Gakkanin (学館院)

Gakkanin is a type of Daigaku-besso (academic facility for nobles) that belongs to Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system).

It is expressed with a different set of Chinese characters in "Nihon montoku tenno jitsuroku" (5th national history, covering the years 850-858) and with another different set of Chinese characters in "Irohajirui-sho" (a dictionary written by Tadakane TACHIBANA in the Heian period).


Gakkanin was established in 847 by TACHIBANA no Kachiko, who was the Grand Empress Dowager of Emperor Saga, and Sadaijin (minister of the left) TACHIBANA no Ujikimi, and it was officially recognized as Daigaku-besso in 964. However, it grew weak because the financial base of Daigaku-besso was weak to start with and also because the Tachibana clan fell from power.

It was however taken over by the Fujiwara clan, the relatives of the Tachibana clan, as Zejo (the title of the chieftain of a clan especially the Tachibana clan and the O clan). Although it was already ruined by the 12th century, affiliated private estates and the chihokan (local official) recommendation (nenkyo) system remained up to the Middle Ages, and also, the title Gakkanin-betto (the chief officer of Gakkanin) also remained to indicate an honorary position.