Ako Roshi (lordless samurai of Ako Domain) (赤穂浪士)

Ako Roshi refers to a group of 47 warriors under the former feudal retainer of Ako, Kuranosuke OISHI, who on January 30, 1703 broke into the residence of Yoshinaka KIRA, from a Koke (honorable family) who were enemies of the former lord Naganori ASANO, to murder him and get revenge.

Summary

In Ako City, home of the Gishi Festival, the group is known as Ako Gishi, and pre-war, the name Ako Gishi used to be known nationwide in relation to loyalty and filial piety, but post-war, since Jiro OSARAGI's novel was adapted for TV, the name of Ako Roshi has been more widely known. They is also called Shijushichishi (47 warriors).
(Refer to Genroku Ako Incident for details of the incident itself.)

There is a theory which states they were actually a group of Shijurokushi (46 warriors), not Shijushichishi (47 warriors). Effectively, the issue is whether the foot soldier Kichiemon TERASAKA who suddenly disappeared after a raid on the way to visit Naganori's grave in Sengaku-ji Temple, was a deserter or left his fellow soldiers with their permission for some reason. If one considers him a fugitive, the group becomes Shijurokushi, but if we assume he left to carry out a secret order by Kuranosuke OISHI, they are called Shijushichishi.

Furthermore, people tend to assume that all the roshi were from Ako County in Harima Province, but actually less than half of them including Kuranosuke OISHI were from Ako. The second most common place of birth was Makabe or Kasama. This was because the core vassals of the Asano clan came together during the time of Makabe Domain, Hitachi Province - the first domain formed with a Daimyo - before its transfer to Ako (its territory spread over Makabe County, Tsukuba County and Nihari County, Ibaraki Prefecture) and the time of Kasama Domain after its territory change and increase in property (its territory stretched to Kasama City, Ibaraki Prefecture and former land of Makabe Domain). Many more senior Roshi such as Chuzaemon YOSHIDA, Junai ONODERA, and Yahe HORIBE were born there. As a result, families with roshi lineage remain in the region even today, and many artifacts left by deceased roshi have been handed down through the generations.

At Sengaku-ji Temple where the Ako Roshi are buried, the Gishi Festival takes place every year on the day of the raid even today (although the precise timing was around midnight of December 14th of Japan's old lunar calendar, the Gishi Festival still takes place on December 14th of the New (solar) calendar).

Shijushichishi (47 warriors)
Kuranosuke Yoshio (Yoshitaka) OISHI
Chief retainer in lord's absence, estate of 1500 koku (Hereditary daimyo). Leader of the raid. Died aged 45.
I feel at ease because my mind is clear and I give up my body to the floating world, where no cloud covers the moon.'

Chikara Yoshikane OISHI
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance)
The oldest son of Kuranosuke OISHI. He served as Taisho (general) in charge of the back gate during the raid. He was the youngest member. Died aged 16.
Whenever we met, I felt I had told you everything I wanted to, but now we are apart I feel I still have a lot to say.'

Soemon Mototoki HARA
Head of foot soldiers, estate of 300 koku (newcomer). He sympathized with Edo radicals from an early stage. Died age 56.
My thoughts of you had accumulated like snow, but were blown away in the wind this morning.'

Gengoemon Takafusa KATAOKA
Sobayonin (lord chamberlain), Jikoshogashira (junior head of the kosho), estate of 350 koku (hereditary daimyo). He was the last person to see Asano Takumi no Kami in the Chushingura (The Loyal Retainers' Treasury) before he committed Seppuku (suicide by disembowelment). He acted independently, strongly determined on revenge.

Yahe Kanamaru (Akizane) HORIBE
Former Edo rusui (caretaker), possessed an estate 300 koku, and earned a retirement stipend of 20 koku (hereditary daimyo). The oldest member of the group. Died aged 77.
Perhaps tomorrow the snow will stop and my wish will be fulfilled.'

Yasube Taketsune HORIBE
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 200 koku. His hometown was Shibata Domain, Echigo Province. Although his family was expelled from Shibata Domain in his father's time and he was simply a wandering ronin (masterless samurai), his performance in the duel at Takadanobaba was so impressive that he was adopted as a son-in-law by Yahei HORIBE and became a vassal of the Ako Asano family. A central figure among the radicals fixed on revenge. During the raid he is said to have fought with great bravery wielding a long, broad sword. Died age 34.
If you believe the way of the samurai leaves a clear trace, try to draw your bow.'

