Tenka (the realm) (天下)

Tenka (天下, also pronounced tenga, tenge, or amenoshita) is a notion which means the whole world. The definition of the word is "futen no moto," which means a space with no geographical limits, but depending on usage, it sometimes means a certain geographical notion. Generally speaking, Tenka is accompanied by a fixed principle of order and it means an area, people or a nation which is subject to such a principle of order. In other words, while the existence of "sekai" (the world) is recognized objectively even without "a view of the world," "Tenka" exists ideologically based on the fixed principle of order.

Pronunciation
"Tenka" is the Han pronunciation of Chinese characters, "Tenga" is the pronunciation with rendaku (the euphonic change of unvoiced to voiced sound) and "Tenge" is the Wu pronunciation.

It is usually pronounced "Tenka" at present, but originally it was pronounced "Tenge". When included in phrases, such as "Tenjo Tenge", it is pronounced "Tenge" even at present.

Definition and characteristics
China
In China, Tenka generally referred to the space which the emperor of the Chinese dynasty ruled based on the fixed universal principle of order. What existed in the center of Tenka was the area which the Chinese dynasty directly ruled, and it was called "Ka", "Ka", "Chuka", "Chuka", or "Chugoku" etc. Surrounding the above area, there were areas which were distinguished from the Chinese dynasty called "Shiho" and "i." However, these areas were deemed as the ones that were to be incorporated into the principle of order of the emperor of the Chinese dynasty.
(refer to Sinocentrism, Emperor and Ten)

Japan
In Japan, the notion of Tenka was seen as early as in the Kofun (tumulus) period. At that time, Kings of Wa called themselves Wakakuo (the King of the nation of Wa) or Wao (the King of Wa) to the Chinese dynasty. According to the iron swords and inscriptions on the swords which were excavated at the Eta Funayama Tumulus in Kumamoto Prefecture, however, they used the title of "Yamato Okimi" (amenoshita shiroshimesu okimi) (literally, the Grate King of Yamato) inside Japan around in the late fifth century. The above is thought as the evidence that the notion of "own Tenka which is different from that of China" had already been born by that time. According to Suishu (the Book of the Sui Dynasty), the King of Wa called himself "Hiizurutokoro no tenshi" (literally, the king of the place where the sun rises) in the letter he sent to Emperor Yodai in 607, and this fact also suggests the existence of the different notion of Tenka from the Chinese world. The notion of Tenka in the Chinese style was introduced in the seventh century in association with the establishment of the Ritsuryo system. Along with the philosophy of regarding people as public citizens, which was the characteristics of the Ritsuryo system, it was understood as "Tenka komin" (Tenka citizens). Although the notion of "Tenka" once became out of use in the Heian period according to the development of the dynastic state, it again started to be used according to the development of samurai society as the word which was almost synonymous with "Japan," as shown by the fact that the establishment of the Kamakura bakufu was understood as "the creation of Tenka."
(refer to Emperor, the ritsuryo system and Tenka Toitsu [unification of the whole country])

Korea

On the Korean Peninsula, the term "Tenka" was seldom used historically. The reason for the above is because Korea was included in the Tenka of the Chinese dynasty for a quite long time. There was the notion of the Korea-centered Tenka in the period of old dynasties like Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje as well as in the Goryeo period, but the notion was criticized from the standpoint of meibunron (the theory of justification of titles and social standings) when Neo-Confucianism was introduced in the late Goryeo period. Neo-Confucianism created the sho-chuka shiso (literally, mini-Sinocentrism) under which Korea was understood as "sho-chuka" (mini-China) or "sho-ka" (mini-China). The philosophy of sho-chuka brought the trend to regard Yomei-gaku (Neo-Confucianism based on the teachings of Wang Yangming), which was popular in China in the Ming dynasty but was not so in Korea, as a heresy, as well as the cognition to define China ruled under the Qing dynasty as "China subjugated by iteki (barbarians)," and accordingly it promoted the idea that Korea is the mainstream of chuka (China). The notions of China-centered "Tenka" and Korea-centered "Tenka" co-existed in Korea.

