Fu-han-ken sanchisei (fu-han-ken tripartite governance system) (府藩県三治制)

Fu-han-sanchisei is a local administration system established in the first year of the Meiji Era.

Outline
In 1868, the Constitution of 1868 was issued, which abolished courts of law (local system) set up in regions formerly under the direct management of the Tokugawa Shogunate after the Meiji Restoration, denominated regions formerly governed by Jodai (chamberlain), Kyoto Shoshidai (Kyoto deputy), and bugyo (magistrate) as "fu" and the rest of the regions as "ken," assigned Chifuji "prefectural governor) to "fu" and Chikenji (prefectural governor) to "ken," and allowed han (domains) to be governed by daimyo as before the Meiji Restoration. After Hanseki Hokan (return of the lands and people to the Emperor) in 1869, the tripartite local administration system was established, making han domains become also administrative divisions of the national government, and former feudal lords (daimyo) were assigned to prefectural governors. Prefectural governors were local officials appointed by the central government, and the territories of the former han areas were not "shoryo (territory)" whose ownership was approved by the shogun but "jurisdictional areas" which the governors were ordered by the central government to govern. Control of han by the central government was tightened as evidenced by the "fief system" established in 1870 to force a nation-wide unification of han organizations, and at the same time, since the financial condition of domain administration was worsened, domain governments who requested abolition of "han" appeared one after another. In 1871, Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures) finally abolished "han" domains, and the prefectural system was fully in place.

Prefectures established before Haihan-chiken. * Prefectures in bold face are "fu," and those with X at the end are prefectures that were present on the very date of July 14, 1871, when Haihan-chiken was issued. The following regional division is based on the currently effective division. The 4th year of Keio is the first year of Meiji (1868).

Hokkaido and Tohoku regions
Hakodate-fu: established on April 24 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished by establishment of the Hokkaido Development Commissioner on July 8 in 1869 (old lunar calendar)

Kunohe Prefecture: established on August 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. Renamed to Hachinohe Prefecture on September 13 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->Relocated and renamed on September 19 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Sannohe Prefecture -> Abolished and incorporated into Esashi Prefecture on November 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.

Morioka Prefecture: established on July 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1870. ->X

Esashi Prefecture: established on August 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Isawa Prefecture: established on August 12 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Tome Prefecture: established on August 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Mono Prefecture: established on July 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed to Ishimaki Prefecture on August 13 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 ->Abolished and incorporated to Tome Prefecture on September 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1870

Shiraishi Prefecture: established on August 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed to Kakuda Prefecture on November 21 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 ->X
Sakata Prefecture: established on July 26 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed to Yamagata Prefecture (as a result of relocation of Yamagata Domain) on September 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1870 ->X
Fukushima Prefecture: established on July 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Wakamatsu Prefecture: established on May 4 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Shirakawa Prefecture: established on August 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X

Kanto Region
Hitachi Chikenji (prefectural governor): established on June 27 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Wakamori Prefecture on February 9 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.->X
Moka Chikenji: established on June 4 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed to Nikko Prefecture on February 15 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.->X
Iwahana Prefecture: established on June 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Inba Prefecture: established on August 8 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Inba Prefecture on January 13 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Kazusa Awa Chikenji: established on July 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Miyazaku Prefecture on February 9 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Edo-fu: established on May 11 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Tokyo-fu on July 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Musashi Chikenji: established on June 19 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. Renamed to Omiya Prefecture on January 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed on September 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Urawa Prefecture ->X
Musashi Chikenji: established on June 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Shinagawa Prefecture on February 9 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Musashi Chikenji: established on July 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Kosuge Prefecture on January 13 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Kanagawa-fu: established on June 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Kanagawa Prefecture on September 21 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X

Chubu Region
Echigo-fu (primary): established on May 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->Renamed to Niigata-fu on September 21 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->Renamed to Echigo-fu secondary Echigo-fu and primary Niigata Prefecture on February 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 -> Abolished and incorporated to Suibara Prefecture on July 27 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.

Echigo-fu secondary Echigo-fu and primary Niigata Prefecture (secondary): February 8 (old lunar calendar) in 1869: reestablished after being separated from Niigata-fu -> abolished and incorporated to Suibara Prefecture on July 27 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.

