Tashidaka no Sei (Tashidaka system, a wage system established by the Edo bakufu) (足高の制)
Tashidaka no sei (Tashidaka system) refers to an act enforced by Yoshimune TOKUGAWA in July 1723.
For each post of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), standards of rokudaka (stipend) were established (e.g. 5,000-koku [of rice], a unit of volume: rice 1-koku is 180.39 liter, lumber 1-koku is 0.278 cubic meter, for Obangashira [captains of the great guards]). This system was therefore established to make up for deficient yakuryo (executive allowance) (yield) only during the term of office when a person whose rokudaka was not more than the standard.
The system aimed to eliminate conventional inconvenience that a talented and able person could not assume an important post because of his family lineage, and to use personnel of good quality. However, in fact, it had been implemented before that time to have an especially capable person take a high position by adding a yield, which was one of causes depressing financial affairs of the bakufu. The greatest benefit of Tashidaka system was that a financial load of the bakufu would be reduced because an amount of yield was returned to the past amount after retiring from a post under this system (however, taking it into consideration that ongoku-bugyo [the collective name of the magistrates placed at important areas directly controlled by the government in the Edo period] had more opportunities of spending expenses than people at other posts, yakuryo [executive allowance] was supplied separately whether or not tashidaka [wage] was paid). However, the perfect enforcement seemed to be difficult from a practical standpoint, and in many cases, hereditary Karoku (hereditary stipend) was added when a person who assumed a post not less than kakaku (family status) left his office.
The proposal for this system was based on a proposal for 'grant of yakuryo (executive allowance) to a person assuming an important post' given to Yoshimune by Tadataka SAKAI receiving treatments as a political adviser in the Yoshimune government when he saw that Nobutsune MATSUDAIRA (lord of the Sasayama clan) assuming Kyoto Shoshidai (the Kyoto deputy) had difficulties in performing duties only with an income from own territory. It was put into practice by a recommendation of Kyuso MURO. As people who were appointed to important posts thanks to this policy, Tadasuke Ooka, Kyugu TANAKA and so on are named.
In August 1724 and April 1739, the system was improved through revisions of tashidaka.
Major standard yield (at the time of introduction)
Osobayaku (secretary), Rusui (caretaker or keeper) and Obangashira: 5,000 koku (of rice)
Shoinbangashira (the chief of military patrol) and Koshogumi-bangashira (the chief of bodyguads of the Shogun): 4,000 koku (of rice)
Ometsuke (chief inspector of the Edo bakufu), Machi-bugyo (town magistrate), Kanjo-bugyo (commissioner of finance), Hyakuningumi-gashira (head of hyakuningumi [firearms troop consisting of 100 teppo-ashigaru, foot soldiers fighting with firearms]) and Kobushingumi-shihai (manager of commissioners of minor repairs of houses): 3,000 koku (of rice)
Hata-bugyo (in charge of taking care of flags of Suwahossho), Yari-bugyo (magistrate of spear), Nishijo-rusui (caretaker or keeper of west castle), Shinbangashira (person in charge of guarding the shogun and inspecting arms), Sakuji-bugyo (commissioners of building), Fushin-bugyo (shogunate administrator of activities by a community, such as cleaning or fixing stone wall) and Kobushin-bugyo (shogunate administrator of minor repairs of houses): 2,000 koku (of rice)
Mochiyumi-mochitsutsu-gashira (head of shooting unit and firearms troop) and Sakite yumitsutsu-gashira (head of shooting unit and firearms troops who lead the way): 1,500 koku (of rice)
Rusuiban (a person responsible for caretaking and keeping), Metsuke (inspector of foot soldiers), Tsukaiban (a person responsible for order and patrol in the battlefield), Shoinban-kumigashira (leader of the shogun's bodyguards), Koshogumi-kumigashira (head of page corps), Kojunin-kashira (head of escort guards) and Kachigashira (leader of the group walking first place in line and guarding streets for the shogun): 1,000 koku (of rice)