Vietnam
In Vietnam, the notion of Tenka appeared in the 13th century when the ethnic consciousness was whipped up by the Mongol invasion. The above notion of Tenka defined the Vietnam dynasty, which started from the Tran dynasty, as the successor of Nanetsukoku (南越国) (the Kingdom of Nanyue) and deemed its original territory from the Lingnan area of China to the northern part of Vietnam as its own Tenka. However, around the end of 18th century in the end of the Lê Dynasty, the historical view that regarded Lingnan as orthodox territory of the Vietnam dynasty came to be criticized. During the Nguyễn Dynasty, the country was renamed "Đại Nam (大南)" and the letter of etsu (越) was deleted from its official name. Based on the above, it is thought that tenkakokka (Tenka and the state) was defined as the territory of present Vietnam, which Europeans referred to "Tonkin" or "Cochinchine" at the time. The territory of Vietnam's "Tenka" changed under the influence of Sino-Vietnam relations.

Nomads in the Northern Asia
Among the nomads in North Asia and Central Asia represented by those in Mongolia, the notion called "Tenguri" exists as the comparable or similar notion to "Ten" (the sky or heaven) of Chinese dynasties. At present, Tenguri is closely related to the religious life of nomads of the Kamchatka peninsula to the Sea of Marmara. Tenguri is believed to be the god of destiny or Ten itself since it is the presiding god of Ten, and it sometimes appears as the god of creation. Religious services for Tenguri are conducted based on Shamanism at present, and it is believed that the Shamanism of Asian nomads has its unique view of the world called "Uchu Sangaikan" (literally, the view of three realms of the universe). In their view, a hero, or a savior, was sometimes dispatched to the earth as the proxy of Tenguri, and this hero was called "the son of Tenguri." The chanyu (the nomadic supreme rulers) of Xiongnu and the khan of the Mongolian Empire such as Genghis Khan called themselves "the son of Tenguri." By doing so, they monopolized the idea of salvation on the earth to be recognized as the sole monarch on the earth. As shown by the above, the nomads in Asia also had a view of the world based on the fixed principle of order, which was similar to the notion of "Tenka." However, in their notion there existed only the dual structure consisting of those who obeyed "the son of Tenguri" and those who confronted him, and the stepwise structure of order, such as the order of kai (the Chinese vs. barbarians) did not exist or was hardly seen.

Historical development
"Tenka" in China
It is thought that "Tenka" was not established as the world in the Yin dynasty era. When the personified notion of Ten was created in the Zhou dynasty era, germination of the notion of "Tenka" came to be seen. The terms of "shiho" and "banpo" are the indications of it. "Shiho" referred to the territory of the dynasty including China, its center where the emperor of Zhou resided, and the surrounding regions where different ethnic groups lived. "Banpo" referred to "tami" (the people) and "kyodo" (territory), and "tami" included the people of different ethnic groups and "kyodo" included the land of different ethnic groups. It was believed that the Emperor of Zhou was "given" this "banpo" by tenmei (the order of ten).

During the last stage of Zhou (the Chunqiu period and the Warring States period [China]), lords of various places which had been ruled by Zhou began to administer independently and assimilated into their own territory and surrounding regions. Also, some different ethnic groups were incorporated into Zhou and became major provinces. Because of these movements, a common cultural or economic sphere was established in many provinces, and the notion of "China" became widespread in the area located along the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The usage of "Tenka" is seen in "Chunqiu Zuoshi Zhuan" (Master Zuo's Commentary to the Spring and Autumns) and "Kokugo" (history book) etc.

When the regions which had been ruled by Zhou were politically unified by the Qin dynasty, the notion of "Tenka" became a clear geographical notion which corresponded to the reality in politics. The unification by Qin was the "unification of Tenka," and the fact that China unified Tenka meant the expansion of China. During the Han dynasty era, this notion of "China = Tenka" changed under the influence of actual sakuho relations, and the contemporary notion of "Tenka," which means the world including other surrounding ethnic groups, was established. Sakuho relations means the lord-vassal relations between the emperor of China and the heads of neighboring states, and by making such relations, the regions under the rule of the heads of those states were ideologically incorporated into the principle of order of the Chinese emperor.

During the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (China), a plural number of emperors appeared in China and the phenomenon of political division of Tenka was seen. In the Tang dynasty era, the emperor of the Chinese Empire ruled the states of northern nomads as "Great Khan." Although the Tang dynasty had military clashes with the Islamic empire (Caliphate) at the west front such as the Battle of Talas or negotiations including trade, its notion of Tenka, unlike that of the Qin and Han empires, did not include the nations which stood on an equal footing with it, such as Xiongnu.

