National Bank (Meiji Period) (国立銀行 (明治))

The National Bank (Kokuritsu Ginko) is a financial institution which was established based on the National Bank Act issued in 1872.

Summary
The system was established under Hirobumi ITO who was Okura no shofu (Junior Assistant Minister of the Ministry of the Treasury) at that time. Kokuritsu ginko' was literal translation of the National Bank in the United States (now it is often translated as kokuho ginko), however, it was established not by the nation but by the private capitals from Eichi SHIBUSAWA, Mitsui gumi, and so on. The National Bank had the right to issue the convertible currency, which had the obligation to replace with gold coins, and at first, four banks from the First to the Fifth National Banks were established. The third one was not opened due to the conflict of opinion among founders and it was a vacant number at that time.

When the issue of inconvertible paper currency was permitted in 1876, the National Banks increased sharply, and 153 National Banks were established until 1879 (no charter was approved after that).

The banks identified themselves by the number of established order, therefore, they are also called as "Number Banks." Some Number Banks still exist, but only the existing Hachijuni bank (82 bank) was established by the merger of the Daijuku (19th) bank and the Rokujusan (63) bank and named by the total sum of numbers of both banks (82=19+63).

When the Bank of Japan was established in 1882, National Banks were privatized to be ordinary banks and only the Bank of Japan has issued the banknotes since then (banknotes issued by the former National Banks were in circulation for a while).

Remarks
Currently, many of the surviving banks which used to be the National Banks but did not take over the numbers at the time were established as new legal entities by the integration in wartime according to the principle of one bank per one prefecture under the government measures of 1930 to early 1940.
Therefore, the dates of establishment of many current banks, which are the successors to the National Banks, are around that period, and the dates of establishment of the National Banks are often regarded as 'the dates of foundation.'
(For example, the current Akita Bank regards the date of establishment of the 48th National Bank in January 1879 as 'the date of foundation' and October 20, 1941, when the bank became the current Akita Bank according to the integration in wartime as 'the date of establishment.'
Further, the bank named 'Akita Bank' (1896-1941) existed separately from the Daishijuhachi Bank (the successor to the 48th National Bank) before this establishment.
As described in the following articles, according to the integration of the Daishijuhachi Bank and the former Akita Bank in wartime, the current Akita Bank was established.)

Major National Banks
Many National Banks were origins of today's banks. Examples are described below.

(The bank name after converted into the ordinary bank is shown in parentheses.)
The First National Bank (Daiichi Bank) -> the Teikoku Bank (the corporate entity was disappeared once at this point) -> the Daiichi Bank (divided by establishing new corporate entity) -> the Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank -> the Mizuho bank (the corporate entity was disappeared when the bank became the Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank.)
The Second National Bank (Daini Bank) -> merged into the Bank of Yokohama.
The Third National Bank (Daisan Bank [there is no relationship with the current Daisan Bank]) -> the Yasuda Bank -> the Fuji Bank -> the Mizuho Bank
The Fourth National Bank (Daishi Bank)
The Fifth National Bank (Daigo Bank) -> merged into the Naniwa Bank in 1898, and the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation after the Jugo Bank, the Teikoku Bank, the Mitsui Bank, and the Sakura Bank. The Sixth National Bank (Higo Bank [there is no relationship with the current Higo Bank]) -> 11 banks including the Sixth National Bank were merged into the Hozen Bank in 1923 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Yasuda and the Fuji Bank). The Seventh National Bank (Daishichi Bank) -> voluntarily dissolved in 1904 (in 1896, the Tosa Bank [the predecessor of the Shikoku Bank] was established by cooperation of the shareholders of the Seventh National Bank and the 80th National Bank, and business was transferred thereto). The Eighth National Bank -> merged into the 134th National Bank in 1886 -> integrated with the 11th National Bank and became the Aichi Bank (the predecessor of the Tokai Bank) (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The Ninth National Bank (Daiku Bank) -> merged into the Higo Bank [there is no relationship with the current Higo Bank], later Fuji Bank) in 1907. The Tenth National Bank (Daiju Bank) -> merged in 1941 and became the Yamanashi Chuo Bank. The 11th National Bank (Juichi Bank) -> integrated with the 134th National Bank and became the Aichi Bank (the predecessor of the Tokai Bank) (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 12th National Bank (Juni Bank) -> merged with the 123rd National Bank in 1884 and moved from Kanazawa to Toyama -> merged with three banks (the Takaoka Bank, the Chuetsu Bank, and the Toyama Bank [there is no relationship with the current Toyama Bank]) in Toyama Prefecture in 1943 and became the Hokuriku Bank. The 13th National Bank (Konoike Bank) -> merged with the Sanjushi Bank and the Yamaguchi Bank (there is no relationship with the current Yamaguchi Bank) in 1933 and became the Sanwa Bank (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 14th National Bank (Daijuyon Bank) -> moved from Nagano to Tokyo in 1910, and bankrupted in 1918. The 15th National Bank (Jugo Bank) -> merged into the Teikoku Bank in 1944. It is the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation.

