The Manchuria Corrective Treaty (also known as the Peking Treaty of 1905) (満州善後条約)
The Manchuria Corrective Treaty, a treaty between Japan and the Qing dynasty, was concluded on December 22, 1905, in Beijing.
Jutaro KOMURA, Japanese Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (Minister of Foreign Affairs), and Kosai UCHIDA, Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, signed the treaty with Prince Qing, Qing Foreign Minister Extraordinary, Zhai Hang Ji, and Yuan Shikai. It comprised three main articles, attached with 12 clauses and 16 agreements. Qing approved the Russian Empire's interests in Manchuria to be transferred to Japan, as stated in the Treaty of Portsmouth (September 5, 1905).
Through the Russo-Japanese War, Japan gained rights in Manchuria, such as the South Manchuria Railway and the Kwantung Leased Territory, but she was not able to transfer her rights without Qing's consent because Manchuria, in effect, belonged to the state of Qing, despite the fact that the region, in part, had become Japanese colony. Therefore, after the conclusion of the Treaty of Portsmouth, the first Katsura cabinet sent Foreign Minister KOMURA to Qing, calling for the country's approval of Japan's additional demands with the rights which Russia had once acquired.
The additional demands were as follows:
The South Manchuria Railway should be extended down to Jilin City. Railway guards from the Imperial Japanese Army should be permitted to be stationed permanently. Mining concession on the line should be ensured. No parallel lines to the South Manchuria Railway should be built. Continuous use of the Antung-Mukden Railway should be allowed and a consortium of the two countries should be organized. Setting up foreign settlements in Yingkou, Antung (China), and Mukden for Japanese people should be permitted. The right of launching a joint venture to deforest on the right of the Yalu River should be acquired, etc. They were all accepted and, subsequently, helped lay the foundations for Japan's operations in Manchuria.
Although these protocols had remained in force even after the Xinhai Revolution, with the Beiyang government and the Mukden military clique in power, Chang Hsueh-liang, who succeeded in the Mukden military clique after "the Manchuria incident" (assassination of Zhang Zuolin, the Manchurian warlord, by the Japanese Army), ignored the treaty obligations and promoted the construction of railroads parallel to the South Manchuria Railway. This was the underlying cause of the Manchurian Incident.