Suibara Prefecture: established as an integration of Echigo-fu and Niigata Prefecture on July 27 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed to Niigata Prefecture on March 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1870 ->X
Kashiwazaki Prefecture (primary): established as a splinter from Echigo-fu on July 27 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated into Niigata-fu on November 5 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.

Kashiwazaki Prefecture (secondary): re-established after being separated from Suibara Prefecture on August 25 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Sado Prefecture: established on September 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> put under management of Niigata-fu on November 5 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 (de facto incorporation)

Released from management of Echigo-fu and re-separated as Sado Prefecture on July 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Honpo Prefecture: established on December 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1870. ->X
Fuchu Prefecture: established on September 4 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated to Kai-fu on October 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.

Ichikawa Prefecture: established on September 4 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated into Kai-fu on October 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.

Isawa Prefecture: established on September 4 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated into Kai-fu on October 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.

Kai-fu: established as a merger of Fuchu Prefecture, Ichikawa Prefecture and Isawa Prefecture on October 28 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.

Renamed to Kofu Prefecture on July 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
Ina Prefecture: established on August 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Nakano Prefecture: established after being separated from Ina Prefecture on September 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1870.

->Relocated and renamed to Nagano Prefecture on June 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1871 ->X
Hida Prefecture: established on May 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Takayama Prefecture on June 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Kasamatsu Prefecture: established on April 25 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Nirayama Prefecture: established on June 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Mikawa Prefecture: established on June 9 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 ->abolished and incorporated into Ina Prefecture on June 24 (old lunar calendar) in 1869

Kinki Region
Watarai-fu: established on July 6 (old lunar calendar) in 1868
Renamed to Watarai Prefecture on July 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 ->X
Otsu Prefecture: established on April 25 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868 ->X
Kyoto-fu: established on April 24 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868 ->X
Kumihama Prefecture: established on April 28 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868 ->X
Osaka Prefecture: established on May 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Settsu Prefecture: established on January 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. Renamed to Toyosaki Prefecture on May 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated to Hyogo Prefecture on August 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.

Sakai Prefecture: established on June 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X
Kawachi Prefecture: established on January 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 -> abolished and incorporated into Sakai Prefecture on August 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1869

Hyogo Prefecture: May 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 ->X
Ikuno Prefecture: established after being separated from Kumihama Prefecture on August 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
Nara Prefecture: established on May 19 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. Renamed to Nara-fu on July 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Nara Prefecture on July 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Gojo Prefecture: established on February 27 (old lunar calendar) in 1870. ->X

Chugoku Region
Oki Prefecture: established on February 25 (old lunar calendar) in 1869.
->Relocated and renamed to Omori Prefecture on August 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
->Relocated and renamed to Hamada Prefecture on January 9 (old lunar calendar) in 1870 ->X
Kurashiki Prefecture: established on May 16 (old lunar calendar) in 1868. ->X

Shikoku Region
No prefectures established
Tadotsu Domain was abolished and incorporated into Kurashiki Prefecture on February 5 (old lunar calendar) in 1871

Kyushu Region
Nagasaki-fu: established on May 4 (old lunar calendar) in 1868.
Renamed to Nagasaki Prefecture on June 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869. ->X
Tomioka Prefecture: established on April 25 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868
->Renamed to Amakusa Prefecture on June 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated to Nagasaki-fu on August 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1868

Hita Prefecture: established on April 25 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868 ->X
Tomitaka Prefecture: established on April 25 (leap month in the old lunar calendar) in 1868 -> abolished and incorporated to Hita Prefecture on August 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1868

Han (Domains) abolished before Haihan-chiken
Han (Domains) abolished in the period from appointment of Chihanji after Hanseki-hokan to Haihan-chiken
But domains that were abolished or incorporated to parent domains during this period without any appointment of Chihanji (Inaba-wakasa Domain = former Tottori-nitta Domain, etc.) are not listed here.