The 16th National Bank (Juroku Bank)
The 17th National Bank (Jushichi Bank) was merged with the Chikuho Bank (there is no relationship with the current Chikuho Bank), the Kaho Bank, and the Fukuoka Savings Bank in 1945 and became the Fukuoka Bank.
The 18th National Bank (Juhachi Bank)
The 19th National Bank (Daijuku Bank) -> merged with the Rokujusan Bank and became the Hachijuni Bank (19+63=82)
The 20th National Bank (Niju Bank) -> merged into the Daiichi Bank in 1912. The 21st National Bank (Nijuichi Bank) -> merged with the Ika Bank and the Gohoku Bank in 1929 and became the Kohoku Bank, and then in 1942, purchased by the Shiga Bank. The 22nd National Bank (Nijuni Bank) -> 11 banks including the 22nd National Bank were merged into the Hozen Bank in 1923 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Yasuda and the Fuji Bank). The 23rd National Bank (Nijusan Bank) -> merged into the Oita Bank in 1927 and became the Oita Godo Bank (the current Oita Bank). The 25th National Bank (Nijugo Bank) -> merged in 1928 and became the Tsuruganijugo Bank (finally merged into the Sanwa Bank). The 27th National Bank (Nijushichi Bank) -> renamed the Tokyo Watanabe Bank in 1920.

