station as a starting point, the network is extremely convenient.

From Kyoto Station on the JR Sanin Main Line
From Kyoto Station (Sanin Main Line) to Fukuchiyama Station
JR Limited Express Hashidate
JR Limited Express Tanba
JR Limited Express Kinosaki
KTR Limited Express Tango Discovery
From Kinosakionsen Station on the JR Sanin Main Line
From Kinosakionsen Station (Sanin Main Line) to Fukuchiyama Station
JR Limited Express Kinosaki
JR Limited Express Kitakinki
From Shin-Osaka Station and Osaka Station on the JR Tokaido Main Line
From Shin-Osaka Station (Tokaido Main Line) to Fukuchiyama Station via Osaka (Fukuchiyama Line)
JR Limited Express Kitakinki
JR Limited Express Monju
KTR Limited Express Tango Explorer
From Amanohashidate Station on the KTR Miyafuku Line
From Amanohashidate Station (KTR Miyafuku Line) to Fukuchiyama Station
JR Limited Express Hashidate
JR Limited Express Monju
KTR Limited Express Tango Explorer
KTR Limited Express Tango Discovery

Tourism

85% of the total tourists visiting Fukuchiyama City are day trippers.

Issues

The meridian passes over the old Yakuno Town Office, with sightseeing spots such as Oe-yama mountain range known for the Shuten-doji ogre legend, Fukuchiyama-jo castle of Mitsuhide, Motoise-jinja Shrine; additionally the SL Exhibition Hall is known as 'railroad city' and related events are held here. However, the inadequate maintenance and PR of sightseeing spots and events mentioned above, as well as other latent tourism resources, will become issues which need to be dealt with in the future.

Fukuchiyama and Mitsuhide

Mitsuhide AKECHI was the first castellan of Fukuchiyama-jo Castle, and many events and items around Fukuchiyama City are related to the Akechi clan and Mitsuhide, despite the short length of his rule, due to the positive reputation of his administration.

The Japanese bellflower was used as the family emblem for the Akechi clan, and was designated the City flower; a phrase about Mitsuhide is contained in the Fukuchiyama Ondo, and the image character of the Fukuchiyama Tourist Association is also based on Mitsuhide. In the Goryo-jinja Shrine located in the city (Fukuchiyama City), Mitsuhide is enshrined as a deity, and many materials such as jambeau used by Masataka SHIOTEN, Tajima-no-kami, drawings showing the appearance of Fukuchiyama-jo Castle at the time, calligraphy written by Mitsuhide himself, etc, still remain.

Events

Oshiro Matsuri (castle festival) (early April)
Fukuchiyama City Kodomo-taikai (children's festival) (early May)
Bonchi Festa (early August)
Fukuchiyama Dokkoise Matsuri Festival (Fukuchiyama Ondo marching songs) (mid August)
Teibo Matsuri (embankment festival) (August 15)
Mt. Himekami Farewell Fires (Tanba Farewell Fires) (August 16)
Tanba Mitsuhide Kikyo Matsuri (Japanese bellflower festival) (early October)
Mini SL Festa (late October)
(November 23)

Landmarks

Fukuchiyama has many characteristic temples and shrines; such shrines include those deemed to be Motoise, shrines enshrining TAKEUCHI no Sukune and Mitsuhide AKECHI as deity, etc.

Fukuchiyama -jo Castle (Fukuchiyama City Folk Museum)
The keep was rebuilt to reflect the one built by Mitsuhide AKECHI, through donations by citizens. A historical museum was created inside.

Umeda-jinja Shrine
Shrine enshrining TAKEUCHI no Sukune whose portrait was printed on the one-yen bill that used to be distributed. All of its three shrine pavilions are registered as cultural property of Kyoto Prefecture, and its premise is also designated as an environment preservation district for cultural properties.

Choan-ji Temple
Temple known as colored maple leaves.

Tennei-ji Temple
Established in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan)
Place where Shogun Yoshimochi ASHIKAGA prayed.

Yosen-ji Temple
Kanno-ji Temple
A spot famous for hydrangea; also called 'hydrangea temple.'

Goryo-jinja Shrine (Fukuchiyama City)
Shrine in which the joint enshrining of Mitsuhide AKECHI and Uganomitama no Okami was allowed by the Kutsuki clan, the castellan of Fukuchiyama-jo Castle. The current shrine was relocated west of its original place.