However, in the Northern Sung dynasty era, strong dynasties like Liao and Jin appeared in the northern region. Under the pressure of these dynasties, the Sung dynasty made a fictitious blood relationship (for example, diplomatic relations assuming Sun as the older brother and Liao as the younger brother) with them. As shown by the fact that Goryeo was subject to both dynasties at that time, Tenka was completely divided into two. The Yuan dynasty, the Mongolian Empire which held the vast territory of all time, reunified China, but it made a distinction between nanjin (people of former Southern Sung, namely people of the Konan area) and kanjin (people of former Jing, namely people of the Kahoku area) in its ruling. The above shows the fact that the political division of Tenka was not resolved even under the rule of Yuan. Thereafter, the Ming dynasty unified "China" in the form akin to the idea of the Qin-Han empire, but its Tenka was the synonym of the territory of the Ming dynasty and did not have the world-wide extent.

When the criticism against Neo-Confucianism was stirred up in the end of the Ming era, there also were changes in the Confucian philosophy of "修身斉家治国平天下" (in order to put "Tenka" in order, first train one's own moral, then put own family in order, then put the nation in order, and finally bring peace into Tenka) ("Daigaku" [the Great Learning]). O Fushi, who lived from the end of the Ming era to the beginning of the Quin era, criticized Neo-Confucianism which highly regarded "Daigaku" by arguing that "平天下" (to put "Tenka" in order) described in "Daigaku" was no more than the philosophy of ruling a nation (namely, "治国") and that it could not be applied to the level of Tenka. The Qing Dynasty, which had been originally iteki (barbarians) for China, began to rule China after the fall of the Ming dynasty, and such reversal in the relation between the Chinese and barbarians in the real world also affected the notion of "Tenka." Ko Enbu of the same era expressed his opinion saying that the fall of Ming is "bokoku" (fall of the state), not "botenka" (fall of Tenka), and Tenka continues to exist, so long as the Chinese cultures are maintained, even the Qing dynasty, a dynasty of iteki, becomes the ruler. As seen in the above, there were a lot of studies and criticisms concerning the notion of "Tenka," but at the time "Tenka" was still understood as the one with the Chinese empire in its center.

The notion of "Tenka," which had been formed based on the order of kai (the Chinese and barbarians) and maintained the diplomatic relations by the sakuho and choko (bringing tribute) system, started to change when George Macartney, a British diplomat, was dispatched in 1793. Macartney requested the Qing dynasty to conclude a treaty based on the principle of European diplomacy, namely the principle of sovereign equality. The Qing dynasty, however, preferred trade in the choko style (other nations' bringing tribute to China) and refused the trading as equal partners, saying "China has a big land and a lot of products." The Opium War occurred in the 19th century, and the Qing dynasty concluded an unilateral and unequal treaty after its defeat. Regarding the reason for concluding the one-sided treaty, the Qing dynasty explained that it was the favor given by the Emperor. It can be said that the Qing dynasty tried to grasp European countries based on the traditional notion of "Tenka" even after the Opium War.

Britain was discontented with the diplomacy of the Qing dynasty that did not change even after the Opium War and invoked the Arrow War in alliance with France. After the war, the Treaty of Tianjin was concluded and its provision clearly stated that both China and Britain should be positioned as "equally independent nations." As a result, it became impossible for China to maintain the diplomatic relations with European countries based on the traditional order of kai (the Chinese vs. barbarians), and it established Sorigamon (the government body in charge of foreign affairs) in order to deal with the diplomacy with European countries.

Since the modern system of foreign relations that had been forged by European countries was based on the principle of sovereign equality, in other words, the diplomacy between independent nations, the order of kai was forced to change or dissolve according to the development of such system of foreign relations. In the real diplomacy, Korea seceded from the relation of sakuho after Qing's defeat in Japanese-Sino War, and the Qing dynasty's diplomacy based on sakuho and choko ended at that time. With the influence of the above, the notion of "Tenka" also changed from the one which was based on the order of kai. Xue Fucheng, Qing's ambassador to Britain in the latter half of the 19th century, said that "Tenka" based on "kai kakuzetsu" (distinction between the Chinese and barbarians) changed to "Tenka" based on "chugai renzoku" (cooperation between China and foreign countries) under which China and foreign countries maintain the relations on an equal basis.