The 29th National Bank (Dainijuku Bank) -> merged with the Yawatahama Commercial Bank and the Ozu Bank in 1934 and became the Yoshu Bank (the current Iyo Bank). The 30th National Bank (Sanju Bank) -> purchased by the Sanjushi Bank (one of the predecessor of the Sanwa Bank) in 1929. The 31st National Bank -> merged into the 148th National Bank in 1888 (finally merged into the Sanwa Bank). The 32nd National Bank (Naniwa Bank) -> merged into the Jugo Bank in 1920, and the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation after the Teikoku Bank, the Mitsui Bank, and the Sakura Bank. The 34th National Bank (Sanjushi Bank) -> merged with the Konoike Bank and the Yamaguchi Bank (there is no relationship with the current Yamaguchi Bank) in 1933 and became the Sanwa Bank (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 36th National Bank (Daisanjuroku Bank) -> merged into the Nihon Chuya Bank in 1942, and merged into the Yasuda Bank in 1943 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Fuji Bank). The 37th National Bank (Kochi Bank [there is no relationship with the current Kochi Bank]) -> merged the Tosa Bank in 1923 and renamed the Shikoku Bank. The 39th National Bank (Sanjuku Bank -> [former] Gunma Bank) -> absorbed into the Gunma Daido Bank in 1932 together with the Joshu Bank (the current Gunma Bank). The 40th National Bank (Shiju Bank) -> merged with the Shijuichi (41) Bank in 1918 and renamed the Hachijuichi (81) Bank (40+41=81), then merged into the Tokai Bank (there is no relationship with the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ) in 1921, and merged into the Daiichi Bank (the current Mizuho Bank) in 1927. The 41st National Bank (Shijuichi Bank) -> merged with the Shiju (40) Bank in 1918 and renamed the Hachijuichi (81) Bank (40+41=81), then merged into the Tokai Bank (there is no relationship with the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ) in 1921, and merged into the Daiichi Bank (the current Mizuho Bank) in 1927. The 43rd National Bank (Shijusan Bank) -> divided into six banks of the Tanabe Bank, the Kii Savings Bank, the Kiyo Bank (above three banks are the current Kiyo Bank), the Daido Bank, the Sanjushi Bank (above two banks became the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ after the Sanwa Bank), and the Rokujuhachi Bank (one of the predecessor of the Nanto Bank) and purchased in 1930. The 44th National Bank -> merged into the Third National Bank in 1882 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Hozen, the Yasuda, and the Fuji Bank). The 48th National Bank (Daishijuhachi Bank) -> merged with the Akita Bank (1896-1941) and the Yuzawa Bank and established as a new legal entity, Akita Bank on October 20, 1941. The 49th National Bank (Daishijuku Bank) -> purchased by the Kyoto Commercial and Industrial Bank in 1908, and then merged into the Daiichi Bank (the current Mizuho Bank) in 1916. The 50th National Bank (Tsuchiura Goju Bank) -> integrated with the Tokiwa Bank in 1935 and became the Joyo Bank. The 51st National Bank (Gojuichi Bank) -> merged with the Izumi Bank, the Terada Bank, the Kisiwada Bank, and others and renamed the Hannan Bank in 1940, merged with the Tondabayashi Bank, the Tsujibayashi Bank, and others in 1942, and then merged into the Sumitomo Bank (the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation) in 1945. The 52nd National Bank (Daigojuni Bank) -> merged with the Nakada Bank in 1937 and became Matsuyama Gojuni Bank (the current Iyo Bank). The 57th National Bank (Daigujushichi Bank) -> purchased by the Chuetsu Bank (one of the predecessor of the Hokuriku Bank) in 1940. The 58th National Bank (Daigojuhachi Bank) -> merged into the Hyakusanju Bank in 1898 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Hozen, the Yasuda, and the Fuji Bank). The 59th National Bank (Daigojuku Bank) ->integrated with four banks in the prefecture in 1943 and became the Aomori Bank. The 61st National Bank (Rokujuichi Bank) -> purchased by the Sumitomo Bank in 1912. The 63rd National Bank (Rokujusan Bank) -> merged with the Daijuku (19th) Bank and became the Hachijuni (82) Bank (19+63=82). The 64th National Bank (Otsu Bank) -> transferred the business to the Omi Bank in 1908 and dissolved. The 66th National Bank (Dairokujurku Bank) -> integrated with six banks in the prefecture in 1920 and became the (former) Geibi Bank (the predecessor of the Hiroshima Bank). The 67th National Bank (Rokujushichi Bank) -> merged in 1941 and became the Shonai Bank. The 68th National Bank (Rokujuhachi Bank) -> merged in 1934 and became the Nanto Bank. The 69th National Bank (Rokujuku Bank) -> integrated with the Nagaoka Bank in 1942, and became the Nagaoka Rokujuku Bank (the current Hokuetsu Bank). The 71st National Bank (Murakami Bank) -> merged into the Daishi Bank in 1938. The 72nd National Bank (transferred the business right in 1889, moved from Yamagata Prefecture to Saga prefecture, and became the Saga Bank [there is no relationship with the current Bank of Saga]) -> renamed the Koga Bank and then dissolved in 1933. The 76th National Bank (Takasu Daishichijuroku Bank) ->merged into the Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank in 1928.
The 77th National Bank (Shichijushichi Bank)
The 78th National Bank (Hachioji Shichijuhachi Bank) -> voluntarily dissolved in 1909. The 80th National Bank (Daihachiju Bank) -> merged into the Daishichi Bank (the predecessor of the Shikoku Bank) in 1897. The 81st National Bank -> did not transfer to the stock corporation and dissolved at the expiration, then the Ryou Bank took over the business -> renamed the Yamagata Bank in 1965. The 82nd National Bank (Hachijuni Bank, there is no relationship with the current Hachijuni Bank) -> merged into the Daisan Bank in 1897 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Hozen, the Yasuda, and the Fuji Bank). The 84th National Bank (Hachijushi Bank) -> purchased by the Showa Bank in 1928, and then merged into the Yasuda Bank in 1944 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Fuji Bank). The 85th National Bank (Daihachijugo Bank) -> the Saitama Bank (one of the predecessor of the Saitama Resona Bank). The 86th National Bank -> merged with the Daiichi Godo Bank, and then renamed the Chugoku Bank (Japan). The 87th National Bank (Daihachijushichi Bank) -> merged into the Hyakusanju Bank in 1898 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Hozen, the Yasuda, and the Fuji Bank). The 88th National Bank (Daihachijuhachi Bank) -> failed in business later and the Iwate Shokusan Bank and the Shichijushichi Bank took over the business.

The 90th National Bank (Daikuju Bank) -> failed in business and the Iwate Shokusan Bank (the current Bank of Iwate) took over the business. The former head office of the Daikuju Bank is currently used as the Bank of Iwate Nakanohashi Branch.

