The SHIONOYA clan (塩谷氏)
The SHIONOYA clan is a Japanese clan. The ENYA clan is distinct from it.
The SHIONOYA clan of the MINAMOTO family (HORIE clan)
In or around 1130, Yorizumi SHIONOYA, a son of MINAMOTO no Yoshichika, went down Shioya County, Shimotsuke Province, adopted the name SHIONOYA and governed SHIONOYA manor, with its thirty-three go thirty-eight thousand cho. For generations they identified themselves as Saemon no jo (third-ranked officer of the Left Division of Outer Palace Guards). Horieyama-jo Castle was the castle of a daimyo (feudal lord). Some theories state that the castle was Gozenbara-jo Castle. The family temple was Terayama Kannonji Temple as a dedicated grave and Rokubo-ji Temple as a buried grave; this was said to have been a double grave system, but that isn't certain. There is no historical material to verify the existence ("Furusato Yaita no Ayumi" (History of Our Hometown Yaita)).
Because the fifth Tomoyoshi SHIONOYA had no child, he adopted Tomonari SHIONOYA, the second son of Naritsuna UTSUNOMIYA, and had him succeed to the family, whereby the period of SHIONOYA clan of the MINAMOTO family ended.
The SHIONOYA family of the FUJIWARA family
Takechiyo, who was the last family head of SHIONOYA clan of the MINAMOTO family and was adopted by Tomoyoshi, went through genpuku (a celebration of one's coming of age), identified himself as Tomonari and succeeded to the family, which started a history of the SHIONOYA family of the Fujiwara family ('Family Tree of the Akita SHIONOYA Family'). Tomonari is said to have been adopted as a husband ('Family Tree of the Kitsuregawa SHIONOYA Family'). The name FUJIWARA came from the UTSUNOMIYA clan, which was Tomonari's family home and had originated with the FUJIWARA clan.
Tomonari built Kawasaki-jo Castle (Shimotsuke Province) on the mountaintop approximately 500 meters north along the mountainous line of Horieyama-jo Castle. The family temple was Choko-ji Temple (Tochigi Prefecture, Yaita City).
The SHIONOYA family of the FUJIWARA family lasted for approximately 260 to 300 years, but on September 22, 1423, during the period of Noritsuna SHIONOYA, the family collaborated with Mochiuji ASHIKAGA, Kamakura Kubo, and raised a rebellion against the UTSUNOMIYA clan. They invited Mochitsuna UTSUNOMIYA, who was then the family head of the UTSUNOMIYA clan, to go hunting in the Koka-hara plain, in their own domain, and there they killed him. Thirty-five years later, on June 27, 1458, when Noritsuna was invited to Utsunomiya-jo Castle under the pretense of reconciliation, he was killed, whereupon the SHIONOYA family of the FUJIWARA family entered a decline (there is also a document asserting that he was killed on July 2 in Ujiie-machi, on his way back from Utsunomiya-jo Castle).
Consequent upon the death of Noritsuna, the period of the SHIONOYA family of the FUJIWARA family ended, but there are two theories concerning that. One theory states that with the death of Noritsuna the SHIONOYA family of the FUJIWARA family ended and Takatsuna SHIONOYA, the fourth son of Masatsuna UTSUNOMIYA, succeeded to the family name and came under the influence of the UTSUNOMIYA clan ('Family Tree of the Shionoya Family' printed in "Shimotsuke-kokushi" (the record of Shimotsuke Province)); the other states that Noritsuna had a son called Takatsuna SHIONOYA and that he adopted Yagoro SHIONOYA on March 1, 1478 and had Yagoro succeed to the family ('Family Tree of the Akita Shionoya Family'). According to the latter theory, the UTSUNOMIYA and SHIONOYA clans reconciled through this adoptive tie.
The Juko SHIONOYA clan (revived SHIONOYA clan)
Because Takatsuna was from a direct descendant of the UTSUNOMIYA clan, the same family as the SHIONOYA family of the FUJIWARA family, his name remained Fujiwara, but to distinguish it from that of the former time he was called Juko SHIONOYA clan (revived SHIONOYA clan) and so on (however, Masatsuna, the father of Takatsuna, was an adopted person from the HAGA clan (KIYOHARA clan)). According to 'Family Tree of the Akita SHIONOYA Family,' there were the three family heads--Tokitsuna SHIONOYA, Fuyutsuna SHIONOYA and Michitsuna SHIONOYA--between Yoshitaka SHIONOYA and Yoshitsuna SHIONOYA, but it is contradictory to a historical fact and the existence of such individuals is doubtful. However, in subsequent years there was the possibility of giving the rank of family head to the members of the SHIONOYA clan family who rendered distinguished service, and therefore it's impossible to say they were completely fictitious characters. As for Yoshimichi SHIONOYA, it is pointed out that, as it was in November 1574 that Yoshitsuna succeeded to the position of family head and there was an unknown period of ten years after the death of Yoshitaka, until Yoshitsuna, a lawful wife's son, went through genpuku, possibly Yoshimichi might have been the family head on a tentative basis. One theory states that Tokitsuna was a younger brother of Yoshitaka and was actually Yoshio SHIONOYA, called Magoshito OTSUHATA, who fought with Harutomo YUKI and died (they both died in 1559), and that Fuyutsuna was Takanobu and Michitsuna was Yoshimichi.