Chuzaemon Kanesuke YOSHIDA
Head of ashigaru as well as koribugyo (county magistrate), with an estate of 200 koku and 50 koku of executive allowance (hereditary daimyo). He followed and assisted Kuranosuke OISHI, the highest of the roshi. Died age 64.
I have rushed to climb the trail to death faster than others in order to let you and my mother know.'

Sawaemon Kanesada YOSHIDA
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance)
The oldest son of Chuzaemon YOSHIDA, a Kura bugyo (storehouse magistrate). Died age 29.

Kanroku Yukishige CHIKAMATSU
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 250 koku (hereditary daimyo). He suffered injuries during the raid. Died at 34.

Kyudayu Masaaki MASE
Ometsuke (supervisor of Daimyo and vassals), with an estate of 200 koku and 50 koku of executive allowance (second generation). Died age 63.

Magokuro Masatoki MASE
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance)
The oldest son of Kyudayu MASE
Died age 23.

Genzo Shigekata AKABANE
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 200 koku (hereditary daimyo). He is famous for the 'Tokkuri no wakare' (separation over a sake bottle) incident in Chushingura. Died age 35.

Matanojo Takanori USHIODA
Koribugyo (county magistrate), Ezubugyo (magistrate of maps) with an estate of 200 koku (hereditary daimyo). Died age 35.
I dedicated my life to following the way of samurai, and now I'm standing on the way to death.'

Sukeemon Masayori TOMINOMORI
Umamawari (horse guard) and Tsukaiban (responsible for order on the battlefield) with an estate of 200 koku (second generation). Died age 34.
Some people have already gone, I will leave for my final journey holding with the memory of today.'

Kazuemon Masatane FUWA
Former umamawari and hamabugyo (coastal magistrate), previously having an estate of 100 koku (hereditary daimyo). Although he had been a ronin, he begged to join the group. He is said to have showed the most remarkable performance in the raid. Died age 34.

Kinemon Kanehide OKANO
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance). In the tale of Chushingura, he is depicted as a handsome man who acquired the blueprint of Kira's residence through a carpenter's daughter. Died age 24.
Your smell reminds me of a wild plum in snow.'

Junai Hidekazu ONODERA
Kyoto rusuiban (caretaker or keeper on night duty), with an estate of 150 koku and 70 koku of executive allowance (hereditary daimyo). Died age 61.
Since I don't have any words which grow like grass, it's meaningless to gather dew.'

Koemon Hidetomi ONODERA
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance). The adopted son of Junai ONODERA. Died age 28.
Since I don't have any words which grow like grass this morning either, it's meaningless to gather dew.'

Okaemon Sadayuki KIMURA
Umamawari and magistrate of maps with an estate of 150 koku (hereditary daimyo). Died age 46.
I never imagined I would encounter Buddhism in the code of samurai I have kept following.'

Magodayu Shigemori OKUDA
Magistrate for arms and Edo Jofu (a Daimyo's retainer who remained permanently in Edo with their lord's family) with an estate of 150 koku (newcomer). A central figure among the radicals fixed on revenge. Died age 57.

Sadaemon Yukitaka OKUDA
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance). The adopted son of Magodayu OKUDA. Died age 26.

Tozaemon Mitsutaka HAYAMI
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 150 koku (second generation). He brought Ako the first report on the sword fighting incident from Edo. Died age 42.
I was born from the five elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and sky), and now I'm returning to my original place.'

Goroemon Suketake YADA
Umamawari (horse guard) and Edo Jofu (a Daimyo's retainer who remained permanently in Edo with their lord's family) with an estate of 150 koku (second generation). Died age 29.

Sezaemon Nobukiyo OISHI
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 150 koku (hereditary daimyo). Died age 27.

Jurozaemon Masahisa ISOGAI
Monogashira (Military Commanders) and Sobayonin (lord chamberlain) with an estate of 150 koku (newcomer). Died age 25.

Kihe Mitsunobu HAZAMA
Kattekata (financial commissioner and civil administrator) and Ginmiyaku (judicial and criminal investigator), with an estate of 100 koku (second generation). Died age 69.
I woke up from a dream whilst napping and returned to a spring dawn in reality.'

