Tonden was the system of opening up of new territory and colonization by soldiers.
Mita was the land owned by the Imperial Family in ancient Japan.
System of opening up of new territory and colonization by soldiers
Tonden refers to a system or the place/region where soldiers who were made to plow new fields were recruited at war time but farmed the land to sustain themselves at peace time.
Emperor Wu of the Former Han (dynasty of China) had soldiers who guarded the outlying areas farm the land (Gunton). Cao Cao of the Wei dynasty (Three States Period) introduced the Tonden system following the advice of his advisors, Han Hao and Zao Zhi. This was not in the outlying areas but inland and had ordinary citizens farm land that had not been used (Minton) and was originally started around Xuchang and then spread to other regions. The citizens under the Tonden system were controlled separately from ordinary agricultural management and linked to military organizations by the Tennochurosho in each district, Tennotoi in each prefecture. With the suggestion of Sima Yi, Gunton were developed near the borders with the Go (Three States Period) (area along the Huai River) and Shu (Guanzhong), countries that they had long been in battle with, and Wei was able to have a stable supply of provisions, which was advantageous in fighting these two countries. In the Jin period, Minton was abolished and Gunton remained. Such attempts of direct control and management of land and people by the government can be considered to be linked with the Kinden system of later years.
During the Meiji period, Tonden soldiers opened up new land in Hokkaido. This system was called the Tonden hei system. Tonden in Kita Ward, Sapporo City, Higashi Tonden-dori Station and Nishi Tonden-dori Street in Yamahana, Chuo Ward, Sapporo City were place names because tonden soldiers stayed there.
Ancient Japanese Imperial Family lands
Mita were fields that the Daio (Yamato kingdom) directly controlled. Miyake were placed for management of Mita. In the Taiho-ryo (Taiho Code), they were called Mita, the Yoro-ryo (Yoro Code) calls them Kanden. It was designated to be 30-cho in Yamato/Settsu, and 20-cho in Kawachi/Yamashiro. Many of the place names that are called 'Tonden,' 'Tonda' and 'Tomita' scattered throughout the country are considered to be a transformation from Tonden.