"Tenka" in Japan
As mentioned earlier, the establishment of the notion of "Tenka" in Japan (Wakoku) dates back to the Kofun period. The phrase "amenoshita shiroshimesu □□□□□ okimi" is seen on the iron sword excavated at the Eta Funayama Tumulus, which is believed to have been constructed in the late fifth century, and it is presumed that the portion of □□□□□ can be read as "Wakatakeru," who is assumed to be the Emperor Yuryaku. Although Yuryaku called himself " Waobu" in the letter he sent to China, he used the title of amenoshita shiroshimesu okimi inside Japan in order to show that he was the okimi (great king) who ruled the Tenka of Wakoku independently from that of China. The above gives evidence that the notion that "Wakoku is under its own Tenka independent from that of China" had already been established by the time. The successive kings of Wa used the title of amenoshita shiroshimesu okimi, and this fact led to the incident which occurred at the beginning of the seventh century in which Wakokuo called himself "Hiizurutokoro no tenshi" in the letter he sent to the Emperor of Sui.

At the time when the Ritsuryo system was introduced in the beginning of the eighth century, the Chinese-style notion of Tenka was also introduced. In this case, Tenka basically referred to the territory which was ruled by Ritsuryo Kokka (the Japanese nation under the Ritsuryo codes), namely present Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. However, the notion itself included not only the regions which was directly ruled by Ritsuryo kokka but also the regions of different ethnic groups, such as Ezo, which was not directly ruled by Ritsuryo kokka. As with the Chinese dynasty's philosophy of Tenka, Ritusryo kokka was set in the center of "Tenka" and different ethnic groups, which correspond to "i" (barbarians) of China, were set around it within the reach of the emperor's authority. As seen in the above, it had the aspect of sho-chuka shiso (mini-Sinocentrism). It is thought that this notion of "Tenka" gradually diminished due to the collapse of Ritsuryo kokka and the development of the dynastic state or medieval national polity.

According to "Gyokuyo," the diary of Kanezane KUJO, MINAMOTO no Yoritomo called the establishment of the bakufu "the creation of Tenka". The above notion of Tenka is believed to have been created as the place for a new state, legislation and order, though it was based on the notion of Tenka under the Ritsuryo system. Although Yoritomo had such consciousness, the notion of Tenka at the time did not overcome the recognition of the emperor as a real ruler of the dynasty yet, and in fact, the emperor (or chiten no kimi [supreme ruler] as the head of the Imperial family) was expected to be the president of Tenka in many cases. According to "Kugenichiyokufushu," the diary of Gido Shushin, Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA often talked on "Tenka" and "the people of Tenka" as the objects of his politics in the discussion with Gido. From the above fact, it is thought that the awareness that shogun was the president of Tenka was born in the Muromachi period. However, some researchers argue that Yoshimitsu defined himself as "Nihon kokuo (the king of Japan) = chiten" and that his notion was still in a transitional stage compared with the notion of "Tenkabito" (the ruler of Tenka) clarified later.
(refer to chiten no kimi, Jokyu War, Kenmu Restoration and "Jinno Shotoki" [A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns])

After the ruling power of the Muromachi bakufu declined, the official authority which supported the notion of Tenka also declined, and the society of gekokujo (an inverted social order when the lowly reigned over the elite) based on the principle of self-help appeared. Under such society based on meritocracy, sengoku daimyo (warring lords) established their own territories at various places and formed "kogi"(authorities) equaling the official authority effective only inside their territories. The characteristics of the Azuchi-Momoyama period was that many sengoku daimyo tried to integrate such kogi, which had been founded at many places throughout Japan as if they were local states, into the kogi of Tenka. In association with it, the notion of "Tenkabito" appeared to indicate a person who integrates those locally established authorities and presides over the new order. Thanks to this act of "Tenka Itto" (unifying Tenka) (this word itself was sometimes used since the Northern and Southern Courts period) by Tenkabito, the geographical notion of "Tenka" was clarified considerably and was understood as the territory mostly corresponding to the present Japanese archipelago.
(refer to the Sengoku period [Japan])

The Edo bakufu formed the broadly-defined dual legal system which had "Tenkabito = shogun" and "the kogi of Tenka = the law of the bakufu" on top and "the local kogi = the law of domains" at the bottom. The nation of the shogunate system which had been built up this way created its foreign relations by imitating the order of kai and adopted the kaikin policy (national isolation) in practice. This made the notion of "Tenka" in Japan more closer to the geographical notion, namely the Japanese archipelago.