Jujiro Mitsuoki HAZAMA
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance). The oldest son of Kihe HAZAMA. He instigated a war against Kira Kozuke no Suke and managed to kill him by decapitation. Died age 26.
Today the moment will finally come when my life vanishes like dew and my soul leaves for the next world.'

Shinkuro Mitsukaze HAZAMA
The second son of Kihe HAZAMA. Although he had been adopted by another family, he left them on bad terms with his foster father and became a ronin in Edo. He begged to join the group. Died age 24.
The dream I saw whilst napping in a bush would not come true.'

Kansuke Masatoki NAKAMURA
Custodian of books with an estate of 100 koku (hereditary daimyo). Died age 46.
I smelled the fragrance of plums and saw sunlight pierce the Daisyoin (large study).'

Saburobe Mitsutada SENBA
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 100 koku (second generation). Died age 51.

Hannojo Masatoshi SUGAYA
Umamawari (horse guard) and Gundai (county representative) with an estate of 100 koku (hereditary daimyo). Died age 44.

Kihe Hidenao MURAMATSU
Fuchibugyo (magistrate with stipend) and Edo Jofu, with a stipend of 20 koku for five people (second generation). Died age 62.
If I lost the one who means the world to me, I would escape from here no matter how much I would have to run and hide.'

Sandayu Takanao MURAMATSU
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance). The oldest son of Kihe MURAMATSU. Died age 27.
Forty-eight people, corresponding to the number of oaths Amitabha created, would be able to enter Buddhist paradise at will.'

Densuke Takeyuki KURAHASHI
Fuchibugyo (magistrate with stipend) and Chugosho (the lowest rank of samurai) with a stiped of 20 koku for five people (second generation). Died age 34.

Yasoemon Tsuneshige OKAJIMA
Satsuza (public office which issued han bills) kanjo bugyo (treasurer) with a stipend of 20 koku for five people (second generation). Died age 38.

Gengo Tadao (Tadatake) OTAKA
Kanebugyo (safe keeper and accountant), Zenbanmotokata (cook), and Koshimonokata (sword keeper) with a stipend of 20 koku for five people. He approached a tea ceremony master who frequented the Kira residence and obtained information that a tea party would take place there on December 14. He excelled at Haikai (humorous renga poetry) and mixed with Kikaku TAKARAI, a haiku poet, on the basis of which the side story of 'Matsura no Taiko' (The drum in Matsura) was produced. Died age 38.
I wish I could have a drink in a teahouse, admiring plum blossoms, before going to the next world.'

Emoshichi (Norikane) YATO (YAKOBE)
Heyazumi (an adult-age eldest son who has yet to come into his inheritance) and hereditary daimyo. He joined the group along with his father Chosuke, but his father died of disease before revenge was realized. Died age 17.

Shinzaemon Taketaka KATSUTA
Satsuza Yokome (officers' supervisor) with a stipend of 15 for three people (hereditary daimyo). Died age 24.

Tadashichi Takashige TAKEBAYASHI
Umamawari (horse guard) with a stipend of 15 ryo for three people (second generation). He crossed swords with Sahyoe Yoshimasa KIRA, adopted son of Kira Kozuke no Suke, and having inflicted injury, found him hiding in a charcoal burner's lodge and killed him. Died age 32.
I have been following my dream for thirty years, so dedicating myself to honor is exactly what I have been dreaming of, but as my parents are ill and bedridden, it would be vain to neglect my debt of gratitude and grasp at my dream.'

Isuke Munefusa MAEBARA
Kanebugyo (safe keeper and accountant) and Chugosho (the lowest samurai rank) with a stipend of 10 koku for three people (second generation). He opened a Gofuku-ya kimono shop in Edo in order to locate Kira's residence. Died age 40.
I didn't even notice that spring has come, but people's grey hair shows me that time is passing.'

Yazaemon Tomonobu KAIGA
Chugosho (the lowest samurai rank) and Kurabugyo (warehouse magistrate) with a stipend of 10 ryo for three people (newcomer). Died age 54.

Juheji Tsugifusa SUGINO
Satsuza Yokome (officers' supervisor) with a stipend of 8 ryo for three people (second generation). Died age 28.