As for the SHIONOYA clan, during the period of the Juko SHIONOYA clan Yoshitaka was killed by his younger brother Takanobu SHIONOYA on November 20, 1564 and Kawasaki-jo Castle was overtaken, after which internal troubles continued, and in 1590 the retainer Masachika OKAMOTO became independent, etc., and the clan declined.
On March 18 in 1595, Yoshitsuna SHIONOYA was ordered by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI to accept 'kaieki' sanction (sudden dismissal and deprivation of position, privileges and properties). There is no description of the reason in the family tree, but two years later the UTSUNOMIYA clan, a head family, was also ordered 'kaieki', which suggests they were involved in political strife in the TOYOTOMI administration, but this isn't clear. One theory states that the SHIONOYA clan was ordered 'kaieki' because they did not directly join the Siege of Odawara, but Yoshitsuna went to the capital (Kyoto) on August 10, 1589 to show reverence for Hideyoshi and, in the Siege of Odawara, he sent his retainer Masachika OKAMOTO as a representative; therefore, it isn't plausible that he was ordered 'kaieki' at that time ("Furusato Yaita no Ayumi (History of Our Hometown Yaita)").
In 1595, Yoshitsuna was ordered 'kaieki', but he was recognized and guaranteed 1000 koku as Sutebuchi alms. However, Yoshitsuna abandoned this and ran away, and Yoshimichi, his older brother by a concubine, succeeded to this 1000 koku because he was a cousin of Masachika OKAMOTO and his daughter's husband. The second son, Yasumasa OKAMOTO, took over as family head after Yoshimichi.
However, Yasumasa was killed by Yoshimasa OKAMOTO's conspiracy on April 16, 1644 (Izumi-sodo riot) and Yasumasa had no son; consequently, the Yashu SHIONOYA clan was discontinued. The period of the Juko SHIONOYA clan also ended.
The SATAKE vassal period
After Yoshitsuna was ordered 'kaieki', he served Yoshinobu SATAKE (Ukyo no daibu (Master of the Western Capital Offices)) in Hitachi Province from February 18, 1597 and when, in 1602, the SATAKE clan was ordered to change its territory in Dewa Province, he followed this and moved to Yokote, Hiraka County, Dewa Province and served as Jodai (the keeper of the castle) of Junisho-jo Castle and his offsprings served as Karo (chief retainer) of the SATAKE clan and so on. However, the last family head, Harutsuna SHIONOYA, had no child and thus the direct line discontinued during the Meiji period.
KODAMA Party Line, SHIONOYA clan
KODAMA Jiro Ieto (later, Ieto SHIONOYA), the second son of Ieyuki KODAMA (Arimichi name) of the third generation of the head family of the KODAMA Party, which occupied a part of the head family of the Musashi-shichito parties (seven parties of samurai in Musashi Province), was given SHIONOYA's land of Wakaizumi-sho, Oyose-go, Kodama County, Musashi Province (currently Shioya, Kodama-cho, Honjo City, Saitama Prefecture) by his father and the offspring were localized and identified themselves as KODAMA and made up the KODAMA Party as a clan. Thus the name was FUJIWARA, but originally the first family name was ARIMICHI clan; during the twelfth century, they identified themselves as SHIONOYA. The great success of the KODAMA Party Line SHIONOYA clan was described in the materials such as "Genpei Seisui ki" (Rise and Fall of the MINAMOTO and Taira Clans) and so on. In "Family Tree of the Seven Groups of Samurai Warriors in Musashi Province," the direct descendants were Ieto => Tsuneto SHIONOYA => Tsunemitsu SHIONOYA (Jiro KODAMA) (given that several family trees existed, it cannot be said with certainty). Ieto's son Korehiro SHIONOYA joined the Battle of Ichi no tani and was killed in the Battle of Oshu, while Korehiro's son, Koremori SHIONOYA, and his son Koremitsu SHIONOYA were killed together in the Battle of WADA on May 30, 1213.
Ieto's brother, Iehiro SHO (the fourth generation of the head family of the Kodama Party), went to Kurisaki in Kodama District and identified themselves as the SHO clan, while his younger brother Chikaie TOMIDA was localized in Tomida and identified himself as being of the TOMIDA clan. The KODAMA Party Line SHIONOYA clan was the same family group as the SHO and TOMIDA clans.