Kyushu ocho setsu (theory of Kyushu dynasty) (九州王朝説)

Kyushu ocho setsu is a theory that a dynasty existed in Kyushu until the end of the seventh century and Dazai-fu was the capital of the dynasty, advocated by Takehiko FURUTA.

This theory made up the major part of `Tagenteki Kodaishikan' (pluralistic view of ancient history) by FURUTA. FURUTA determined that `wa' refers to Kyushu, and Yamatai Koku (Yamatai Kingdom) was the predecessor of the Kyushu dynasty. According to FURUTA, the Kyushu dynasty was subsequently established, but it went downhill after it was defeated in `the Battle of Hakusukinoe' in 663.

Advocates including Shigenobu TSURUMI, who was an old advocate, and Kenkai NAGANUMA, who was an advocate after the war, determine the location of the governments from Yamatai Koku (Yamatai Kingdom) through until `the five kings of Wa' were in Kyushu. It was amplified until the seventh century and was organized by FURUTA. The following is the detailed theory.

However, please note that the theory is currently criticized by several scholars in the oriental history and Japanese history including Mitsusada INOUE, Kazuo ENOKI, Yukihisa YAMAO, and is also not contained in major encyclopedias or study books that contain the disputed history of Yamatai-Koku kingdom (the history and debatable points of the theory).

Notes: the opinions advocated by other scholars including posters are stated below, and they are slightly different from the original FURUTA theory in some points.

Summary

The governments which reigned in Japan from B.C through until the end of the seventh century were consistently located in Kyushu, and it was called I, Tai, Tai.

In the first century, Wakoku was established mainly in the northern Kyushu, and the king of wakoku established the capital in Wanonanokuni (small country in the Hakata area of Fukuoka prefecture) close to the Hakata Bay, paying tribute to the Han dynasty.

Yamatai-Koku kingdom, that peaked in the first half of the third century, placed its capital in Nakoku with 20,000 families, a big city at that time, in Fukuoka hirano.

Himika refers to Mikayorihime (Princess Mikayori), who is the ancestor of Tsukushi no kimi. Toyo was the first king of Wakoku who was named a Chinese-style name.

Yamato kingship in and around the capital in Jimmu tosei (Eastern expedition of the Emperor Jinmu) section of Japanese Mythology was established after a force of local ruling family in Kyushu dynasty had the eastern expedition. (Hyuga of Chikushi where tensonkorin (the descent to earth of the grandson of the sun goddess) occurred is Hinata-toge Pass between Fukuoka City and Maehara City, and Takachiho refers to Mt. Takasu in Maehara City).

The five kings of Wa were the kings of the Kyushu dynasty, and they relevantly, referred to themselves as Wasan, Wachin, Wasai, Wako, and Wabu.

Tsukushinokimiiwai (Wawai) (Ishiwa) was a king of Wa, and the rebellion of Iwai was a rebellion by Emperor Keitai against the Kyushu dynasty.

The Kyushu dynasty was the first dynasty which established its original era names (the list of Kyushu era) by using the titles for emperors.

The man who conducted an equal diplomacy with Sui Dynasty China was the king of wa (Japan) from Kyushu dynasty in which he was described as 'a king of wa (Japan) whose family name was Ame and his adult nickname was tarishihoko and he called himself as a king'.

Okimi (great king) is consistent with the title of chief used in Yamato kingship, but in the Kyushu dynasty theory, `okimi' is regarded as the title used in Kyushu or the Kanto region. Ame or Ama tarashihiko is consistent with naming that appeared in the "Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) or the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), and Okimi (great king) or Amakimi was regarded as an honorific title which was not only used for chiefs, but also for others. There is a theory that the description of 'a king of wa' in "Zuisho" (the Book of the Sui Dynasty) refers to Prince Shotoku. (The usage examples of 'okimi' (大王) : '法興六年十月歳在丙辰我法王大王与慧慈法師及葛城臣' in Itsubun [unknown or lost writings] of Iyo Fudoki [The Topographical Records of Iyo Province] from 'Shaku Nihongi' [Annotated Text of the Nihon Shoki]; '八隅知之 吾大王 高光 吾日乃皇子乃 馬並而' from Zouka [Other Poetry] by KAKINOMOTO no Ason Hitomaro in Manyoshu [Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves]).

In `the Battle of Hakusukinoe,' Tsukushi no kimi sachiyama, the emperor of the Kyusyu dynasty, who was a colonel commandant, was held captive, which determined the defeat of the Kyushu dynasty. Thus, the dignity of the Kyushu dynasty in Japan was lost, and fell into decline.

Yoshino appeared in the `Jinshin Rebellion' is Yoshino of Yoshinogasato, Saga Prefecture, and the City in Yamato is Dazai-fu, not the Asuka Imperial Palace. The reinforcements from Mino, said to be a decisive factor for winning or losing, is the Yamato army in Kinai region. `Jinshin Rebellion' occurred in Kyushu. It is an incident that occurred when the local ruling family in Yamato Province, Kinai region, interfered with the dispute in Kyushu dynasty over `Tsukushi no kimi sachiyama,' an emperor of the Kyushu dynasty, who was taken prisoner and then returned home after being released from the Tang army during the previous year, and took control of the Japan islands.

`The question about the Taika Reforms' (Isshi no hen (the Murder in the Year of Isshi) is the first year of Yamato in the Kyushu era, 695. The Taika Reforms were a gekokujo (an inverted social order when the lowly reigned over the elite) coup in which the ruling family of Kinai region killed the emperor of Kyushu dynasty and deprived him of the throne.

Until the Asuka period in the popular theory, Yamato kingship was a mere local government in and around the capital, not a government that represented Japan.

Dazai-fu (618-695 in the city in Yamato) is the capital of the Kyushu dynasty, and it is the oldest city developed adopting Shijin-soo of Feng Shui (geomancy).

The purpose of sakimori (soldiers deployed for boarder defenses) was to occupy Dazai-fu (the city in Yamato) that was the capital of the Kyushu dynasty, which reflected the policy of the Yamato kingship; `a foreign land must be conquered by foreigners.'