Yogoro Noriyasu KANZAKI
Kachi-metsuke (night watch and inspector) with a stipend of 5 ryo for three people (newcomer). Died age 38.
The Milky Way is so beautiful that I cannot be attracted by other stars.'

Jirozaemon Kanetsune MIMURA
Daidokorobugyo (in charge of the kitchen) and Sakabugyo (in charge of sake) with a stipend of 7 koku for two people (second generation). Died age 37.

Kanbe Munetoshi YOKOKAWA
Kachi-metsuke, with a stipend of 5 ryo for three people (newcomer). He investigated whether the tea party would take place at Kira's residence on December 14. Died age 37.
Wait a minute, we are being to hasty about leaving for the next world, first we should place guideposts to lead us there.'

Wasuke Tsunerari KAYANO
Yokometsuke with a stipend of 5 ryo for three people (newcomer). Died age 37.
With thoughts of dying in the field where thousands of flowers are in bloom, I could never be out of this world.'

Kichiemon Nobuyuki TERASAKA
Ashigaru to Chuzaemon YOSHIDA, with a stipend of 3 ryo shared between two people. He was the only ashigaru member. He left the group after the raid. At this time he was 39. After the incident, he served a number of families, then died in Edo. Died age 83.

Related people
Ako Domain
Naganori ASANO
Lord of Ako Domain
He wounded Kira Kozuke no Suke in the Matsu no Oroka (Great Pine Corridor), and then committed suicide by disembowelment.
I regret the passing of spring more than petals dispersed by wind might.'

Yozenin
The legal wife of Asano Takumi no Kami. She devoted herself to the pardoning of orphans of the Ako Roshi after the incident.

Nagahiro ASANO
Asano Takumi no Kami's younger brother. He was adopted as heir to Asano Takumi no Kami. After the sword fight incident, he was punished with house arrest, then had his territory confiscated and was sentenced to Eiazuke (life confinement) in Hiroshima Domain. This treatment incited Kuranosuke OISHI to get revenge.

Tomofusa ONO
Kunigaro (the chief retainer in charge of the fief in the absence of the lord) 650 koku. Although he was respected as competent financial bureaucrat, after the sword fight incident he insisted on surrender and allegiance of the castle, conflicting with Kuranosuke OISHI, which lead to him being driven to flee. In later generations, he was given a bad reputation and regarded as a example of disloyalty.

Hikoemon YASUI
Chief retainer in Edo with a stipend of 650 koku for nine and a half people. He failed to support his lord Asano Takumi no Kami, who had become the Imperial envoy in charge of entertainment.

Muneshige FUJII
Chief retainer with an estate of 800 koku. He failed to support his lord Asano Takumi no Kami, who had become the Imperial envoy in charge of entertainment.

Masanori KONDO
Estate of 1000 koku. A relative of Kuranosuke OISHI. He did not join the group.

Naoyuki OKABAYASHI
Kumigashira (head of the group) with an estate of 1000 koku. He was an advocate for the surrender and forced allegiance of the castle, so did not take part. After the raid, he was criticized by his family for not getting involved, and committed suicide by disembowelment.

Genkei TERAI
Doctor working at a public clinic with a stipend of 300 koku for five people. He saved Kuranosuke OISHI.

The former Ako clan who withdrew their allegiance.
Sukemasa TAKATA
Edo-zume with a stipend of 200 koku for 15 people. Despite joining the group and actively working as a radical, he was the first to withdraw his allegiance.

Shigezane KAYANO
Chugosho (the lowest rank of samurai) and kinju (attendant) with a stipend of half of 12 ryo for three people. He delivered the first report on the sword fight incident to Ako. Although he joined the group, his family insisted he return to his position as officer, so he was caught in a dilemma which drove him to suicide. He is the model for Kanpei HAYANO who appears in Kanadehon Chushingura (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers).

Heizaemon HASHIMOTO
Umamawari (horse guard) with an estate of 100 koku. Despite joining the group, he later committed a love suicide together with a prostitute in Osaka City.

Sadayoshi OKUNO
Kumigashira (head of the group) with an estate of 1000 koku. Despite joining the group and supporting Kuranosuke OISHI, he withdrew following the Maruyama Meeting which determined the execution of revenge.