Morioka Domain (Rikuchu Province)
Morioka Prefecture established on July 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Kitsuregawa Domain (Shimotsuke Province)
Incorporated to Nikko Prefecture on July 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Yoshi Domain (Kozuke Province)
Incorporated into Iwahana Prefecture on December 26 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
Echigo-nagaoka Domain (Echigo Province)
Incorporated into Kashiwazaki Prefecture on October 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Mariyama Domain (formerly Tsuruga Domain, Echizen Province)
Incorporated to Obama Domain on September 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Tanoguchi Domain (Shinano Province)
Separated and incorporated to Nagano Prefecture and Ina Prefecture on June 2, 1871
Takasu Domain (Mino Province)
Incorporated into Nagoya Domain on December 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Omizo Domain (Omi Province)
Incorporated into Otsu Prefecture on June 3 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Sayama Domain (Kawachi Province)
Incorporated to Sakai Prefecture on December 26 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
Fukumoto Domain (Harima Province)
Incorporated to Tottori Domain on November 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Tsuwano Domain (Iwami Province)
Incorporated to Hamada Prefecture on June 25 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Tokuyama Domain (Suo Province)
Incorporated to Yamaguchi Domain on June 19 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Marugame Domain (Sanuki Province)
Marugame Prefecture established on April 10 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Tadotsu Domain (Sanuki Province) incorporated to Kurashiki Prefecture on February 5 (old lunar calendar) in 1871

Han (Domains) relocated or renamed before Haihan-chiken
Han (Domains) renamed because of relocation of domain capital after appointment of Chihanji (han governor)
But those that were relocated or renamed before appointment of Chihanji or without appointment of Chihanji are not listed here.

Shiraishi Domain (former Morioka Domain, Iwaki Province)
Relocated on July 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1869->Morioka Domain (Rikuchu Province)
Moriyama Domain (Iwaki Province)
Relocated to Matsukawa Domain on December 24 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Kubota Domain (Ugo Province)
Renamed on January 12 (old lunar calendar) in 1871 to Akita Domain
Nagatoro Domain (Uzen Province)
Relocated to Oami Domain (Kazusa Province) on November 1 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
Oami Domain (Kazusa Province)
Re-relocated to Ryugasaki Domain (Hitachi Province) on February 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Yamagata Domain (Uzen Province)
Relocated to Asahiyama Domain (Omi Province) on July 17 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Yatabe Domain (Hitachi Province)
Relocated to Motegi Domain (Shimotsuke Province) on February 8 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Takatoku Domain (Shimotsuke Province)
Relocated to Sogano Domain (Shimotsuke Province) on March 19 (old lunar calendar) in 1870
Shibayama Domain (former Kakegawa Domain, Kazusa Province)
Relocated to Matsuo Domain (Kazusa Province) on January 13 (old lunar calendar) in 1871
Tsuruga Domain (Echizen Province)
Renamed on March 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1870 to Mariyama Domain
Mikami Domain (Omi Province)
Relocated on April 14 (old lunar calendar) in 1870 to Yoshimi Domain (Izumi Province)
Kawara Domain (former Kokura Domain, Buzen Province)
Relocated on December 24 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Toyotsu Domain (Buzen Province)

Han (Domains) renamed upon assignment of Chihanji
Han (Domains) renamed upon or immediately after assignment of Chihanji

Morioka Domain (Mutsu Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 24, 1869 to Shichinohe Domain
Shonai Domain (Ugo Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Matsumine Domain
Akita Domain (Ugo Province)
Chihanji assigned on February 24 (old lunar calendar) in 1870. to Iwasaki Domain
Shonai Domain (Uzen Province)
Renamed on September 13 (lunar calendar) in 1869 to Oizumi Domain
Hitachifuchu Domain (Hitachi Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Ishioka Domain
Awa−katsuyama Domain (Awa Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Kachiyama Domain
Mutsuura Domain (Musashi Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 23 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Mutsuura Domain
Mineyama Domain (Echigo Province)
Renamed on October 29 (old lunar calendar) in 1870 to Mineoka Domain
Itoigawa Domain (Echigo Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 24 in 1869 to Kiyosaki Domain
Tanokuchi Domain (Shinano Province) Chihanji assigned on June 22 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Tatsuoka Domain
Sumpu Domain (Suruga Province)
Renamed on August 7 in 1869 to Shizuoka Domain
Mikawa-yoshida Domain (Mikawa Province)
Renamed on August 7 in 1869 to Toyohashi Domain
Tanba-kameyama Domain (Tanba Province)
Renamed to Kameoka Domain on June 19 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
Tango-tanabe Domain (Tango Province)
Renamed to Maizuru Domain on June 20 (old lunar calendar) in 1869
Yamato-shinjo Domain (Yamato Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 24 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Kushira Domain
Mimasaka-katsuyama Domain (Mimasaka Province)
Renamed on July 4 (lunar calendar) in 1869 to Mashima Domain
Bicchu-matsuyama Domain (Bicchu Province)
Renamed on November 2 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Takahashi Domain
Okayama Domain (Bicchu Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 25 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Kamogata Domain
Okayama Domain (Bicchu Province)
Chihanji assigned on January 12 (old lunar calendar) in 1871 to Ikusaka Domain
Chofu Domain (Nagato Province)
Renamed on August 7 in 1869 to Toyoura Domain
Kokura Domain (Buzen Province)
Chihanji assigned on June 24 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Chizuka Domain
Tsushima-fuchu Domain (Tsushima Province)
Renamed August 7 (old lunar calendar) in 1869 to Izuhara Domain

