Hirata Atsutane (平田篤胤)

Atsutane HIRATA was a scholar of Japanese classical literature and a Shintoist in the late Edo period. His childhood name was Masayoshi. Common name was Hanbei. After genpuku (celebrate one's coming of age) in 1790 he presented himself as Taneyuki, and after the Kyowa era, he called himself Atsutane. His go (pen name) was Ibukinoya and yago (family name) was Masugenoya. As a doctor, he named himself Gentaku. After his death, he was granted the name of Kamutama no Mihashira no Ushi from the Shirakawa family.

He was born as a son of a feudal retainer of Akita Domain, and became an adopted child of Atsuyasu HIRATA, a strategist and a feudal retainer of Bicchu-Matsuyama Domain. He criticized syncretization of Shinto with Buddhism/Confucianism, following intention of Norinaga MOTOORI. Before long, the thought became the central pillar of Sonno Joi (slogan advocating reverence for the Emperor and the expulsion of foreigners) as well as Mitogaku (the scholarship and academic traditions that arose in the Mito Domain), and also became motivating power of the transition period in Meiji Restoration, after overthrowing the Shogunate. The thought also affected separation of Buddhism and Shintoism, and Haibutsu-kishaku (a movement to abolish Buddhism) happened later. Moreover, Atsutane framed original divinity that was beyond desktop literature study, and brought a new stream into the study of Japanese classical literature. He was greatly interested in existence of god and the different world, and he placed posthumous spirit's traces and the salvation in the center of his theory. Furthermore, based on his own sense of religion, Atsutane willingly practiced research and analysis of various religious doctrines, including Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity and the study of Western sciences, which was unusual for the time, and named his study Hakke. He seemed to absorb not only Western medicine but Latin and a doctrine of Christianity. His interests were very wide and he also had thorough knowledge in ekigaku (the study of the calendar), art of divination and art of warfare. On the other hand, his wide range of knowledge resulted in strained harmony, which deviated from positivism of Norinaga School and became complicated and unintelligible. This is the reason why it is called Hirata Shinto.

Atsutane's theory was directed not only to academics and experts, but also to the general masses. He dictated a summary for the general masses, in comic storytelling way, to his apprentices, and later had a book bound and published it. These publications gained support from townspeople and wealthy farmers, and in due course, contributed greatly to popularization of the study of Japanese classical literature thought. The fact that the common people accepted his theory tells that his local and folk-like intention thoughts were easy to be accepted to the common people. The existence of Hirata school in Ina is especially famous. Later Toson SHIMAZAKI, literary man in Shinano Province, told detail of Hirata school in his work "Yoake-mae" (Before the Dawn).

He also achieved greatness in fukko Shinto (reform of the Ancient Shinto (prominent eighteenth century form of Shinto, based on the classics, and free from Confucian and Buddhist influences)) (classical study) and he is recognized as one of shiushi (four major people) in the study of Japanese classical literature, along with KADA no Azumamaro, KAMO no Mabuchi and Norinaga MOTOORI.

Biography

Before adopted into Hirata family
He was born in October 6, 1776 as the fourth son of Sebei Sachitane OWADA, the head of obangumi unit in Akita Domain, in Shimoyachi Town (present Akita City), the castle town of Kubota-jo Castle. At aged 20, he left the place where he was born and run away to Edo. Records of the period after that until age of 25, when he was adopted, are not clear. Conjecturing from existing historical records, he had spent miserable childhood. Later he recollected those days in a work of his own and gave bitter counsel as 'what a fate I was born under' ("Senkyo Ibun (Interview with an Apprentice of Tengu)"). According to another authority, his parents did not raise him but the meaning is not clear. His father saw him as a dropout and stupid. He was not allowed to attend at the court and made to do odd duties. It is unbelievable from encyclopedic knowledge and strong memory in later years.

He left farewell note and run away from hometown on January 28, 1795 (January 8, 1795 in old lunar calendar), just after he turned 20 years old. It is said that he choose the day from a proverb, person leaving home on the eighth day of the new year will never return home. Atsutane did not speak detail of the flight from his birthplace, even at the latter years of his life.

At that time, Akita Domain was in a financial crisis and the salary of feudal retainers was compulsorily requisitioned regularly. Furthermore, the fight for succession caused family troubles, and the social situation was very unstable. Owada family only with 100 koku (27.8 cubic meters) is thought to be in hard straits. Reason why he left his birthplace is not clear, but these circumstances may have influenced it.

Atsutane, who came out to Edo virtually penniless and without anywhere to go, devoted himself to studies while fighting hardships of life. These few years he took many jobs, including firefighter and cook, to support living and kugaku (paying one's own school expenses by working). In 1800, Atsutane came under notice of Tobei HIRATA (Atsuyasu HIRATA), who was a Soko YAMAGA strategist of feudal retainer of Bicchu-Matsuyama Domain and lived in Edo for generations, in hatago (inn with meals), where he was working at age of 25 and became his adopted son. There are several legends for how he became the adopted son but the fact is not known for sure. Next year, in 1801, Atsutane, aged 26, got married to Orise, a daughter of Tsunefusa ISHIBASHI who was a feudal retainer of the Mizuno family of Numazu-jo Castle, Suruga Province.