Toshimoto SHINDO
Head of ashigaru with an estate of 400 koku. Despite joining the group and being a relative of Kuranosuke OISHI, he withdrew following the Maruyama Meeting.

Yoshikazu KOYAMA
Head of ashigaru with an estate of 300 koku. Despite joining the group and being a relative of Kuranosuke OISHI, he withdrew following the Maruyama Meeting.

Shigeyuki OKAMOTO
Osaka rusui (caretaker) with an estate of 400 koku. He withdrew after the Maruyama Meeting.

Kuzaemon TAGAWA
Head of mochizutsu (troop of snipers to protect Shogun) and of ashigaru with an estate of 400 koku. Although he was supposed to submit Oishi's petition for the opening of the castle to the Bakufu metsuke (inspector) he neglected his responsibilities. He withdrew after the Maruyama Meeting.

Sadashiro TANAKA
Estate of 150 koku. He took possession and buried the corpse of Asano Takumi no Kami. He was a radical who acted along with Gengoemon KATAOKA. He absconded before the raid. He is said to have gone off the rails, indulging himself in alcohol and women.

Shozaemon OYAMADA
Edo-zume with an estate of 100 koku. Despite joining the group, he later stole valuables and fled. After the raid his father committed suicide out of shame.

Magozaemon SEO
A retainer of Kuranosuke OISHI. Although he acted in support of Kuranosuke OISHI, he later absconded.

Koheita MORI
Onando-yaku (Shogun or daimyo's closet keeper) with a stipend of 20 koku for five people. Despite joining the group and contributing to operations such as the search for the Kira-tei Residence, he dropped out just before the raid. He was the last to withdraw. Since the details of his withdrawal are unclear, many writers use their imagination to create a story for books or film. In the final scene of one such story, he crawls through the snow to the Kira-tei Residence, suffering from lung disease, and dies outside the walls, coughing up blood and hearing his fellows' roars of triumph from within.

Relatives of the Asano family
Ujisada TODA
Lord of Ogaki Domain, Mino Province. A relative of Asano Takumi no Kami. He was suspended from service after being implicated in the sword fight incident.

Nobumine ANBE
Lord of Okabe Domain, Musashi Province. A relative of Asano Takumi no Kami. He was suspended from service after being implicated in the sword fight incident.

Nagatsune ASANO
Shogunal retainer. A relative of Asano Takumi no Kami and Kuranosuke OISHI. He was suspended from service after being implicated in the sword fight incident and raid.

Nagatake ASANO
Shogunal retainer. A relative of Asano Takumi no Kami and Kuranosuke OISHI. Younger brother of Nagatsune ASANO. He was suspended from service after being implicated in the sword fight incident and raid.

Tsunanaga ASANO
Lord of Hiroshima Domain, Aki Province
A member of the head Asano family in Ako. He interfered with the raid on Kira-tei Residence for fear of being implicated. But after the raid when the roshi became heros, he suddenly changed his attitude and took Daizaburo OISHI, orphan of Kuranosuke OISHI, into his care.

Nagazumi ASANO
The lord of Miyoshi Branch Domain of Hiroshima, Bingo Province.
Younger brother of Tsunanaga
Since the Asano household in Miyoshi was Yozenin's family home, they took care of him after Ako domain had to forfeit its rank and privileges.

Families of Ako roshi
Korinin
Wife of Kuranosuke OISHI
Mother of Chikara OISHI

Ku OISHI
The oldest daughter of Kuranosuke OISHI
Younger sister of Chikara OISHI

Kichinoshin OISHI
The second son of Kuranosuke OISHI
Younger brother of Chikara OISHI

Ruri OISHI
The second daughter of Kuranosuke OISHI
Younger sister of Chikara OISHI
She married Nagamichi ASANO from the Asano clan.

Daisaburo OISHI
The third son of Kuranosuke OISHI
Younger brother of Chikara OISHI
He served the head Asano family in Hiroshima Prefecture for 1500 koku, just as his father had.

Hori HORIBE
Wife of Yasube HORIBE
Daughter of Yahei HORIBE

Mototomo UCHIDA
Shogunal retainer. He drove Gunbe TAKATA to withdraw from the group.