Motoise-jingu Shrine
Shrine carrying on the tradition of Motoise (Geku Toyouke-taijingu Shrine, Naiku Kotai-jinja Shrine and Amanoiwato-jinja Shrine)
It is said that this Shrine was established fifty years before the establishment of current Ise-jingu Shrine; its characteristic black wooden shrine gate (shrine gate assembled with cedar without peeling the bark) is rare in Japan, with only one other shrine gates of its kind in existence.

Ohara-jinja Shrine (Fukuchiyama City)
Ohara delivery room' designated as the designated cultural property of Kyoto Prefecture (a tangible folk cultural property of Kyoto Prefecture)
Ichinomiya-jinja Shrine
Shrine in which a deity protecting the border between Tanba Province and Tango Province is enshrined, and which flourished as a village shrine of the Fukuchiyama clan.

Facilities

Japan Ogre Exchange Museum
"Poppo Land" Fukuchiyama Railway Hall is the museum concerning 'city of railroad.'
Sato Taisei Memorial Art Museum
Hitoshi Ashida Memorial Hall
Tanba Fabric Museum - Clothes from the Showa period to modern times are on display here. Here, the chance to experience textile weaving is also offered.

Hokuryo Community Center: Lodges, athletic field and gym are located here.
Sandanike-koen Park: General public park for citizens
Michi-no-eki Rest Area, Agricultural Craftsman's Home Yakuno
Chisui Memorial Hall
Yakuno Genbugan Park
Onigawara-koen Park

Historic sites

Since various ancient tombs, stone chambers and earthen vessels were found in the surrounding area including Fukuchiyama City, it is believed that many people lived in the area before Tanba Province was formed.

Banryu-kyo Mirror with the Date "Fourth Year of Jingchu"
Designated as a national important cultural asset
Found in October 1986 in the Hiromine tomb No. 15 (ancient burial mound which is square at the front and rounded in the rear), located in the hilly area to the south of Fukuchiyama Station.

Makishoichi ancient tomb
Only ancient tomb with one burial mound and three stone chambers in Kyoto Prefecture
Such a find is rare in Japan.

Many groups of ancient tombs
One group of ancient tombs remains known as 'Sukumo-zuka.'
The only ancient burial mound in the prefecture, which is rounded at the front and square in the rear, is found in the Shimoyama group of ancient tombs,

Natural features

Oe-yama mountain range
Designated as quasi-national park on August 3, 2007. The official name is Tango-Amanohashidate-Oeyama Quasi-National Park. In addition to the ogre legend, it has a history as a mine, and is famous for it's sea of clouds.

Souvenirs

Odori Senbei (Japanese cracker)
Egg senbei (cracker) which bears a phrase of Fukuchiyama Ondo or the shape of a dancer. Famous souvenirs.

Oni-manju (steamed bean-jam bun)
Manju which has a bottom which is as large as an adult's palm. The manju is too big to eat as it is, and is generally cut into smaller pieces with a knife.

Shoki Monaka (bean-jam-filled wafers)
Monaka in the shape of an ogre face

Others

Fukuchiyama Hot Spring
Hot spring excavated at a springwater site named 'Yoronomizu water' by Tsunasada KUTSUKI, domain head of the Fukuchiyama clan. Hot springs are believed to be good for fatigue, sensitivity to cold temperatures and burn injuries, but not for drinking.

Present-day specialty goods

Various kinds of vegetables peculiar to Kyoto, and Tanba brand agricultural products are listed.

Hooji bamboo shoot

Bamboo shoot harvested in the Hooji area in the eastern part of the city. As part of the news in the spring, the trial harvest of bamboo shoots is played up every year by media including TV programs. The shoots are featured as gourmet items on Internet shopping sites.

Black soybean

The Tanba black soybean mainly refers to a soybean harvested in Sasayama City, but, Fukuchiyama is also known as a place where quality Tanba black soybean is produced. One souvenir is confectionery created using the black soybean.

