Shigi Kenpo (Draft Constitutions of Japan) (私擬憲法)

Shigi Kenpo are draft constitutions created by nongovernmental bodies before the issuance of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan in the Meiji period.

More than 60 of them are known today. The oldest Shigi Kenpo was the Dai Nippon Seiki (Government Policy of Great Japan) (1872) written by Shuzo AOKI. With the growing demand for the establishment of the National Diet, the need for a constitution began to be recognized, and in response to the decision made in the second Kokkai Kisei Domei (League for Founding a national Assembly) in November 1880 to assemble draft constitutions the next year, many Shigi Kenpo were created in the following year, 1881. The contents differed among drafts; some allowed the right of resistance and the right of revolution (Toyo Dai Nippon-koku Kokken-an [Draft of the National Constitution for Great Japan of the East]), some insisted that sovereignty should reside with the people or on a parliamentary system, and some included the right to dismiss an emperor from the throne by national referendum.

Consideration and creation of Shigi Kenpo were banned by Hoan-jorei (regulations for the preservation of law and order) which had become effective on December 26, 1887, the same day of its establishment and issuance. Because of this, Shigi Kenpo were no longer brought to the government for discussion and thus were not directly reflected in the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Main Shigi Kempo (Private Draft for National Constitution)
In 1880 and before
Dai Nippon Seiki (Government Policy of Great Japan) (Shuzo AOKI)
Dai-Nippon-koku Kenpo Tairyaku Mikomi-sho (Prospective Summary of the Constitution of the country of Great Japan) (Chikuzen Kyoai kai [literally means "the society of the Chikuzen area to share love"])
Kokken Taiko (Outline of National Constitution) (Nagazane MOTODA)

In 1881 and later
Kokken Iken (Opinion for the National Constitution) (Genichiro FUKUCHI)
Shigi Kenpo an (A draft of the Constitution) (Kojunsha Club)
Nihon Kenpo Mikomi an (A draft of the Constitution of Japan) (Roichi NAITO)
Toyo Dai-Nippon-koku Kokken-an (A draft of the National Constitution for Great Japan of the East) (Emori UEKI)
Nihon Kenpo Mikomi an (A draft of the Constitution of Japan) (Risshisha [a political group])
Itsukaichi Kenpo/Nihon Teikoku Kenpo (Itsukaichi Town Constitution/Constitution of the Empire of Japan) (Takusaburo CHIBA)
Kenpo Soko Hyorin (Commentary on the Draft of the Constitution) (Tametsuna ODA)
Tomomi IWAKURA's Kenpo Koryo (Tomomi IWAKURA's Constitution Outline) (Kowashi INOUE)
Kokken Hanron (General Remarks on the National Constitution) (Azusa ONO)
Kenpo Soan (A draft of the Constitution) (Amane NISHI [an illuminator])
Shisou Dai Nippon Teikoku Kenpo an (A Personal Draft of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan) (Kanichiro TAMURA)