Santo (literally, mountain, island) (consistency of the Kyushu dynasty)

In ancient times, the Tsugaru Straits were located around Ezo (the Early Modern Japanese to describe the island of Hokkaido and the people who lived there) (it refers to `Tsugaru,' `Ara-Emishi,' `Niki-Emishi' in "Shin To-jo" (New Book of Tang). Wajin (Japanese people) and Chinese people didn't know for a long time whether Honsyu was an island or a peninsula. It was only Kyushu and Shikoku that were perceived as islands.
According to the official history from the Han generation through until the Sui generation, Wa and Tai were described as `Santo' (literally, mountain, island), which backs up the idea that Wa and Tai were in Kyushu as they were clearly perceived as islands at that time

It is possible that Yamato obtained information on the Tohoku region including the Tsugaru Straits during the Kofun period (tumulus period), when a number of keyhole-shaped mounds including Tsunozuka-kofun (the Tsunozuka Tumulus) in Iwate Prefecture were built in the Tohoku region. From this, there came a theory that the statement in "Suishu" (the Book of the Sui Dynasty), 'Its national boarders are five month from east to west and three months from south to north by a ship, surrounded by the sea,' is based on information of Honsyu brought by Yamato. It is unknown whether these theories are consistent with the old statements before the Kofun period such as "Gokanjo"(historical records of the Later Han Dynasty) or Sangokushi (Annals of the Three Kingdoms), Gisho. It was believed in the eighth century that the existence of Tsugaru Straits was recognized on the oldest map of the Japanese Islands (gyogi zu) that were developed in the eighth century.

"Gokanjo" (historical records of the Later Han Dynasty) `Volume 85 Dong Yi Liezhuan seventy-five Wajin (Japanese people)'

`倭在韓東南大 海中依山島為居 凡百餘國'

Sangokushi (Annals of the Three Kingdoms) "Gisho" Volume 30 `Karasuma senpi (Xianbei [ancient nomadic tribe of northern Asia]) Dongyi zhuan (the record of the encounters with eastern barbarians) the article of Wajin (Japanese people)'

`倭人在帶方東南大海之中 依山島爲國邑 舊百餘國 漢時有朝見者 今使譯所通三十國'

"Jin shu" (History of the Jin Dynasty) shiiden the article of toi; eastern barbarians

`倭人在帶方東南大海中 依山島爲國'

"Suishu" (the Book of the Sui Dynasty) `Volume 8 Liezhuan the forty sixth toi; eastern barbarians of Wa (Japan)'

`倭國在百濟新羅東南 水陸三千里 於大海之中依山島而居'

Golden stamp

As described below, Wa no na no kokuo in (the oldest known seal in Japan) discovered on Shikanoshima Island in Hakata Bay is read as `the king' of `Wanonanokuni' in `Han,' and it is the Inju (the great seal) of the king of Wa (the king of Wanonanokuni), the vassal of Han. In a place not far from where the golden seal was discovered, the residential castle of `the king of Wana,' `Wanonanokuni' was located. That means the capital of Wakoku was located in the vicinity of Hakata Bay.

Because the golden seals which the emperor gave to the king of Sakuho-koku (countries to confer a peerage with a Saku paper) haven't been inscribed in such a way that `the king of X of X in Han,' and the golden seals are to be given to a person of high rank, the golden seal was given to `the king of Wanonanokuni,' or `the king of Wakoku.'
Considering the seal system of Han and the role of the golden seal, FURUTA denied the popular theory and believed that the golden seal wouldn't be given to a small country which has as small a territory as Hakata.

The opening sentences of the article of Wakoku (Japan) of "Jiu Tang Shu" (Old Tang History) and some documents written after Jin Tang Shu contain the article of `Wakoku is Wanonanokuni in the old days [.Kanjo]).
Wanonanokuni (倭奴国) doesn't refer to a small country (奴国) in Wa (倭).but refers to the country which Han recognized as the country that represented Japan
It is located in the southernmost part of Wakoku (it is different from FURUTA's opinion), and is approved by Han as the country which represented Wakoku, where the person approved by Han as a king lived.

Since the character `倭' is simplified as `委,' it is assumed that `倭' had the same sound as `委.'
The golden seal should be read as `kanido kokuo' or `kanina kokuo.'

Even today, in Korea, `wenomu' (倭奴) is applied to express Japan.
倭奴 can be called `weno.'

No historical materials that directly backs up the existence of `Crown of Na province' are available. The name of king which is described in "The History of the Later Han Dynasty" is `the king of wakoku' only. According to "Gishiwajinden" (literally, an 'Account of the Wa' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty") in the third century, the country which has a king is `Jo koku' and its an enemy country, `Kunakoku' only. `Nakoku' was described in Gishiwajinden in two parts, but the king of Nakoku was not referred to in it even though the official or vice official was specified in a part. Only the name of the country (the name of city), `Nakoku' was referred to in the other part.

Yamatai-koku

Yamatai-koku was located in northern Kyushu. In "Gishiwajinden" (literally, an 'Account of the Wa' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty"), the distance and number of required number of days to Yamayai-koku in the same route are both described for accuracy. Using this method, the distance and direction, considered to be difficult to identify, can be consistently explained.
The distance from country to jo koku is 12,000 ri (1ri: seventy-six meters)

From this, it is believed that Ito koku is the destination of gishi, and jo koku was very close to Ito koku (Itoshima County, Fukuoka Province).

The following is a statement on the distance in Gishiwajinden (literally, an 'Account of the Wa' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty").

'從郡至倭循海岸水行歴韓國乍南乍東到其北岸狗邪韓國七千餘里始度一海千餘里至對馬國其大官曰卑狗福曰卑奴母離所居絶方可四百餘里土地山險多深林道路如禽鹿徑有千餘戸無良田食海物自活乗船南北糴又渡一海千餘里名曰瀚海至一大國官亦曰卑狗副曰卑奴母離方可三百里多竹木叢林有三千許家差有田地耗田猶不足食亦南北市糴又渡一海千餘里至末盧國有四千餘戸濱山海居草木茂盛行不見前人好捕魚鰒水無深淺皆沈沒取之東南陸行五百里到伊都國官曰爾支副曰泄謨觚柄渠觚有千餘戸世有王皆統屬女王國郡使往來常所駐'

The distance from the capital to Ito koku is 11,900 ri based on the calculation below.

7000 ri + 1000 ri + (400 ri X2) + 1000 ri + (300 ri X 2) + 1000 ri + 500 ri = 11900 ri

* Because 方可 is stated, it is regarded as a half round of Tsushima Nanto (Tsushima province) and a half round of Iki, and is expressed as (400 ri X2) (300 ri X2).

In the latter part, it was stated that there was 12,000 ri from Daifang Commandery to Jo koku.

Since there was a description of people from Yamatai-koku in "Suishu" (the Book of the Sui Dynasty), Yamatai-koku as the capital of Wa probably existed until the seventh century. However, as described in `Dazai-fu' (Wakyo) below that the capital of Wa in the seventh century was Dazai-fu, therefore, Dazai-fu (wakyo) is assumed to be the capital of Wa in Yamato, which is stated in "Suishu."

