Wakon yosai (Japanese spirit with Western learning) (和魂洋才)

Wakon yosai (Japanese spirit with Western learning) means adopting Western arts while valuing Japanese traditional spirituality, and harmonizing as well as developing them. On the contrary, there is an expression, Yokon yosai, which means that Western thought should be adopted in order to adopt Western arts. Wakon yosai was created based on the expression used through the ages, Wakon kansai (the Japanese spirit imbued with Chinese learning).

The idea of Wakon yosai was against the idea that 'Western culture is superior and Japanese culture is behind', which emerged after the civilization and enlightenment of the Meiji restoration.