Taigaiko (a concept to pursue a forceful diplomacy) (対外硬)
Taigaiko was the idea or concept that considered the situation of Japan in the international community as the critical externally, and only the forceful diplomacy including the military force which denies the international cooperation, and values national independence can defuse a crisis. People or parties who support those ideas were called 'Taigaiko Group' and they were at peak over the period from the revision of treaty in the end of the Meiji Period to the Japanese-Sino War, Japanese-Russo War, and annexation of Korea. The opposition forces against the Meiji government used the ideas of Taigaiko as the slogan when they organized people across parties in the name of nationalism and attacked the government.
The origin can be considered the principle of excluding foreigners in the end of the Edo Period or Seikanron (debate on subjugation of Korea) in the early Meiji Period, however, the direct causes were that a policy of Europeanization at the revision of a treaty by the Meiji government and a nationalist fervor against the Europeanization. So-called 'Japanese nationalist' criticized the line of reducing the national burden which were the government diplomatic policies and the Freedom and People's Rights Movement in "Japan (newspaper)" and advocated dissolution of unequal treaty with the forceful diplomacy and to expand the military force.
Iwane ABEI, Tomofusa SASSA, Tomotsune KOMUCHI who advocated this line organized a Dainihon (Japan) Association in 1893, and set 'treaty enforcement, autarkic foreign policy, and stern approach toward Qing (China) '. East Liberal Party, Alliance Club, the Constitutional Progressive Party, National Association (Japan), and Policy Affairs Research Council (political party in the Meiji Period) were allied and advocated 'Opposition to the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation' and 'Quick Start of War against Qing' and form a united. Those six parties were called 'Taigaiko Roppa' (forceful six parties) ('Ko Roppa' for short).
Those movements triggered to lead the public opinion to the start of the Japanese-Sino War. Although these political parties agreed certain points in external policy, in the internal policy these parties, which included nationalistic Dainihon Association, National Association, and the East Liberal Party which was a leftist among the Freedom and People's Rights Movement, agreed each other only in the point of criticism against the government, the Liberal Party which was the second party of House of Representatives (in Meiji Period), or the Rikken seiyukai (a political party organized by Hirobumi ITO) which was established from the alliance of the Liberal Party and the governmental bureaucratic in the side of Hirobumi ITO. The main current of this force became a parent organization of 'Anti Liberal Party' and 'Anti Seiyu Party' which were second party force to continue to latter-day Shinpo-to Party (Progressive Party) (in Meiji), Kensei honto Party, Rikken Kokumin-to Party, Kenseikai political Party.
The beginning of reactivation of Taigaiko which had receded temporarily after the Japanese-Sino War was due to the military presence in Manchuria by the Russia Empire after The Boxer Rebellion. What were largely due to the influence of Taigaiko group are the anti Russia comradeship with Atsumaro KONOE (the father of Fumimaro KONOE) who was the family head of the former Sekkan-ke (the families which produced regents), the fervor of theory of outbreak of Japanese -Russo War in the Incident of Shichihakase Kenpaku (movement of outbreak of Japanese-Russo War by seven doctors), and the Hibiya Incendiary Incident by the people who were against Treaty of Portsmouth. And the Taigaiko group promulgated annexation of the Korean Empire after war.
However, the opinions on Hibiya Incendiary Incident turned the Taigaiko group to split. The people who valued the movement following the Freedom and People's Rights Movement united the National Club in 1905 and set a slogan which said 'Constitutionalism internally, and imperialism externally', then advocated that it was necessary for the national independence to reflect the right people's voice in politics with a popular election. However, the people who followed the nationalism and took this movement as a crisis, united the group following the People's Alliance (dissolved in 1902) set up by Atsumaro KONOE in 1900, and they advocated that it was necessary for people to pursue independence with united the nation by strengthening of the nationalism and reinforcement of control over the people.
In the confrontation between two groups, the Taigaiko was reactivated due to the Xinhai Revolution, the immigration issue against the United States, or the First World War, and although they were led to the same direction externally, the word of 'Taigaiko' faded away.