The 91st National Bank (Daikyujuichi Bank) -> merged into the Juni Bank (one of the predecessor of the Hokuriku Bank) in 1928. The 92nd National Bank (Daikyujuni Bank) -> renamed the Kyowa Savings Bank after relocation to Tokyo and then ceased. The 95th National Bank (Kyujugo Bank) -> changed the name, from the Hyakusan Bank, the Nosho Bank, the Kihan Bank, to the Kihan Savings Bank, and then in 1925, merged into the Yamaguchi Bank (one of the predecessor of the Sanwa Bank). The 96th National Bank (Yanagawa Bank) -> merged with 18 banks in the southern part of Fukuoka Prefecture and became the Chikuho Bank (one of the predecessor of the Fukuoka Bank). The 100th National Bank (Daihyaku Bank) -> merged into the Kawasaki Bank in 1927 and renamed the Kawasaki Daihyaku Bank, then merged into the Mitsubishi Bank (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ) in 1943. The 103rd National Bank was purchased by the Nihon Commercial Bank in 1898, and merged into the Hozen Bank together with other 11 banks in 1923 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Yasuda and the Fuji Bank).
The 105th National Bank (Hyakugo Bank)
The 106th National Bank (Saga Hyakuroku Bank) -> purchased by the Sumitomo Bank (the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation) in 1941. The 109th National Bank (Hyakuku Bank) -> purchased by the Oita Godo Bank (the current Oita Bank) in 1941.
The 110th National Bank (Hyakuju Bank) -> integrated in 1944 and became the Yamaguchi Bank
The 111th National Bank -> closed by the order in 1898. The 113th National Bank (Hyakujusan Bank) -> purchased by the Hokkaido Bank (later the Hokkaido Takushoku Bank) in 1928.
The 114th National Bank (Hyakujushi Bank)
The 118th National Bank -> merged into the 136th National Bank in 1880, and then merged into the Hyakusanju Bank in 1898 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Hozen, the Yasuda, and the Fuji Bank). The 119th National Bank -> merged with the 149th National Bank in 1885 and became the banking department of the Mitsubishi joint-stock company -> the Mitsubishi Bank (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 121st National Bank (Hyakunijuichi Bank) -> merged into the Sanjushi Bank (one of the predecessor of the Sanwa Bank) in 1897. The 123rd National Bank -> merged with the 12th National Bank (later Hokuriku Bank) in 1884. The 127th National Bank -> moved from Kagawa to Kochi in 1881, and merged into the 37th National Bank in 1896. The 129th National Bank -> The Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank took over the business in 1896. The 130th National Bank (Hyakusanju Bank) -> 11 banks including the 130th National Bank were merged into the Hozen Bank in 1923 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Yasuda and the Fuji Bank). The 131st National Bank -> merged into the 32nd National Bank in 1881 (the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation after the Jugo Bank, the Teikoku Bank, the Mitsui Bank, and the Sakura Bank). The 133rd National Bank (Hyakusanjusan Bank) -> integrated with the Yawata Bank and became the Shiga Bank in 1933. The 134th National Bank (Hyakusanjushi Bank) -> integrated with the 11th National Bank and became the Aichi Bank (the predecessor of the Tokai Bank) (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 136th National Bank (Daihyakusanjuroku Bank) -> merged into the Hyakusanju Bank in 1898 (the current Mizuho Bank after the Hozen, the Yasuda, and the Fuji Bank). The 137th National Bank (Daihyakusanjushichi Bank) -> merged the Kyodo Savings Bank in 1900, renamed the Hyakusanjushichi Bank, and then in 1942, divided into the Kobe Bank (the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation) and the Tanwa Bank (the current Bank of Kyoto) and purchased. The 140th National Bank -> merged into the 67th National Bank in 1881 (merged with the Kazama Bank, the Tsuruoka Bank, and the Dewa Bank in 1941 and is the current Shonai Bank). The 142nd National Bank -> merged into the 32nd National Bank in 1881 (the current Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation after the Jugo Bank, the Teikoku Bank, the Mitsui Bank, and the Sakura Bank). The 143rd National Bank -> merged into the 30th National Bank in 1880 (finally merged into the Sanwa Bank). The 146th National Bank ([former] Hiroshima Bank) -> merged with six banks in the prefecture in 1920, and became (former) Geibi Bank (the predecessor of the Hiroshima Bank). The 148th National Bank (Yamaguchi Bank) -> merged with the Konoike Bank and the Sanjushi Bank, and became the Sanwa Bank (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 149th National Bank -> merged with the 119th National Bank in 1885 and became the banking department of the Mitsubishi joint-stock company -> the Mitsubishi Bank (the current Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ). The 152nd National Bank (moved from Okinawa -> Kagoshima -> Tokyo -> Osaka, and then became the Daihyakugojuni Bank) -> dissolved in 1901. The 153rd National Bank ->merged into the 111th National Bank in 1886.