The Kyoto Town Magistrate (京都町奉行)
The Kyoto Town Magistrate was one of the ongoku-bugyo (magistrates placed at important areas) that was set up in Kyoto by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun). Roju (member of shogun's council of elders) theoretically held control, but Kyoto Shoshidai (the administrative and political office) in fact held power due to its place of appointment.
East and West Magistrate's offices were set up, with a one-month rotating reign similarl to the Edo Town Magistrate (Note that the magistrate's offices were called higashi-oyakusho and nishi-oyakusho, unlike the Edo and Osaka Town Magistrates.)
It was set up on January 10, 1669 as a spin-off from the Kyoto Gundai (rural intendants).
Since the establishment of the Edo bakufu, Kyoto Shoshidai and Kyoto Gundai were in charge of administration in Kyoto and the neighboring areas. However, due to excessive workload, Kyoto Gundai was reorganized into Kyoto Daikan, responsible for the economic and finance division, and Masasada KOIDE took over judicial power in Kyoto and the neighboring areas (Yamashiro Province, Tanba Province, Omi Province and Yamato Province) as well as administrative power in the shogunate demesne from Kyoto Gundai on December 24, 1660 ("Manji Nikki (Manji Diary)"). Note that KOIDE was despatched as a non-regular Fushimi Magistrate as there had been no title equivalent to Kyoto Magistrate at the time of his appointment, and KOIDE resided in the official residence of the former Kyoto Gundai. After KOIDE died on August 6, 1665, Shigenari MIYAZAKI and Masatane AMEMIYA were appointed to succeed his post in September 14, 1665. On April 15, 1666, the Magistrate in Kinai, Omi Province, Tanba Province and Harima Province, which Tadasada MIZUNO had assumed, was transferred to Miyazaki and Amemiya (Mizuno officially resigned as Fushimi Magistrate in 1669). In 1668, Chikashige MAKINO of Kyoto Shoshidai decided to step down, and upon his departure, Kyoto Magistrate was founded by absorbing the civil administration division that had been managed by the Shoshidai, with Miyazaki becoming the first Higashimachi Magistrate and Amemiya becoming the first Nishimachi Magistrate.
As described above, it managed administration and justice in Kyoto, justice in the four neighboring provinces as well as administration of the shogunate demesne, and controlled temple and shrine territories (excluding monzeki temples (temples of high rank where members of imperial family and nobility enter the priesthood)). Also, in 1722, it merged with the duties of Otsu Magistrate to control Otsu City. Its yakudaka or salary was 1500 koku and 600 rice koku. The person was ordained as Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) upon his inauguration. During the Kyoho and Genbun era, 20 yoriki (a police sergeant) and 50 doshin (a police constable), who used to serve for each of the East and West Magistrates, came to be dispatched to separate divisions such as Ban-kata responsible for lawsuit registration and city guard, Kessho-gata responsible for bidding and managing confisticated properties, Shomon-gata responsible for issuing paper bills and various certificates as well as checking the religion, gun-owning and ronin status, Niinomi-gata responsible for urban development including construction registration and checking as well as road management, Metsuke responsible for auditing the Magistrate both internally and externally (later merged with Niinomi-gata to be collectively called Metsuke-gata), Kanjo-gata responsible for the Magistrate's accounting, official bidding and collecting land taxes from the shogunate demesne, Kuji-kata responsible for general criminal investigation and administration, and Kawa-gata responsible for management of the Kamo-gawa River. Along with the passage of time, new divisions emerged such as 'Gosho-muke otoriatsukai-gakari' (founded 1774, assumed by Magistrate) responsible for overseeing the corrupted kuchimuke (finance division) of the Imperial court and 'Sarachi-gakari' (founded 1813, assumed by yoriki) responsible for preventing random expansion of the Kyoto urban land and implementing appropriate urban development plans. To cope with the realignments, the number of yoriki was effectively padded by assigning children of yoriki to such duties as paid trainees, and the administrative work was outsourced to Machi-dai who used to be the head of town officials.
On January 7, 1868, it was abolished along with Kyoto Shoshidai by order of the Meiji Government.