Hennentai (a descriptive method of history) (編年体)

"Hennentai" is one of descriptive methods of history, whereby historical affairs are described in chronological order. On the otherhand, "Kidentai" is a way to describe historical information about any individual or country independently.

Except "Nihonshoki" (Chronicle of Japan), Rikkokushi (Japan's six national histories) were written by its typical descriptive style called "Kokushitai." Kokushitai is regarded as a kind of Hennentai style, since it is basically written in the Hennentai method and contains a series of biographies along with a necrology of each major figure.

Representative Works (China):

"Shunju" (Spring and Autumn) (a history book of old China)
"Shunjusashiden" (Master Zuo's commentaries to "Shunju")
"Chikushokinen" (Bamboo Annals)
"Shijitsugan" (a history book of old China, compiled by Guang SIMA)
"Zoku-Shijitsugan" (continuation of "Shijitsugan," (compiled by Bi Yuan)
"Mintsugan" (a history book of Ming Dynasty, compiled by Xia Xie)

Representative Works (Japan):

"Nihonshoki" (The Chronicle of Japan)
"Eiga-monogatari" (A Tale of Flowering Fortunes) (a history book of Japan)
"Mizukagami" (The Water Mirror) (a history book of old Japan)
"Masukagami" (The Clear Mirror) (a history book of old Japan)
"Hyakuren-sho" (a history book of Japan in the Kamakura period)