Han (Domains) that existed on the very day of Haihan-chiken
The following domains existed until the very day of Haihan-chiken (August 29, 1871) and were replaced by "ken" (Prefecture) on the same day. Regional divisions are basically arranged from north to south in line with the above prefectural divisions.

Hokkaido and Tohoku Regions
Oshima Province: Matsumae Domain
Mutsu Province: Domains of Hirosaki, Kuroishi (subdomain of Hirosaki Domain), Tonami, Shichinohe (subdomain of Morioka Domain; a.k.a. Morioka Shinden Domain), and Hachinohe (subdomain of Morioka Domain)
Rikuchu Province: Ichinoseki Domain
Rikuzen Province: Sendai Domain
Ugo Province: Domains of Kubota, Iwasaki (subdomain of Kubota Domain), Honjo, Kameda, Yashima, and Dewa-matsuyama (subdomain of Shonai Domain)
Uzen Province: Domains of Shonai, Shinjo, Tendo and Yonezawa
Iwaki Province: Domains of Soma-nakamura, Iwakitaira, Yunagaya, Izumi, Miharu and Tanagura
Iwashiro Province: Nihonmatsu Domain

Kanto Region
Hitachi Province: Domains of Hitachi-matsuoka, Mito, Matsukawa, Hitachi-shishido, Kasama, Shimodate, Shimotsuma, Aso, Hitachi-fuchu, Tsuchiura, Shizuku, Ushiku and Oami
Shimousa Province: Domains of Yuki, Koga, Sekiyado, Sakura, Takaoka, Tako, Omigawa, Oyumi, and Sogano
Kazusa Province: Domains of Kikuma, Tsurumai, Tsurumaki, Sakurai, Kururi, Iino, Kokubo, Sanuki, Matsuo, Oami, Ichinomiya and Otaki
Awa Province: Domains of Nagao, Hanabusa, Tateyama, and Kachiyama
Shimotsuke Province: Domains of Otawara, Kurobane, Karasuyama, Mogi, Utsunomiya, Mibu, Fukiage, Sano and Ashikaga
Kozuke Province: Domains of Tatebayashi, Isesaki, Numata, Maebashi, Takasaki, Annaka, Nanokaichi, and Obata
Musashi Province: Domains of Kawagoe, Oshi, Iwatsuki and Mutsuura
Sagami Province: Domains of Odawara and Ogino-yamanaka

Chubu Region
Echigo Province: Domains of Murakami, Mitsukaichi, Kurokawa, Shibata, Muramatsu, Mineyama, Yoita, Shiiya, Takada and Itoigawa
Ecchu Province: Toyama Domain
Kaga Province: Domains of Kaga and Daishoji
Echizen Province: Domains of Maruoka, Fukui, Echizen-katsuyama, Ono and Sabae
Wakasa Province: Obama Domain
Shinano Province: Domains of Iiyama, Suzaka, Matsushiro, Ueda, Komoro, Iwamurata, Matsumoto, Suwa, Takato and Shinano-iida
Mino Province: Domains of Naeki, Iwamura, Yawata, Takatomi, Kano, Ogaki, Nomura and Imao
Suruga Province: Sumpu Domain
Totomi Province: Horie Domain
Mikawa Province: Domains of Mikawa-yoshida, Tahara, Hanbara, Nishi-ohira, Okazaki, Nishio, Nishibata, Koromo, Kariya and Shigehara
Owari Province: Domains of Owari and Inuyama