Tanba chestnut

The Tanba chestnut has been cultivated for a long time, and was also described in Nihonshoki (the Chronicles of Japan), the oldest history book in Japan. The Tanba chestnut was often used as a tribute to the bakufu and imperial court; it gained nationwide popularity due to the system involving the alternating residence by daimyo in Edo during the Edo period. The Tanba chestnut is mainly cultivated in Miwa-cho.

Gourd

Specialty product of Mitake area
Events including the development of handiwork using gourds, and the Hyotan Matsuri (gourd festival), etc. are also held.

Former specialty goods

Indigo

The cultivation of indigo plants and indigo dyeing were actively carried out mainly along the Yura-gawa River since the fifteenth century; a record still remains that indigo-dyed fabric was rendered to the manor in 1496. It is believed in the Edo period, as many as 1,500 general households were engaged in indigo dyeing, and twenty-five out of 360 tradesmen's houses were Koya (dye shop). The above show that indigo-dyed products were specialty goods of Fukuchiyama City at the time.

However, as indigo plants disappeared from production areas across the country due to the pervasion of imported goods and chemical dyes, indigo plants also disappeared from Fukuchiyama during the Taisho period, and was the last area producing indigo plants. Currently, the value of indigo dyeing is again being recognized, and activities to revive the cultivation of indigo plants and indigo dyeing are being implemented. There are some elementary schools in the city which offer opportunities to experience indigo dyeing and part of the overall educational curriculum.

Raw silk

Fukuchiyama was a city where sericulture was active for a long time due to the mulberries resistance to repeated overflows of the Yura-gawa River into Fukuchiyama in Fukuchiyama City; also the pH value of the Yura-gawa River has shown that its water quality was suitable for yarn-making. It is said that sericulture in the Tanba Region including Fukuchiyama City has a history longer than one thousand years, with its peak around the beginning of the Showa period. Since Gunze Ltd. located its business office in 1928, and its plant in 1929, and raw silk was produced not only as raw materials of Tango chirimen (silk crepe) and Nishijin Textile but also for export, the local sericulture industry supported Fukuchiyama in those days.

However, when the World War II broke out, sericulture declined due to various reasons, including changes in crop (from mulberry to sweet potato) to prevent food shortages, price reduction of yarn itself, the appearance of chemical fibers such as nylon fibers, lack of successors in silk-raising farmers, aging of silk-raising farmers, etc., all factors leading to a decline and the eventual closeout by silk-raising farmers and yarn-making companies. Due to severe price-cutting wars, the few surviving companies had to shift their production bases to other countries where personnel expenses were lower, which enhanced decline, and with respect to raw silk which was the specialty of Fukuchiyama, only one silk-raising farmer now remains in Oe-machi in the city; this is due to the fact that Gunze, one such company, withdrew from Fukuchiyama in September 2001, leading to the almost complete extinction of raw silk from Fukuchiyama much like the aforementioned case of indigo. Although not as active as indigo dyeing, there are some schools which offer lessons on how to breed silk worms and how they live, through videos as part of the overall curriculum, in order to teach the history of Fukuchiyama and silk worms, much like indigo dyeing.

Tanba lacquer

The Yakuno area in Fukuchiyama City also flourished as a well-known production area of lacquer. It is believed that Urushikaki (collection of lacquer by tapping lacquer trees) was already implemented in the beginning of the Nara period, and in the Meiji period, as many as 500 people were engaged in Urushikaki in Fukuchiyama and the surrounding area. In the 'Jitsuyo Shikkojutsu' issued in 1907, which contained information on thirty lacquer production places in Japan, lacquer from Tanba (Fukuchiyama) was listed first, indicating the long history of lacquer.

However, 98% of lacquer has been replaced by goods made in and imported from the People's Republic of China at present, and only a few lacquer production areas remain in Japan; thus their tradition and history are being handed down on a smaller scale.

Tango Washi paper

Fukuchiyama also flourished as a well-known production area for Washi paper mainly used to filter lacquer due to paper mulberries of good quality being harvested as raw materials for Washi paper, together with the active lacquer industry in Fukuchiyama City,
Especially from the Meiji period to the beginning of the Showa period, a large amount of Washi paper was produced and sold as paper for calligraphy and Shoji (sliding door) to other prefectures, along with paper mulberries used as raw materials.

