Jokyuki (A Chronicle of the Jokyu Disturbance) (承久記)
Jokyuki is a war tale concerning the Jokyu Disturbance which occurred between the Imperial court and bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and resulted from Emperor Gotoba taking up arms in 1221. It is also called "Jokyu ikusa Monogatari" (The Tale of the Jokyu War) or "Jokyu heiran ki" (The Tale of the Jokyu Disturbance) (there is a book with the same title but different contents). Following Hogen Monogatari (The Tale of the Hogen Disturbance), Heiji Monogatari (The Tale of Heiji), and Heike Monogatari (The Tale of the Heike), it is the last book of 'Shibu no Gassensho' (The Four War Tales) depicting how the Kamakura bakufu drove the dynasty into collapse and the process of establishing a feudal system. The work is not valued highly, and it consistently and mildly criticizes Gotoba in's dream of the restoration of Imperial rule.
Creation and contents
There are many variant manuscripts of Jokyuki, and the year of completion is different among them. Jiko-ji bon, which seems to be the oldest manuscript, is presumed to have been completed in the mid-Kamakura period. Other variant manuscripts are 'Kokatsuji bon' (old movable type imprints) (popular edition line), 'Maedake bon,' 'Jokyu heiran ki,' 'Jokyu ikusa Monogatari,' and so on, which were all written in mixed writing style of Japanese and Chinese. All of them consist of 2 volumes except 'Jokyu ikusa Monogatari' (6 volumes in total). The author is unknown.
A war tale which seems to be 'Jokyuki' first appeared in the entry dated April 21 1374 of 'Record of Minister Kinsada' by Kinsada TOIN, and you can see that 'Hogen Monogatari,' 'Heiji Monogatari' 'Heike Monogatari,' and 'Jokyuki' were called 'Shibu Gassenjo' (four war tales) (or 'Shibu no Gassensho') in the several historical materials like 'Heike kanmonroku.'
Jokyuki is the last book of this 'Shibu Gassenjo.'
Except the Jiko-ji bon, all the books begin with a description of the Retired Emperor Gotoba and ends with the exile of the Retired Emperor Tsuchimikado. The opening lines of Jiko-ji bon are slightly different from other manuscripts in that it has a Buddhist ideology.
Apart from Jiko-ji bon, Jokyuki has many critical accounts of the Retired Emperor Gotoba, and the Kokatsuji bon even says that 'he turns his back on the administration led by the wise and highly virtuous Emperor, and prefers military arts.'
On the contrary, it describes Yoshitoki HOJO sympathetically.
It is considered to be the oldest manuscript. Because it was completed around the mid-Kamakura period and has been passed down in the Jiko-ji Temple in Yamashiro, it is called Jiko-ji bon. The details of the Jiko-ji bon are philosophically different from the popular edition of Jokyuki, and after the preface based on Buddha's teachings, it tells about disturbances which had taken place since the reign of Emperor Jinmu, and then the Jokyu Disturbance is told. You can see other differences from the popular edition; for example, Gotoba's attitude about the Jokyu Disturbance was described more passively, and there is no account of the battle of Uji in the Jiko-ji bon. The Mito Shokokan owns the original manuscript. The Historiographical Institute of Tokyo University and Keio University also owns it.
Kokatsuji bon (popular edition)
Kokatsuji bon published in 1618 is extant. It covers the Retired Emperor Gotoba's autocracy, the assassination of the third Shogun Sanetomo, causes and details of the battle, and the Retired Emperor Tsuchimikado's exile to Awa. The Cabinet Library and the Tenri Library owns it. A part of the book seems to have been quoted from Rokudai Shojiki (war tales concerning six Emperors), and it contains a criticism of the Retired Emperor Gotoba, citing some Chinese classic books. There is a view that the popular edition came into existence based on the Jiko-ji bon Jokyuki, adding a philosophy of the Rokudai Shojiki to it.
Jokyu heiran ki
It is collected in "Zoku Gunsho Ruiju" (New Classified Documents) (battles' part). 2 volumes in total. Most of the pages were written in kana (the Japanese syllabaries).
It contains slightly different scenes from the popular edition of Jokyuki, and some people pointed out that it was supplemented by a history book, 'Azuma Kagami.'
It seems to have been completed from the late Kamakura period to the Southern and Northern Courts period.
Jokyu ikusa Monogatari
It was completed in the mid-Edo period. Adding the records of 'Azuma Kagami' to the Kokatsuji bon in the popular edition line, this illustrated story was made. The author is unknown.