Jibugyo (地奉行)

Jibugyo was bugyo (magistrate) appointed by the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and the Muromachi bakufu. He was in charge of administration and trials related to housing and land in Kamakura and Kyoto where the respective bakufu was located. He played a role similar to that of machi-bugyo (town magistrate) who was responsible for administration and trials related to housing and land in Edo where the Edo bakufu was located.

It is considered that during the Kamakura period, Yasutoki HOJO appointed Jibugyo together with Hobugyonin (person who monitors and polices villains and street traders), a low-level position. Placed under the Samurai-dokoro (the Board of Retainers), they took on the administration and maintenance of public order of Kamakura with the Samurai-dokoro. However, in reality, at least one bugyo was selected from Miuchibito (private vassals of the Tokuso, the patrimonial head of the main branch of the Hojo clan), and it is considered that control by the Tokuso and the regent spread even to the city of Kamakura.

Jibugyo of the Muromachi bakufu was called Jikatatonin (a head of Jikata, a person in charge of trials related to housing and land), and local officials such as Kaigo (assistant administrator) and Yoriudo (staff that worked at bakufu organizations) were placed under them. Placed under the jurisdiction of Samurai-dokoro, they took on the administration and maintenance of public order in Kyoto with the Samurai-dokoro. However, in reality, they often clashed with the kebiishi (a police and judicial chief) of the Imperial Court because their authorities overlapped. But once the Muromachi bakufu took total control of the city of Kyoto in Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA's day, the post of kebiishi was virtually abolished and the authority was granted to jibugyo exclusively.