The distance from Itokoku to Nakoku is 100 ri, which means that the distance from Daifang Commandery to Nakoku is the same as the distance from Daifang Commandery to Jo koku, 12,000 ri. It is assumed that Nakoku was a part of Jo koku.
Nakoku is stated as a country with 20,000 families, which shows that Nakoku was the country with a population sufficient to the capital of Wa,
In Naka sites (the remains of Nakoku) in Hakata Ward, Fukuoka City, the nation's oldest site of a `road was found (7meters wide, 1.5 kilometers in a north-south direction) assumed to be developed based on `city planning' in the third century. It can be said that it had sufficient presence as the capital of Wa. Furthermore, it is very close to Dazai-fu which was the capital of Wa (it is also close to Shikano-shima Island where the golden seal of Kanno Wano Nano Kokuo (the King of Japan, Chinese Colony), the seal of the king of Wa in the first century was found). This developed city (Nakoku) is believed to have been the capital of Wa during the third century.

The five kings of Wa

As described below, `the five kings of Wa' is assumed to be the king of Kyushu, not the king of the Kinai region (the five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto).

The year of the reign of `the five kings of Wa' is completely inconsistent with the year of the reign of each emperor in the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan). It can be said that `the five kings of Wa' is not the great king of Yamato kingship because there is no record of the great kings of Yamato kingship who had Chinese style names consisting of one character such as San (讃), Chin (珍), Sei (済), Ko (興), (Bu) 武 like `the five kings of Wa,' and there was no case of a king of the eastern barbarians named by China without their permission.

In Kinai region (the five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto), a number of giant kofun (ancient burial mound) were built. While a war against foreign countries under the same royal throne continued, the ingression by Wa (Japan) to the Korean Peninsula continued 303 years, from the alliance with Kudara in 366 until the destruction of Goguryeo (kingdom of Korea) in 668 through the battle against Tang-Silla at Baekgang in 663. It was eighty-one times that Wa (Japan) interfered with the Korean Peninsula in the affairs of politics, military, and diplomacy. It continuously occurred for almost 300 years at the rate of once every four years. It is recorded that Wa (Japan) kept dispatching a numerous armies consisting of over 10, 000 soldiers.

The Kyushu dynasty theory states that military affairs put pressure on the people's livelihood, but it also states the Kyushu forces performed military activities on their own.

It is unthinkable that such large-scale construction works were frequently implemented. The independent forces of `Wa' that actively performed military activities in the Korean Peninsula built a number of giant kofun in Kinai region. While some people say that the spread in tumulus culture shows the expansion of the forces of the Yamato kingship, the expansion in religious culture doesn't necessarily correspond to the expansion of authority. Some people say that the spread of the tumulus culture shows the spread of religious rituals, associating it with the Yamato kingship, that was not well-grounded. It is unreasonable to back up the expansion of the royal forces based on the spread of the tumulus culture. Kofun (tumulus), tombs of local ruling families, were built in many places, showing the presence of local forces independent from the central government. This is inconsistent with the theory that the power of the Yamato kingship expanded. Features in the style of Kofun during this period vary from region to region, showing the presence of other independent forces in Izumo or Kibi.

In the memorial to the Emperor by Waobu (the last king of ancient Japan) in 478 in "Sungshu" (Book of the Sung dynasty), there is a description 'we conquered east and west of Japan and also a country in overseas.'
This indicates that Waobu recognized himself as an eastern barbarian. If Wa was Kyushu, the location described in "Sungshu"can be identified in that 'east' refers to Chugoku, Shikoku, Kinai region, 'west' refers to Kyushu, 'a country in overseas' refers to the southern area of Korean Peninsula. If Wa was in Kinai region based on the common theory, the location can't be identified in that 'east' refers to Chubu, Kanto region, 'west' refers to Kinai, Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu region, 'a country in overseas' refer to nowhere.

Cultural exchanges with Wa (Kyusyu dynasty)

As described below, it is believed that the great king of Kyusyu paid tribute to China for generations since the age of the Han dynasty while the Kyushu dynasty had cultural exchanges with or battles against China and Korea on behalf of Japan.

According to Korean documents related to Wa (Japan) or Wajin (Japanese people) such as Gwanggaeto Stele or "Samguk Sagi" (History of the Three Kingdoms), and "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), Wa frequently dispatched troops to the Korean Peninsula almost at the rate of once every four years during the period from the alliance formation with Kudara in 366 to `the battle of Hakusukinoe' in 663. Any records that relate to these military activities were not retained, and there is no trace of the great king of Yamato kingship within the Kinai region. To fight on the Korean Peninsula in ancient times without communications, the headquarters would require to be placed in northern Kyushu close to the battlefront, otherwise, timely and proper measures or orders for battle couldn't be carried out. In the age of the system of politics, rituals, and military affairs, which were not separate, a king must reside in northern Kyushu where the headquarters were situated. In other words, another king of Wa, who was not the king of the Yamato kingship, resided in northern Kyushu, where the capital of Wa was located.

According to the official history of china, Wa and china exchanged envoys since the Han dynasty. However, the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) or the"Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) didn't contain any records of envoys to or from China before ken-suishi (Japanese official diplomatic delegations sent to China during the Sui dynasty). Furthermore, it is said that the ken-suishi in the early period were not familiar with diplomatic courtesy and they visited China without the sovereign's message, which is questionable because Wa should have been very familiar with the social system, culture, or diplomatic courtesies in China from the longtime cultural exchange (the first ken-suishi was not described in "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), was described only in Suishu (the Book of the Sui Dynasty), while ken-suishi was described as `kento-shi' (Japanese envoy to Tang Dynasty China) in the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan). In addition, since it has been said that many of Chinese social system and culture were directly transferred for the first time by ken-suishi, kento-shi, and students accompanied them, before kensui-shi and kento-shi went to China, almost no Chinese social system and culture hadn't been transferred to Yamato kingship in Kinai region, so Wa and Yamato kingship in Kinai region were obviously different. Kensui-shi and ken-toshi were the first direct cultural exchanges between the Yamato kingship in the Kinai region and China.