Tenka in Korea

The notion of "Tenka" in Korea was established in Goguryeo for the first time. Goguryeo deemed itself as chuka (China) and held a view of Tenka akin to mini-Sinocentrism, in which it regarded surrounding other ethnic groups as barbarians. At the same time, this view also involved its unique religious belief toward the sky and rivers. The name of an era "Eiraku" unique to Korea was inscribed on Gwanggaeto Stele. It is thought that Baekje and Silla also had their own notion of "Tenka." On the other hand, the mythology of Gija Joseon (allegedly, one of the ancient Korean dynasties) as a nation feudatory to the Zhou dynasty was created under the influence of Chinese philosophy, and the teachings of Confucius had taken root here since a long time ago. Due to the above, Korea tended to be put inside the Chinese notion of "Tenka".

During the era of Goryeo, the mythology of Dankun (a legendary state of ancient Korea), which described the Korean notion of "Tenka" although it was based on Buddhism, Taoism and shamanism, was created. Silla observed Tang's seisaku (calendar) since it was charged with the use of its own era name by Taizong (the second emperor) of the Tang dynasty, but during the first half of Goryeo era, the era name of the Chinese dynasty and that of Goryeo's own were alternately used. A king called himself "chin" inside the nation and was given a byogo (a name given to a dead emperor for the ceremony of putting the soul in a mausoleum), and his order was written as "sei" (制) or sho (詔). According to the Chinese philosophy of kai, however, these were only allowed for the emperors of the Chinese dynasty. Further, the phrase "海東天子" and "南蛮北狄自ら来朝す" are seen in the songs of the Court at that time, and the inscription of "皇帝陛下詔して曰く" is seen on kinsekibun (words written on metal and stones). A religious service for the emperor, which was the privilege of tenshi (emperor), was conducted, and Kaijo, the capital, was called "Koto" (literally, emperor's capital).

Under the Chinese notion of "Tenka" during the era of Goryeo, Sung was called the Southern Court and Liao or Jing was called the Northern Court since Sung and Liao or Sung and Jin co-existed in China. Goryeo tended to regard the Southern Court as important and put the era name of Southern Court first when the both era names were written together. As a result, it was praised by Sung as "sho-chuka" for its loyalty. After the Yuan dynasty was established, it requested Goryeo to obey further than before, and the use of the terms "chin," "byogo," and "sei and sho" was abolished. The king of Goryeo began to call himself "fukoku (it is a humble way of calling himself since koku means good and fukoku means not good). Neo-Confucianism was introduced around that time and meibunron became popular.

During the era of the Joseon Dynasty, the state name was changed to "Chosen" since it entered into the sakuho relation with Ming, and there was a Chinese-style notion of "Tenka" under which the relation of "Ming between the Joseon Dynasty" was deemed as identical to the relation of "Zhou between Gija Joseon." During the reign of Sejong (the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty), there was a notion of "Tenka" under which Jurchen, Japan, Tsushima, Iki, Matsuura and Ryukyu were deemed as tributary nations, and shiten was also conducted. Although Yomei-gaku (neo-Confucianism based on teaching of Wang Yangming) was popular in Ming, there was a tendency in Korea to regard it as the corruption of Confucianism. Korea received sakuho (the title, etc. given in return to tribute to China) during the era of the Qing dynasty, but the era name of the Ming dynasty was favored by intellectuals. The above derived from the perception that Korea was the mainstream of chuka since China was ruled by Qing, a dynasty of iteki (barbarians).