Kinki Region
Ise Province: Domains of Nagashima, Kuwana, Komono, Ise-kameyama, Kobe, Tsu, and Hisai (subdomain of Tsu Domain)
Shima Province: Toba Domain
Omi Province: Domains of Asahiyama (subdomain of Yamagata Domain), Omi-miyagawa, Hikone, Yamagami, Nishoji, Minakuchi, and Zeze
Yamashiro Province: Yodo Domain
Tanba Province: Domains of Tanba-kameyama, Sonobe, Ayabe, Yamaga, Fukuchiyama, Sasayama, and Tanba-kaibara
Tango Province: Domains of Tango-tanabe, Miyazu, and Mineyama
Settsu Province: Domains of Takatsuki, Asada, Amagasaki and Sanda
Kawachi Province: Tannan Domain
Izumi Province: Domains of Hakata, Kishiwada and Yoshimi
Harima Province: Domains of Akashi, Ono, Mikusa, Himeji, Hayashida, Tatsuno, Ako, Anji, Yamazaki and Mikazuki
Tajima Province: Domains of Izushi, Toyooka and Muraoka
Yamato Province: Domains of Yagyu, Koriyama, Koizumi, Yanagimoto, Shibamura, Tawaramoto, Takatori and Kujira
Kii Province: Domains of Kishu, Kii-tanabe, and Kii-shingu

Chugoku Region
Inaba Province: Tottori Domain
Izumo Province: Domains of Matsue, Mori, and Hirose
Iwami Province: Tsuwano Domain
Mimasaka Province: Domains of Tsuyama, Tsuruta and Mimasaka-katsuyama
Bizen Province: Okayama Domain
Bicchu Province: Domains of Kamogata, Ikusaka, Niwase, Ashimori, Asao, Okada, Takahashi, Nariwa, and Niimi
Bingo Province: Bingo-fukuyama Domain
Aki Province: Hiroshima Domain
Suo Province: Domains of Iwakuni and Yamaguchi
Nagato Province: Domains of Kiyosue and Toyora

Shikoku Region
Awa Province: Tokushima Domain
Sanuki Province: Takamatsu Domain
Iyo Province: Domains of Saijo, Komatsu, Imabari, Iyo-matsuyama, Niiya (subdomain of Ozu Domain), Ozu, Iyo-yoshida (subdomain of Uwajima Domain), and Uwajima
Tosa Province: Tosa Domain

Kyushu Region
Chikuzen Province: Domains of Fukuoka and Akizuki
Chikugo Province: Domains of Kurume, Yanagawa, and Mike
Tsushima Province: Izuhara Domain
Hizen Province: Domains of Karatsu, Saga, Hasunoike, Ogi, Kashima, Hirado, Fukue, Omura, and Shimabara
Higo Province: Domains of Kumamoto and Hitoyoshi
Buzen Province: Domains of Toyotsu, Chizuka and Nakatsu
Bungo Province: Domains of Kitsuki, Hiji, Funai, Saiki, Usuki, Oka and Mori
Hyuga Province: Domains of Nobeoka, Takanabe, Sadowara, and Obi
Satsuma Province: Kagoshima Domain

Names and Jurisdictions
"Fu" and "ken" (prefectures) and "han" (domain) to which Chihanji was assigned were basically called by the place name of their respective capital place, such as Osaka-fu, Shinagawa-ken, or Yamaguchi-han. But there were still many prefectures that have detached territories outside a lump of areas around their capital.

For instance, Nirayama Prefecture, whose capital was placed at Nirayama town, Izu Province, (today's Izunokuni city), controlled territories under direct rule of the former Tokugawa Shogunate (tenryo) and hatamoto-governed territories located not only in Izu Province but also in Sagami, Musashi and Kai Provinces. On the other hand, in the Sagami Province (today's Kanagawa Prefecture) were located Ogasawara Domain and Oginoyama Domain that placed their capitals in Sagami as well as jurisdictions of neighboring Kanagawa Prefecture, Mutsuura Domain (Musashi Province), Nirayama Prefecture (Izu Province), Karasuyama Domain (Shimotsuke Province, today's Tochigi Prefecture), and Nishi-ohira Domain in Mikawa Province (today's Aichi Prefecture). Such cases were found in large numbers in Kanto and Kinki areas where former Shogunate territories, hatamoto-dominated areas and domain territories were scatteringly located.

Although the national government tried to rationalize their control by exchanging and consolidating jurisdictions of fu, han and ken areas, only a part of such reform was realized until Haihan-chiken, leaving almost no confusion of jurisdiction eliminated. It was after the nation-wide reorganization of "fu" and "ken" administration units from the end of October to November (old lunar calendar) in 1871 following the Haihan-chiken that a standardized jurisdictional system based on ryoseikoku (province) or gun (county) was established.