It would appear that Wa had a high level of seamanship and the ability to travel across the ocean in that Wa continuously fought on the Korean Peninsula more than a few centuries and in `the battle of Hakusukinoe,' they dispatched one thousand warships and several tens of thousands of soldiers to fight against Suigun (warriors battle in the sea) of Tang at sea. Compared with the Wakoku army, the success rate of voyage for the Kentoshi ship dispatched by Yamato kingship was only around fifty-percent, which shows that their seamanship was very primitive. This was because seamanship died out due to a dynasty change.

Iwai Rebellion

As described below, Iwai is considered to be the emperor of Kyushu.

The description, 'the emperor and the imperial prince of Japan has past away' from "History of Baekje" (one of three books of Paekche [Original Records of Paekche, Records of Paekche, and The New Selection of Paeche], a lost document which is different from "History of Baekje"of Samguk Sagi [History of the Three Kingdoms]) was cited in "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) in 531.
In Kudara (Baekje, Paekche), it was recognized that the Iwai family, the family of the emperor of Japan, was destroyed in the `Iwai Rebellion.'

In the Iwatoyama Tumulus (keyhole-shaped mound), regarded as a tomb of Iwai, Tsukushi Province, Yame County, Fukuoka Prefecture, the place called gato where rituals and politics were performed, and the stone figure of a judge called tokibe are located. This provides evidence that a dynasty was in Kyushu as well as the ritsuryo codes in Kyusyu.

Prince Shotoku

As described below, it can be said that Umayadono-Oji (Prince Umayado) is a different person from `Hiizurutokoronotenshi' (Prince Shotoku), and `Hiizurutokoronotenshi' was a person of the Kyushu dynasty who was deeply devoted to Kan I junikai (twelve grades of cap rank), the establishment of the Seventeen Article Constitution, the dispatch of Ken-suishi, and Buddhism.
Umayadono-Oji (Prince Umayado) is a person of Yamato kingship, and it is believed that he didn't have any particular achievements

`Volume 81, Liezhuan the forty sixth Dong Yi Wakoku' of "Suishu" (the Book of the Sui Dynasty) states that the country of Hiizurutokoronotenshi, the king of Wakoku, was in Santo (literally, mountain, island) and that Mt. Aso was located in Wakoku, which means that Wakoku is Kyushu.

A king of wa (Japan) whose family name was Ame and his adult nickname was tarishihoko and he called himself as a king' in 600 refers to a male king, and it was neither a prince nor an empress (Empress Suiko) based on the description 'the name of the king's wife is Keimi, there are 600 to 700 women in a imperial palace, and the name of king's son (a prince) is Rikamitahori.'
If the king of Wakoku at that time had been a female, it should have been recorded since it would have been a rare case in China.

The record of Emperor Yomei in "Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) only includes `Umayadono toyotomimino mikoto' in one part and didn't state any other achievements.

Change of dynasty

As described below, it is believed that in the end of the seventh century, the Yamato kingship was established after a power shift from the Kyushu dynasty.

If we follow the theory that Yamatai Koku (Yamatai Kingdom) was in northern Kyushu based upon "Gishiwajinden" (literally, an 'Account of the Wa' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty"), the power should have been shifted from the Kyushu to the Yamato kingship. However, descriptions regarding Wa in the official history of China is consistent, and therefore, they can be recognized as descriptions regarding the same government. According to "Jiu Tang Shu" (Old Tang History) and "Shin To-jo" (New Book of Tang), the official history of China, the name of the country changed from `Wa' to `Japan' in the end of seventh century, from which it is assumed that there was a dynasty change during this period.

In the Chinese cultural region, a newly-established dynasty was supposed to compile a history book to document the rights of their authority,
The "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) and the "Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) were compiled around the early nineteenth century, from which it is assumed that the Yamato kingship was established in the end of the seventh century.

`The list of the Kyushu era' (517 - 700 [695] see below), which is considered to be established by the Kyushu dynasty before the Yamato kingship are frequently appeared in local reports on engi (writing about the history) of temples and shrines or on localities in many parts of Japan. The `Kyushu era' ended at the end of the seventh century, and it is assumed that there was a dynasty change during this period.

Records that were erased

As described below, it is assumed that some records that were not convenient for the Yamato kingship were intentionally erased (some books were burnt) when kiki (the Kojiki and Nihonshoki) was compiled.

The golden seals such as Wa no na no kokuo in (the seal for the king of Wanonanokuni [small country in Hakata area of Fukuoka prefecture]) or Shingi Wao no in (the seal for the king of Wa) was granted by an emperor since Wa understood their characters, and Wa also visited to pay tribute to China with the Johyobun (memorial to the Emperor). From this, it can be assumed that a part of the Wa started using characters during the first century. Therefore, a number of history books about the Kofun period (tumulus period) or Asuka period should have been available when kiki (the Kojiki and Nihonshoki) was compiled. However, no such books are present today. The oldest date stated in Shosoin Monjo (document collection of the Nara period kept in Shosoin) is 702.

In Jindaiki (Records of the period of the gods), the beginning of the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) frequently uses the expression, 'according to the document', which indicates the presence of the document for reference.

The imperial decree on New year's day in 708 of "Shoku Nihongi" (Chronicle of Japan Continued) contains the description 'A man who run away to the countryside with the banned book will be panished as notified at first if he does not turn himself in' which shows that documents inconsistent with 'the legitimate ideology (Nihonshoki)' of Yamato kingship remained during this period.

From the statement, 'The capital of Yamatai Kingdom is in Yamadai Kingdom according to Gishi-wajin-den (the first written record of Japan's commerce)' in Suishu (the Book of the Sui Dynasty), it would appear that the Yamatai Kingdom existed until the seventh century. However, nothing about the Yamatai Kingdom or Himiko was described in the Nihon-shoki (the oldest chronicles of Japan) nor the Kojiki (The Records of Ancient Matters) compiled during the early eighth century.

Jinshin Rebellion

As described below, It is believed that the Jinshi Rebellion took place in Kyushu.

The name of `Yamato no miyako' (the city in Yamato) appeared in this article, but there was no such a city that could be called `miyako' (capital) in Kinnai region of Yamato at this period (Places like the Asuka Imperial Palace only had a palace, but they didn't have a town). Therefore, it is believed that Yamato no miyako refers to Dazai-fu, the only city that existed in Japan at that time.

The local ruling families such as OKIDA no Esaka or OKIDA no Wakami were active in this rebellion.

In Kashima, Saga Prefecture, customs like eating funan kogui (local cuisine of Kashima city, Saga prefecture), which was associated with the Jinshin Rebellion still continued.