Shigetoshi KAYANO
Chief retainer of Yoshinari OSHIMA and of the shogun. Father of Sanpei KAYANO. He caused Sanpei to commit suicide.

Tadasato MATSUDAIRA
Shogunal retainer. He criticized his younger brother Mokunosuke OKABAYASHI, a former feudal retainer of Ako Domain, for not taking part in the raid, driving him to suicide.

Issen OYAMADA
Father of Shozaemon OYAMADA
He committed suicide being ashamed of his son who escaped after stealing his fellows' money.

The Kira family
Yoshinaka KIRA
Shogunal retainer of a noble family. He was stabbed by Asano Takumi no Kami in the Matsu no Oroka (Great Pine Corridor). He was killed by the Ako roshi during the raid.

Baireiin
Legal wife of Kira Kozuke no Suke
When the Kira family relocated their residence to Honsho, she took her chance to leave them and return to her home in Uesugi.

Yoshimasa KIRA
Shogunal retainer of a noble family.
Adopted child of Kira Kozuke no Suke
He became head of the Kira family after the sword fight incident. He was seriously injured in the raid. The Kira family had its territory confiscated after the incident and was banished to Takashima in Shinano Province.

Heihachiro KOBAYASHI
Chief retainer of the Kira family. He died in the raid. He is depicted as an expert swordsman in the Chushingura.

Magobe SODA
Chief retainer of the Kira family. He followed Sahyoe KIRA, who was sentenced to exile after the incident.

Kunai SAITO
Hitto karo (the head of chief retainers) of the Kira family
He survived without fighting.

Ichigaku SHIMIZU
Vassal of the Kira family
He was killed in the raid. He is depicted in the Chushingura as a most active, expert swordsman. A scene where he vigorously fights on a stone bridge in the courtyard of the Kira residence before falling down to the icy pond is well depicted.

Shinpachiro YAMAYOSHI
Vassal of the Kira family
He fought most energetically in the raid. He followed Sahyoe KIRA who was sentenced to exile after the incident.

Riemon TORII
Vassal of the Kira family
He was killed in the raid.

Yonezawa Domain
Tsunanori UESUGI
Lord of the Yonezawa Domain of Dewa Province
Biological son of Kira Kozuke no Suke.

Takafusa CHISAKA
Chief retainer of the Uesugi family. In Chushingura, he is told to have restrained Tsunanori from sending reinforcements to Kira Kozuke no Suke. In fact, he died two years before the incident.

Yasunaga IROBE
Chief retainer of the Uesugi family
In Chushingura, he is also told to have restrained Tsunanori from sending reinforcements to Kira Kozuke no Suke. In fact, he was not in service at the time of the incident.

Bakufu
Tsunayoshi TOKUGAWA
The fifth Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Edo bakufu. He punished Asano Takumi no Kami by lowering his rank and forcing him to commit suicide by disembowelment the same day.

Yoshiyasu YANAGISAWA
Sobayonin (lord chamberlain) of Tsunayoshi TOKUGAWA
He led the shogunate government as Tairo (chief minister). He refused down Okado's request for a careful investigation of Asano.

Hisanao SENGOKU
Ometsuke (supervisor of Daimyo and vassals) for the bakufu. He took charge of punishing Ako roshi who surrendered after the raid.

Yoriteru KAJIKAWA
He was a shogunal retainer who captured Asano Takumi no Kami, the man who stabbed Kira Kozuke no Suke. He wrote the "Kajikawa Yosobe Nikki" (Diary of Yosobe KAJIKAWA) which later became an important historical source on the sword fight incident.

Yasutoshi SHODA
Ometsuke (supervisor of Daimyo and vassals) for the bakufu. He served as coroner for Asano Takumi no Kami who later committed suicide by disembowelment.

Shigetomo OKADO
Metsuke (supervisor) for the bakufu. As metsuke, he fulfilled the role of assistant coroner to Asano Takumi no Kami who later committed suicide by disembowelment. He wrote "Okado Hikki" (Notes of Okado) which is an important historical source.

Tadashige OKUBO
Metsuke (supervisor) for the bakufu. After the sword fight incident, he took charge of the Kira investigation as well as serving as assistant coroner to Asano Takumi no Kami, who later committed suicide by disembowelment.

