Sain (Council of the Left) (左院)

The Sain was a legislative and consultative body in the early Meiji period. It was established by the Daijokan (Grand Council of State) alongside the Seiin (Central State Council) and the Uin (Council of the Right) in 1871. It was abolished when the Genroin (Senate of Japan) was established in 1875.

It consisted of a chairman, councillors with the ranks of the first to the third, and secretaries. The Seiin controlled the appointment or dismissal of the councillors. The resolutions adopted by the Sain did not constrain the Seiin. The Sain's power was limited.

In April 1872 it submitted 'Rikkoku-Kengi' to propose a plan for establishing a national constitution.
In May of the same year it submitted 'a plan for establishing a lower house of parliament.'
This presented an idea of parliamentary government.
The Sain is also known for having drafted 'regulations for the members of parliament,' which was a set of rules for the lower house of parliament.'