Taika Reforms

As described below, the Taika Reforms is gekokujo (an inverted social order when the lowly reigned over the elite) coup in which the local ruling families in Kinai region in Yamato killed the emperor of the Kyushu dynasty and seized the power of the emperor in 695. The article was intended to describe the Fujiwara clan's achievements on gaining political power while it was intended to keep the fact of the seizure of power secret, which led to the falsification of the year and the background.

The article on `the Taika Reforms' of "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) just described the emerging local ruling families
From the article, it's completely unknown as to why the government was reformed or was innovated. If the previous government had been overthrown and a major reform which can be recorded in history books had been accomplished, the overthrown government must have had political power and must have maintained a political system over a long period of time before that. The new persons in power must have been different from the previous persons in power. However, according to the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), the history of the overthrown Soga clan is shorter than 100 years, meaning they were an emerging force, and the force that overthrew the Soga clan consisted of emperors for generations, the persons in paramount authority. The "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) apparently has such inconsistent descriptions.

As described below, it is believed that `the Taika Reforms' took place at the end of the seventh century.

The "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) states that `Kori' (district, county) was established at the time of `the Taika Reforms.'
The term, `kori' (郡) was used after the establishment of Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code), and documents (mokukan [narrow, long, and thin pieces of wood strung together that were used to write on in ancient times]) which contained `kori' (評) discovered before that..

Under article one of Kaishin no Mikotonori (the Imperial Reform Edict) on New year's day in 646, the abolishment of private land owned by citizens was set forth, but after 646, territorial right of buqu (a serf) or manor owned by Tomonomiyatsuko (the chief of various departments at the Imperial Court) or Tomonomiyatsuko (the chief of various departments at the Imperial Court) were approved.

Kaishin no Mikotonori (the Imperial Reform Edict) contains the order, `establish koseki (the household registers), keicho (the yearly tax registers), and Handen Shuju ho (the law of periodic reallocations of rice land) for the first time.'
However, those terms, koseki (the household registers), keicho (the yearly tax registers), and Handen Shuju (periodic reallocations of rice land) were terms used for the first time in the Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code), and they never appeared in documents before that.

Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code) was issued in 701. It was Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code) that established the ritsuro system for the first time.

An article during July, in 645 of the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) contains an article where `myojin (a gracious deity) Gyou (the reign of the Emperor) Japanese Emperor' was shown to the envoys from Goguryeo (kingdom of Korea) or Kudara (Baekje, Paekche), which was the first case of country name, `Nihon' (Japan), which was used in Japan. However, in the official history of China ("Jiu Tang Shu" [Old Tang History] or "Shin To-jo" [New Book of Tang]), the name of the country of Japan changed from `Wa' to `Nihon' (Japan) at the end of the seventh century.

As described below, the first year of the Taika period was considered to be 695.

According to the Kyushu era based on the Kyushu theory such as "Nichureki" (Dual History), the first year of Taika period is 695.

Gengo (an era name) are usually successive, but in "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), the names of the era from Taika through until Taiho was skipped or missing.

Fujiwara-kyo (the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years between 694 and 710), the first full-scale Miyakonojo (capital) under Yamato kingship was constructed in 694. It is believed that the Yamato kingship was established around this time.

The imperial court was unlikely to construct a capital called Fujiwara-kyo which contains the name of a vassal despite the existence of the Fujiwara clan. Fujiwara-kyo must have been constructed before the name Fujiwara was granted. Because FUJIWARA no Fuhito played the major role in `the Taika Reforms,' only Fuhito of NAKATOMI no Kamatari's sons were granted the family name of Fujiwara. It would appear that Fuhito, who was granted the name of Fujiwara due to his achievement in`the Taika Reforms,' later gave his father, NAKATOMI no Kamatari his achievements as well as the name of the Fujihara clan.

Emperor Kotoku, who is said to have ascended to the throne in 645, and Emperor Monmu, who is said to have ascended to the throne in 696, referred to themselves as Prince Karu before their enthronement. It is believed that Emperor Kotoku is actually Emperor Monmu.

As described below, the Soga clan is regarded as the imperial family of the Kyushu dynasty (Wakoku).

It is pointed out that the name of the Soga clan was not a real name in that the integration of the name, Umako (馬子) and the name, Iruka (入鹿) refers to baka (馬鹿) (foolish) or in terms of the name Emishi.

The residence of Soga no Emish was called `Kaminomikado' (literally, gate of the upper shrine) while the child of Soga no Emishi was called `Hazamanomikado' (literally, gate of the valley shrine).

The children of Soga no Iruka were treated as an Imperial Prince or princess.

History books such as "Kunitsufumi" (National Record), "Sumeramikotonofumi" (Record of the Emperors), which were to be handed down by the imperial family for generations, were possessed by the Soga clan and were retained at the residence of the Soga clan.

Dazai-fu (Wakyo)

As described below, Dazai-fu is regarded as the capital (wakyo) of the Kyushu dynasty.

Name

The original meaning of `Dazai' is the prime minister of China, and based on that, `Dazai-fu' can be taken as the meaning of `the place where the affairs of state are conducted,' or `the capital.'

In ancient times, Dazai-fu, along with Taga-jo Castle, were called `to no mikado,' and `to no mikado' means `another capital far away from the capital, the foreign capital.'

In Dazai-fu, koaza (small administrative unit [of a village]) representing geographical names such as `Shishinden' (hall for state ceremonies), `dairi' (Imperial Palace), `Suzaku-mon Gate' still remained, showing that `the place for the emperor' was in Dazai-fu.

Blank parts in records

The time when Dazai-fu was established while the Yamato kingship was not recorded in history books like the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan). Besides, the construction of Miyakonojo (capital) was not recorded either.

The remaining sites of the defense facility in ancient times were concentrated in northern Kyushu. It is apparent that Dazai-fu was the main place to be defended, instead of Kinai region (the five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto), especially Yamato Province. (Mizushiro [castles on lakes or marshes for defensive reasons] or distinctive Korean-style mountain castles are mostly located in northern Kyushu). (The construction of `Kogo-ishi yama-shiro mountain castle,' ancient mountain castles, were not recorded in the history books of the Yamato Kingship, and they were located from northern Kyushu through to the coastal regions of the Inland Sea lying between the islands of Honshu and Shikoku, and most of Kogo-ishi yama-shiro mountain castles were also concentrated in northern Kyushu).

Miyakonojo

This is the oldest city in Japan.

As described below, Dazai-fu is the oldest full-scale city older than Fujiwara-kyo (the Imperial capital of Japan) (in 694), which is the oldest jobosei (a series of avenues running at right angles to each other marked out the system) Miyakonojo of the Yamato kingship.