Masahane ARAKI
He went to Ako-jo Castle as metsuke in charge of the castle, and received three petitions from Kuranosuke OISHI. He served as coroner for Kuranosuke OISHI in the event of Ako roshi's suicide by disembowelment.

Masayoshi SAKAKIBARA
He went to Ako-jo Castle as metsuke in charge of the castle, and received three petitions from Kuranosuke OISHI.

Masauji ISHIHARA
Bakufu daikan (local governor)
After Ako Domain came under shogunal control, he went to govern there and received three petitions from Kuranosuke OISHI.

Toshinobu OKADA
Bakufu daikan (local governor)
After Ako Domain came under shogunal control, he went to govern there and received three petitions from Kuranosuke OISHI.

Michinao TSUCHIYA
Shogunal retainer. Neighbor of the Kira family. He is considered to have helped Ako roshi in the raid.

Imperial Court: Kyoto
Emperor Higashiyama
The hundred and thirteenth Emperor
He sent Yanagiwara and Takano to Edo as Imperial envoys.

Emperor Reigen
The hunderd and twelfth Emperor
He abdicated and ruled as a Retired Emperor. He sent Seikanji to Edo as a messenger.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Koben
He was the sixth prince born to Emperor Gosai, and Tendai-zasu (head priest of the Tendai sect). Tsunayoshi TOKUGAWA consulted him about how to punish the Ako roshi.

Sukekado YANAGIWARA
Dainagon (chief councilor of state)
When the sword fight incident occurred, he was in Edo as an envoy sent by Emperor Higashiyama.

Yasuharu TAKANO
Chunagon (vice-councilor of state)
When the sword fight incident occurred, he was in Edo as an envoy sent by Emperor Higashiyama.

Hirosada SEIKANJI
Dainagon (chief councilor of state)
When the sword fight incident occurred, he was in Edo as an messenger sent by Retired Emperor Reigen.

Nagayuki SHINDO
Shodaibu (high steward) to the Konoe family
A member of Genshiro SHINDO's family

Okaru
Kuranosuke OISHI's mistress in Yamashina.

Daimyo (Japanese feudal lord)
Muratoyo DATE
Lord of the domain of Iyo-Yoshida, Uwajima Domain, Iyo Province. He was a messenger to Asano Takumi no Kami and in charge of entertainment.

Tatsuaki TAMURA
Lord of Ichinoseki Domain, Mutsu Province. Asano Takumi no Kami committed suicide by disembowelment in the courtyard of a hantei (residence maintained by a daimyo).

Yasuteru WAKISAKA
Lord of Tatsuno Domain, Harima Province. He took control of Ako-jo Castle as shujoshi (inspector in charge of the castle).

Kinsada KINOSHITA
Lord of Ashimori Domain, Bicchu Province. He took control of Ako-jo Castle as shujoshi.

Korechika KAMEI
Lord of Tsuwano Domain, Iwami Province
He is said to have been teased by Kira Kozuke no Suke Yoshihisa. He is the model for Wakasanosuke MOMOI in "Kanadehon Chushingura" (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers).

Sanekake TAKO
Chief retainer of Tsuwano Domain, Iwami Province. He is the model for Honzo KAKOGAWA in "Kanadehon Chushingura" (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers).

Others
Kikaku TAKARAI
An author of haikai (seventeen-syllable verse) who mixed with Gengo OTAKA.

Sohen YAMADA
A tea ceremony master whom Gengo OTAKA targeted, becoming his apprentice in order to find out the date for Kiratei chakai (tea party held at the Kira-tei Residence).

KADA no Azumamaro
A scholar of Japanese classical literature
Oishi's old friend. He informed Oishi of the date for the tea party held at Kira-tei Residence.

Kotaku HOSOI
A Confucian who was a close friend of Yasube HORIBE. He took minutes of the raid, and was entrusted with recording 'Taketsune HORIBE Hikki' (Records of Taketsune HORIBE).

Dou KURISAKI
Doctor of Western Learning. He treated Kira Kozuke no Suke after he was stabbed.

Rihe AMANOYA
Osaka shonin (Osaka merchant)
As a merchant regularly he visited the Asano family, and is said to have prepared arms for the Ako roshi.

Myokaini
A woman who introduced herself as Yasube HORIBE's wife and swindled people out of offerings. An imposter of Hori HORIBE.