Tango Washi paper is designated as an intangible cultural heritage of Kyoto Prefecture, and is said that as many as 200 Washi paper manufacturers existed at the time. However, as in the case of other industries, the Washi paper industry also declined due to a decline in the lacquer industry, and it is almost impossible to see its tradition in places other than the limited facility such as the Washi Denshokan Museum.

People

Dialect

Ancient residents in Fukuchiyama moved mainly from Hikami (Tanba City), but also from Tajima and Tango; there are still many people that commute from such places and say that they are descended from these places. As a result, the dialect contains some characteristics of dialects from these areas. However, the main dialect is a Tanba-ben dialect, and is 'Tanba-ben Chatta-ben dialect' which is a unique dialect in Tanba Hikami.
Although the Tanba-ben dialect belongs to a Kansai-ben dialect, its usage differs a bit from that of general Kansai-ben dialect, and such differences in usage are represented by 'shiyotta (did something).'
(For details, refer to the usage of 'yotta (did something)' in the Tanba-ben dialect)

Population ratio

Fukuchiyama City's population experienced an increase which was close to being relatively unchanged until the municipal merger in Heisei, while the population decreased in surrounding municipalities. However, according to the population census, the ratio of the aging population was 11.7% in 1985, but increased to 18.4% in 1999, showing that Fukuchiyama is an aging city.

Electricity

Electricity is provided to the whole area in Fukuchiyama City by the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.

Gas

Gas supplied to urban areas is natural gas supplied to areas west of the Yura-gawa River and its tributary, Haze-gawa River, by the public company of the city (Fukuchiyama City & Gas Department Business Division), and to areas around the Osadano Industrial Park to the east of such rivers by Osadano Gas Center (or by propane gas which is supplied to some district in this area by a public company). However, in mountainous regions which face supply difficulties, and even some urban areas, there are some households which use cylinders of propane gas.

Water service

As Fukuchiyama is surrounded by mountains, water resources from rivers such as the Yura-gawa River, Haze-gawa River and Maki-gawa River are comparatively rich, with the cost of water for Fukuchiyama City being among the twentieth cheapest among 194 municipalities in Kinki. The water is supplied through the city water system and simple water-supply system by the public company of the city (Fukuchiyama City Gas & Water Department Business Division). With respect to the simple water-supply system to areas surrounding the urban region, a plan is being pushed forward to gradually integrate the city water system. On the other hand, owing to its history of flood damage, the city developed a sewage system relatively early, covering roughly 80% of the old Fukuchiyama City area (the usage rate of flush toilet including septic tank was 92%). For this reason, a sewage system combining rainwater and sewers was adopted to act as drainage behind levees in the old urban area.

Garbage

In Fukuchiyama City, garbage is disposed through incineration, landfill and recycling at the Environmental Park located in Maki in the city. Garbage which is burnable, non-burnable, or plastic containers and packages, recyclables (empty cans, empty bottles, paper containers and packages, and plastic bottles) and fluorescent lamps are collected, with the use of specific paid garbage bags for the first three categories, and separation of garbage according to each category being required. Large garbage, electronic under the Specific Household Appliance Recycling Act and wastes discharged from business offices have to be brought in. An incinerator for non-burnable garbage is used for garbage other than burnable garbage, and as the current site for landfill will become unavailable in a little over ten years, the current issue is to secure a new landfill site.

City hall

The main office, and three branch offices per town before the municipal merger in Heisei were established. Branches other than the Yakuno Branch are located in the old government office.

Police station

Fukuchiyama Police Station is the only police station located in Fukuchiyama City. Before the municipal merger in 2005, the Police Station had jurisdiction over three towns of Miwa-cho (Kyoto Prefecture), Oe-cho (Kyoto-Prefecture) and Yakuno-cho collectively, but with the merger, their jurisdiction was limited to only Fukuchiyama City.

Fire department

The fire department in Fukuchiyama City is divided into six blocks according to the area, and has twenty-nine subgroups in total.

Library

The Municipal Library has five facilities including branches.

Postal code
Postal codes were revised on March 19, 2006.

Fukuchiyama Post Office (620-00, 620-02, 620-03, 620-08, 620-09)

Miwa Post Office (620-13, 620-14)

Yakuno Post Office(629-13)

Statistics
(Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries)
Source: Survey on current conditions of Fukuchiyama City (PDF format)