The construction of jobo (Chinese capital) is work to only readjust the land, and it is much easier than constructing fortresses or castle walls. There is no need to defend places without facilities. A place with critical facilities needs to be equipped for defense. On the assumption that the description of the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) is correct, and based upon common sense, Miyakonojo which served as the central function, was constructed and developed enough for materials to be applied before 664 when many materials were put to construct affiliated facilities including mizu-shiro (castles on lakes or marshes for defensive purposes) for defense.

The structural remnants of Kanzeon-ji Temple which were constructed around the middle of the seventh century corresponded exactly to the jobo of Dazi-fu. The jobo of Dazai-fu existed around the middle of the seventh century when Kanzeon Temple was built because it is believed that temples and shrines were constructed keeping with the jobo constructed earlier, not that the jobo were constructed keeping with the temples and shrines which were constructed earlier.

Since 618 was stated during the Kyushu era, it is believed that it was constructed in 618.

It is a city modeled on the capital of China (Changan).

The land zoning in a city is apparently the jobosei (a series of avenues running at right angles to each other marked out the system) modeled on Changan in Tang.
(Because Seicho [government office] is never moved since its establishment, it is considered that `City planning was available when Seicho [government office] was founded.')
(Miyakonojo was established 46 to 92 years earlier than Heijo-kyo (in 710), which was the first capital of jobosei [a series of avenues running at right angles to each other marked out the system] deploying Seicho (government office) in the north under the Yamato kingship.)
(It is believed that there were castle walls, which were not seen in the capital of the Yamato kingship, in the vicinity of Miyakonojo).

It is the oldest Feng Shui city.

As described in engi (writing about the history) of Kamado-jinja Shrine, it is said to be `the place for Shijin so,' and it was conveniently located as a capital before 664 when mizu-shiro (castles on lakes or marshes for defensive reasons) was constructed or 618 when Dazai-fu was constructed.
It is 130 to 176 years earlier than Heian-kyo (in 794), the only Japanese-style Feng shui city (Onmyodo [way of Yin and Yang; occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements]) under Yamato kingship

The records of the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), the "Shoku Nihongi"(Chronicles of Japan Continued), Gishiwajinden (literally, an 'Account of the Wa' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty")

As shown in Chikusen-joirei (an ordinance to ordain a court rank to someone who saved a certain amount of money) from 711 to 800, there was no currency used for economy in the Kinai region (the five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto), Yamato Province until the eighth century. As the official of Dazai-fu reported the capital that 'this city is lively with people and blooming as a trading center. It is the most prosperous place in Japan' in the article on October, 769 of "Shoku Nihongi' (Chronicle of Japan Continued), Dazai-fu was an international city of commerce, the most prosperous city in ancient times, and was more prosperous than the capital of Yamato kingship such as Fujiwara-kyo or Heijo-kyo, where only officials lived.

According to "Gishiwajinden" (literally, an 'Account of the Wa' in "The History of the Wei Dynasty"), even Naokoku in the third century had 20,000 families (had a population of over 100,000), which was much larger than the population of Fujiwara-kyo or Heijo-kyo.
In Yamato Province of Kinai region, there was no currency used for economy, but, Wa seemed to have been active in trade as it is stated that 'there is market in cities and trading is monitored by high ranking Wa.'

In an article of the Jinshin Rebellion of the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), the name of "Wakyo" appeared. However, there was no such city that can be called Kyo (capital) during this period (the site of Asuka no miyako [the capital of Asuka] had only a palace and it didn't have a town). It is considered that Wakyo is Dazai-fu which was the only city that existed in Japan at this time.

Measurement survey and excavation

According to `Dazai-fu excavation and research,' it took about 300 years for construction based on the initial plan. However, it was the only works for land zoning, and some questionable and inconsistent points arose as to why it took 300 years for construction that could be completed within a few months to a few years, how the plan was maintained and implemented for the period of 300 years, what the purposes of the construction was, and who took charge of the work.

The age measurement in current Dazai-fu was not conducted using either the measurement of tree-ring dating (dendrochronology) or radioactive carbon dating, and therefore, it lacks a scientific foundation. Based upon scientific measurements, the construction date of mizu-shiro (castles on lakes or marshes for defensive reasons) was ninety years earlier than the construction date in mentioned in the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), which was even earlier than the main body of Dazai-fu.

According to measurements of radioactive carbon dating performed by Gakushuin University dating laboratory, soil layers of Takeuchi on Dazai-fu remains which includes burnt down soils are about 1600 years old.

Sakimori (soldiers garrisoned at strategic posts in Kyushu during ancient times)

The "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) states that Sakimori was placed after 664. Since the waka poems of Sakimori were not contained in "Manyoshu" (Japan's oldest anthology of poems) before the eighth century, Sakimori is considered to be placed when the Kyusyu dynasty was destroyed at the end of the seventh century. Initially, Sakimori was recruited in Togoku (eastern country, eastern provinces, Kanto provinces), but they were recruited only in Kyushu after 757 when the system of Yamato kingshio was established. This is because the establishment of Sakimori was initially intended to conquer Kyushu, and was not intended to defend against foreign enemies.

Related theories

Based on the research on skeleton, there is a theory in anthropology that a group of toraijin (settlers) from northern east of Asia settled down in the northern Kyushu (northern Fukuoka Prefecture, northern Saga Prefecture, western Yamaguchi Prefecture) after the middle of Yayoi period, and conquered or mixed with Jomon-jin people who lived in the Japanese islands, extending their influences across the west Japan little by little, and finally spread to the Kinki region by the Kofun period (tumulus period) (hypothesis by Kazuro HANIWARA). There is an opinion that the spread of Yayoi-jin people stated in the theory in anthropology extremely corresponds with the expansion of the influences of the Kyushu dynasty stated in the theory of Kyushu dynasty. Jomon-jin people and Yayoi-jin people.

The story of the mighty Kyusyu expedition by Emperor Keiko, the story on Chikugo suppression by Empress Jingu were plagiarized from the history books of the Kyushu dynasty.

The article on Emperor Jito's visit to Yoshino in the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) is an article on the emperor's visits to mission troops to the Yoshino area, Saga Prefecture at the time of `the battle of Hakusukinoe' sixty years ago (the troops gathered at the sea of Areake for maintaining confidentiality, and are believed to have taken the course; from the sea of Ariake, the Goto Islands, to Kan).