"Tenka" in Vietnam
As mentioned earlier, the notion of Tenka" was established in Vietnam when it repelled the army of Mongolia in the 13th century. According to "Daietsu shiki" written in the era of Trần dynasty, Nanetsukoku, a nation located in the region ranging from present Canton to North Vietnam, was the first legitimate dynasty of Vietnam, and the notion of "Tenka" which referred to this region was created. An example of this notion of "Tenka" was the remark made by Guen Chai, a man of literature representing this era, in 1428 when Daietsu (Đại Việt) became independent from Ming, saying "Since the era of Nanetsukoku (the kingdom of Nanyue) founded by Zhao Tuo, the Đinh dynasty founded by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, the Lý Dynasty (Vietnam) and the Trần Dynasty, my country had reigned over part of "Tenka" as with the Hang, Tang, Sung or Yuan dynasty in China." As shown by the above, "Tenka" of Vietnam was regarded on a par with "Tenka" of China. Under such notion of "Tenka," native Vietnamese deities came to be respected in place of traditional deities of Buddhism or Taoism, and kaho (to give a new title to deities) was made to them whenever the nation achieved a victory in foreign wars. The above shows that under the Vietnamese notion of "Tenka," the emperor was placed higher than native Vietnamese deities and the ethnic belief indirectly supported such notion of "Tenka."

This notion began to change slightly from the end of the 15th century. Nanetsukoku was gradually removed from the official history of Vietnam, and the status of 涇陽王, 貉龍君 (names of Vietnamese legendary kings) and 雄王 (the title of a line of kings of Văn Lang, an ancient Vietnamese nation) was raised instead based on the Vietnam's own mythology and oral tradition. In association with it, the idea of regarding China's Lingnan region as a part of Vietnam declined, and Nanetsukoku finally lost its legitimacy in the official history book at the end of 18th century. Around that time, Vietnam was practically divided into two administrations, the Trinh clan administration called "Tonkin" in the north and the Nguyễn clan administration called "Cochinchine" in the south, under a nominal emperor of the Lê dynasty. "Tenka" at the time is thought to have been the world which consisted of Tonkin and Cochinchine under the emperor of the Lê dynasty. The Nguyễn dynasty, which was established in the 19th century, used the nation name of "Etsunan" to China while calling itself "Đại Nam," and the notion of Vietnam's own world, which was distinguished from that of China, was defined.

"Tenka" among the nomads in North Asia
The history of the notion corresponding to Tenka among the nomads in North Asia dates back to the era of Xiongnu. The word "Tenguri" is known as the notion which corresponds to "Ten," and it was transcribed in Chinese historical materials as "撐犂." Chanyu, the head of Xiongnu, is explained in Chinese historical materials as "the chanyu who descended from Tenguri" or "Great Chanyu who is supported by Tenguri". As shown by the above, while Tenguri refers to Tenkai (the heavens), it sometimes refers to a humanized god as Tenjin (heavenly gods). This is quite similar to the notion of "Ten" in China and their relevancy is often pointed out, but it is still unknown which is older in terms of origin. This notion of "Tenguri" which bears two aspects is commonly seen among the nomads in Turkey and those in Mongolia. "Tenguri" as a humanized god appears in the Mongolian mythology of universe creation as "Tenguri Hairahan," a god who created the earth.

In the diplomatic documents issued by successive great khans during the era of the Mongolian Empire, a great khan is defined as the person who was entrusted the rule of the earth by Tenguri. It is clearly expressed that "the land which can be heard by ears or the land which can be reached by a horse" or "the land ranging from the place where the sun rises to the place where the sun sets" should be under the rule of the great khan, and basically there is no geographical limit. According to the recent research, it is pointed out that "Mongol Ulus," the name of the Mongolian Empire, had the meaning of "the aggregation of Mongolian people" and did not include a geographical notion. A similarity to the notion of "Tenka" that it is formed based on the fixed principle of order and does not include geographical notion is seen in the world view of the Asian nomads.

The open nature of the world view of nomads is also pointed out. It is clearly shown in "混一疆理歴代国都之図" (Map of Integrated Lands and Regions of Historical Countries and Capitals) which is believed to have been made based on the original drawn during the era of the Yuan dynasty. The term "混一," which is said to have come into use in the age of the Mongolian empire, means the view of the world that the African continent and the Eurasian continent form a harmonious whole with no border. Compared with the Chinese view of the world which distinguish "ka" (the Chinese) from "i" (barbarians), this world view is very open. Similarly, in "Shushi" (an Iranian work of literature and history) which was compiled in Ilkhanate in Iran, the intention is seen to compile "the world history" by integrating the world-wide historical materials. Although it was compiled with the Mongolian Empire in the center on the premise that all regions would be incorporated into the Mongolian Empire in future, it is quite different from the official history of Chinese dynasties or history books written in Europe in the sense that it treated the history of major regions independently as well as in parallel.