Northern Trade (北方貿易)

Northern Trade was the trade between China (Northern Song Dynasty) and the Oshu-Fujiwara clan or the Abe clan (Oshu) and the Dewa Kiyohara clan who dominated Ou before then. It was done mainly at Tosaminato as the base. Unlike the trade between Japan and the Sung Dynasty in China that was done by TAIRA no Kiyomori, it seems to have gone through a northern route.