It is commonly said that the name of `kyushu' derives from nine countries (Buzen Province, Bungo Province, Chikuzen Province, Chikugo Province, Hizen Province, Hyuga Province, Osumi Province, Satsuma Province) that make up Kyusyu. In ancient China, the term, `Kyushu' refers to the territory which was directly reigned by an emperor, and it refers to tenka (realm), not to the nine countries.
(Since the country was customarily divided into nine areas and reigned in China, Kyushu was associated with tenka (realm) (reference; Kyushu [China])

The article on the revision of the name of a country in Chinese history books

"Kutojo" (Old Tang History) Volume 199, the part 1, Liezhuan 149 the part 1, Dong Yi, Wakoku, Japan

Japan and Wakoku are different countries.'
It is called Japan (Land of the Rising Sun) because it is located where the sun rises.'
Or since Wakoku is not a gracious name, it is changed to more gracious name, Japan.'
Or Japan was a small land but it conquered Wakoku and became a country.'

"To-jo" (Book of Tang) Volume 220, Liezhuan 145, Dong yi Japan

The name of the country was changed to Japan (pronounced as Nippon meaning Land of the Rising Sun) from Wa because Wa has a nagative image.'
The Japanese envoy mentioned that since the country is located where the sun rises so the name of the country became Japan.'
Or he also mentioned that because Japan was a small country, Wakoku conquered Japan and stole the country name.'
Because the envoy didn't clarify the fact, none of them might be true.'

"Jiu Tang Shu" (Old Tang History) contains the two articles; "Wakokuden" on Wa and "Nihon-koku den" on Nihon (Japan). This is because Wa (Kyushu dynasty) is a different country from nihon (Japan) (Yamato kingship), and Yamato kingship started to use the name of Nihon (Japan) after Nihon (Japan) was conquered by Yamato kingship.

There is an inscription in the lower part of pedestal of Maitreya statue in Seiryuzan Yachu-ji Temple: 'On April of 666, the Emperor Chugu became ill and monks and 118 followers of Kashiwa-dera Temple made this Maitreya statue to pray for his health as well as happiness of all people.'
From this, the Maitreya statue was enshrined when the monks of Kashiaw-dera temple prayed in April, 666 that `Emperor Chigu,' who became ill, would get well. However, in 666, Emperor Saimei was not yet alive, and Anahobe no hashihitohime never ascended to the throne.
There are no literal materials which shows that Emperor Tenchi was called `Emperor Chugu.'
From this, it can be said that `Emperor Chugu,' who didn't appear in the official history of Yamato kingship, existed and Emperor Chugu was an emperor of the Kyushu dynasty, too.

As described in the articles including "Shoku Nihongi" (Chronicle of Japan Continued), and its Senbun (letters engraved on coins), the first currency issued by Yamato kingship is Wado-kaichin (708). In ancient Japan, currency such as Mumon-ginsen coin (Japan's oldest private silver coin) or Fuhonsen (683) coin existed before the appearance of Wado-kaichin. As shown in Chikusen-joirei (an ordinance to ordain a court rank to someone who saved a certain amount of money) (711-800), economy using currency was undeveloped even after the eighth century. As the article in 769 of "Shoku Nihongi"(Chronicle of Japan Continued) states that an official of Dazai-fu reported 'this city is lively with people and blooming as a trading center. It is the most prosperous place in Japan' to the capital, in the northern Kyushu, the economy using currency was already active. That is to say, it is Kyushu where currency such as Mumon-ginsen coin (Japan's oldest private silver coin) or Fuhonsen was issued and was used before the seventh century. After the eighth century, the Yamato kingship issued currency including Wado-kaichin based on Fuhonsen of the Kyushu dynasty. (Most copper coins including Wado-kaichin were produced in western Japan such as Suo Province [Suzenji, Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Anyoji-cho, Chofu, Shimonoseki City]).

All `Kensui-shi' (Japanese envoys to Sui Dynasty China) and `kento-shi' (Japanese envoy to Tang Dynasty China) up to the seventh Kento-shi (559) were dispatched by the Kyushu dynasty. The envoys including ONO no Imoko of Yamato kingship were allowed to accompany Kensui-shi of Kyushu dynasty.

According to the Shozeicho (balance sheets of tax rice) of 'Shosoin Monjo' (document collection of the Nara period kept in Shosoin), rice, salt, sake, chestnuts, are commonly paid as tax. In `Chikugo Province,' personnel for falconry, gun dogs, balls such as white gem, sapphire, and glass beads were paid as tax. Aristocratic customs like falconry festivals or Kyokusui no Utage poetry festivals were practiced in Chikugo Province, not in Kinai Yamato region.

Most treasures in the Nara Shosoin Treasure House, which were originally treasures of the Kyushu dynasty, and were contributed by the Shosoin Treasure House in Chikugo Province, Kyushu in 738.

A temple in Chikushi Province (either of Kanzeon-ji Temple in Dazai-fu miyakonojo, Nanba Tenno-ji temple in Nanba pond, Fukuoka City or Hoko-ji temple in Chikugo Province) was relocated and rebuilt as Horyu-ji Temple Saiin Garan (the Western Precinct).

In ancient times, when an important incident such as Dokyo Incident in which Wake no Kiyomaro went to receive an oracle of Usa-jingu Shrine, or the enthronement of an emperor, Imperial envoys were always dispatched to Usa-jingu Shrine. In ancient Japan, emphasis was placed on Usa-jingu shrine in Kyushu rather than on Ise-jingu shrine. In other words, in ancient Japan, Kyushu was authoritative.

`Kimigayo' (Japan's national anthem) is a song of rites and festivals of Kyushu dynasty in spring.

`KAKINOMOTO no Hitomaro' or `Nukata no Okimi,' who are famous poets of the "Manyoshu" (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) and are unidentified are persons related to the Kyushu dynasty. YAMANOUE no Okura was also an official of the Kyushu dynasty, but later served the Yamato kingship.

When the Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code) was established and a bureaucratic organization was organized in 701 after the construction of the capital (Fujiara-kyo), where administration resided by Yamato kingship in 694, many officials from the officials of the Kyushu dynasty were re-employed for required positions. A group of the bureaucracy, which suddenly appeared in Kinai, Yamato was brought from Dazai-fu (Wakyo) in Kyushu. Yamato kingship secured the necessary officials for their administration by taking over the bureaucratic organization of the Kyushu dynasty. The reason why the Yamato kingship used lower-ranking officials, who were in an intellectual class and were elites, in the same manner as they use slaves came from this.

In the autumn of 2004, Northwest University in Xian City, Sensei province, China discovered the epitaph of `Manari INO,' a Japanese envoy to Tang Dynasty China in Xian City. `Manari INO' was posthumously granted the rank of `Shoihogyo' (responsible official of the Department in charge of dealing with clothes for emperor, Shoikyoku) by an emperor. The families of successive emperors worked at `Shoikyoku' (Department in charge of dealing with clothes for emperor), and the family name, `I' (井) and `Ino' (井野), which derived from `I' (井), were often seen in Ubuyama-mura Village, Minamioguni-machi, and Ichinomiya-machi of Kumamoto Prefecture today, and `I' (井) is associated with `I' (倭). From this, `Manari INO' is considered to be a member of the imperial family of the Kyushu dynasty.

Otsunomiya is Higo Otsu (Otsu-cho town) not Omi Otsu (Otsu city). The capital was moved for evacuation to Otsunomita in order to prepare for the landing of the enemy. (In Omi, the reason for capital relocation is unknown, and seta contained in the name of Setanokarahashi Bridge comes from Seta station [Kumamoto Prefecture]).

"Manyoshu" (Japan's oldest anthology of poems) doesn't' contain the poems created by people from Kyushu, Sanin Sanyo, Shikoku because they wanted to keep the fact of the seizure of power a secret.

A number of shrines originating in Kyushu such as; Sumiyoshi-jinja Shrine or Hachiman-jinja Shrine located throughout Japan because Yamato kingship took over and spread religious belief of the Kyushu dynasty.

List of the Kyushu era

In the engi (writing about the history) of temples and shrines throughout Japan and local reports or history books, shinengo (itsunengo [era name really existed and taken out of official history], eras other than the era names set forth by the imperial court) often appears. Shigenobu TSURUMI researched the Kyushu era against Kumaso (a tribe living in the ancient Kyushu district) era in his book, "Tsurumi Shigenobu Sonokunigisenko" which states that Yamatai-koku kingdom corresponds to Kumaso (he also advocates that the five kings of Wa corresponded to the kings of kumaso). It was re-evaluated in "Ushinawareta Kyushu ocho" (A lost Kyushu dynasty) written by Takehiko FURUTA. Apart from the book, the historical materials include "Nichureki," "kaitoshokoku ki."

According to Kyushu dynasty theory, these eras (over 500 eras were confirmed throughout Japan) are regarded as the `Kyushu era' which the Kyushu dynasty used. In Kyushu dynasty theory, gengo (era name) was certainly established in that various countries of Korean Peninsula such as Silla established the original gengo, and it is hard to think that Wa who recognized themselves as the leader of the peninsula didn't establish their original gengo, and that `AME no Tarishihoko' referred to himself as `Hiizurutokoronotenshi' declaring that he is `tenshi' (emperor). It is believed that Buddhism was introduced during this period as the Kyushu era included Buddhist terms.

The following are the eras modified after the investigation of "Sonokunigisenko."
(according to `Nichureki,' the era, `keitai,' is `the first era.')
(in the documents except for Nichureki, the second era, `Zenki' [zenka] is the first era, skipping the era, `keitai..'

* It is believed that the eras established by the Yamato kingship were mixed in the eras after 695 during the Yamato (Taika) era.

The history of the theory

FURUTA was known for his firm achievements. He publicized his achievements in authoritative journals such as "Shigaku zasshi" (Journal of Historical Studies) 78-9, "shirin" 55-6. 56-1, achieving a measure of legitimacy. The Kyushu dynasty was once referred to as `Yamatai-koku kingdom' (some people believe that it is Yamaichi-koku kingdom) in the footnote of High school text book on Japanese history. Afterwards, aside from the annals of the school in which he was working, he publicized his opinions by means of learning journals or conference presentation less often than before, receiving no feedback from academic society. In 1990's, FURUTA was deeply involved in "Tsugaru Sangun-shi" (The history of the three counties in Tsugaru region), and it is strongly suspected that "Tsugaru Sangun-shi" was gisho (apocryphal book). While the Kyushu dynasty theory doesn't have a direct relationship with "Tsugaru Sangun-shi," some people say that the Kyushu dynasty theory, too was a fallacy in that FURUTA regarded the phrase, 'King Iwai is from the family line of Yamadai Kingdom in Chikushi' from "Tsugaru Sangun-shi" backing up the Kyushu dynasty theory.

Researchers on history and archaeology regarded the Kyushu dynasty theory as a theory which is worth investigating because basic procedures on history such as historical material criticism had not been conducted and it was inconsistent with the results of archaeological material analysis. While FURUTA's publication in authoritative journals were studied and criticized before, today, it was never publicized in major encyclopedias or in research books describing the Yamatai-koku kingdom history dispute and was neglected.

Meanwhile, some ordinary citizens and researchers keenly support the theory.
They regard the traditional ancient Japanese history as one still under the influence of Kokoku Shikan; Kokoku Shikan (emperor-centered historiography based upon state Shinto), and insist that it should be replaced with the Kyushu theory and, saying `It enables an explanation about the mystery or inconsistency of ancient Japanese history without difficulty.'
In addition, a number of epigones are derived from the theory, and it is still studied today.

Problems

The Kyushu dynasty theory is currently ignored as it was regarded as `not at the stage where it is to be criticized or investigated' by the academic society on ancient Japanese society. This is because of the following reasons.

It didn't go through basic procedures concerning history including historical material criticism.

It doesn't match the results of material analysis on archaeology.

The reading of kanbun (Sino-Japanese) is arbitrary.

The primary historical materials from which the history of the Kyushu dynasty was recorded are not available. Therefore, historical materials to be support the theory are limited to kiki (the Kojiki and Nihonshoki) or unrelated articles which often appeared in history books of China or Korea, and to few facts regarding the Kyushu era (it has not been proven that itsunengo [era name really existed and taken out of official history] corresponds to the Kyushu era) or Dazai-fu. The absence of direct records of the theory is the rationale of the Kyushu dynasty denier and has also generated a number of epigones.

Among the researchers who support the Kyushu dynasty theory, opinions are varied and not fixed, some people regard the period until the battle of Hakusukinoe as the history of the Kyushu dynasty while other people regard the period until the Jinshin rebellion or the period until the Taika Reforms as the history of the Kyushu dynasty.

People who advocate the Kyushu dynasty theory state that `A person who was brainwashed by the common theory may feel the kyushu theory evolution sophistic after reading a partial manual on it without knowing the overview of the Kyushu dynasty theory, and the Kyushu dynasty theory includes a fantasy theory which was based on hypothesis over hypothesis, and some people would think of the entire Kyushu dynasty theory as a fantasy theory, if the first book they read is such theory.'