After adopted into the Hirata family
He came to know Norinaga MOTOORI for the first time in 1803, 2 years after Norinaga's death. According to a letter sent to Haruniwa MOTOORI to join as a disciple of after the death, Atsutane stated that Norinaga appeared in his dream and contracted a teacher-pupil relationship. It is suspected that he wanted to claim he and Norinaga was in special relationship. According to the later biography, Atsutane came to know Norinaga MOTOORI in 1801 and he tried to join his disciple but Norinaga died in the year, therefore he became a member of Suzuyajuku school as a disciple after Norinaga's death. It is said the theory that Atsutane came to know Norinaga while Norinaga was alive, was a distortion made in later ages to place school of Atsutane HIRATA at the center of the legitimate study of Japanese classical literature.

In 1803, the year he came to know Norinaga, he wrote a maiden work "Kamosho" (Attack on the works of Confucian philosopher Sundai DAZAI). After this he kept writing literary works. How Atsutane write was not something of an ordinary person. He kept writing without sleeping or resting for many days and he slept while sitting at desk when exhaustion reached to the limit, after having enough sleep, he started writing again. Literary works written in that way were a massive body of work. In 1806, he opened a private school, Masugenoya, and took disciples. Later, in 1816, he changed the name to Ibukinoya.

He was especially fascinated with view of the universe described in purchased literary work of Norinaga such as "Naohi no Mitama" (Core Spirit), "Uiyamabui" (First Steps Up the Mountain), "Tamakatsuma" (a collection of essays), and "Kojiki-den" (Commentary on the Kojiki), and also with Nakatsune HATTORI (Mizuki MITA)'s "Sandaiko" (On the Three Worlds: Between Myth and Reality), which were included in the record as a supplement. Later Atsutane met Ohira MOTOORI of Suzuya, who became the successor of Norinaga, and formed a teacher-student relationship, there, he also met Nakatsune. Nakatsune requested Atsutane to teach the primordial doctrine of Kodo (ancient method, ancient moral teachings, the way of learning). In 1812, aged 37, Atsutane finished writing "Tama no Mihashira" (The Concept of Afterlife) which was founded on Nakatsune's thought. The book is said to become a core of Hirata knowledge of Hakke that Atsutane claimed later. By that time, Atsutane already had written many texts such as "Kodo Taii" (Lectures of Atsutane HIRATA), "Kangaku Taii" (The Meaning of Chinese Classics), "Ido Taii" (Synopsis of Medicine), "Zokushinto Taii" (The Outline of Vulgar Shinto), "Butsudo Taii" (The General Idea of Buddhist Way) and "Kado Taii" (The Essentials of Poetry), and basic thought of Hirata school had became strong and solid.

"Tama no Mihashira" was an important book, which became a turning point because he had lost his beloved wife Orise in the same year he finished writing the book. He felt exceedingly strong compassion towards his wife and he composed a poem 'god of heaven and earth, nonexistent or existent I wonder in this scourge' showing resentment towards god and wretchedness. Disciples of Motoori school group got furious and attacked Atsutane's argument and consideration for view of afterworld described in the book loudly, stating it is a debasement against the late Norinaga and some disciples violently accused Atsutane of being a swindler. From such reasons, Atsutane became estranged from Suzuya in Matsuzaka, Ise. However this was taken in as Izumo Shinto, and strongly influenced the way of Shinto in later days.

Between January and February 1812, he made strenuous exertions and shut himself up at a temporary residence of Naofuru SHIBASAKI, a disciple in Fuchu, Suruga Province, and he at once finished writing several books about Kodai Kenkyu (Ancient Study), including "Koshiseibun", "Koshicho" (Clarification of Early History) and "Koshiden" (Commentary on Ancient History). These drafts later became the core creed of Hirata school.

Judging from Atsutane's literary work of his early 30s as well as biography and literal data of scholars in the past, he had already written argument and consideration including "Kishin Shinron" (New Treatise on the Gods) and "Honkyo Gaihen" in 1805 to 1806 and agreed with theism and existence of afterlife.

In 1815, aged 40, Atsutane was in enormous rush in literary production and finished several drafts in the year. In May next year, he visited Kashima-jingu Shrine, Katori-jingu Shrine and Ikisu-jinja Shrine, on the occasion he also went around Choshi and made a round of pilgrimages to temples and he gained a spirit rock called Ame no Iwafue (iwafue (the stone flute) is currently at Hirata Shrine Soke (the head family or house) in Chiyoda-ku). Because he gained this stome flute, he changed Yago (family name) to Ibukinoya and also claimed Daigaku. In 1817 (aged 42), he wrote "Ame no Iwafue no Ki" (the Discovery of the Sacred Stone Flute) that described details of the travel.

Appearance of Torakichi, the Tengu apprentice, was around 1820, when Atsutane was 45 years old. Torakichi visited and came back from the abode of a Taoist immortal and learnt jujutsu (an occult art) from residents of the world. Appearance of the boy from different world excited the Edo City at the time. It started when the boy sponged on Yoshinari YAMAZAKI, who was a wealthy merchant and essayist in Edo. Atsutane heard rumors among disciples and he visited the house of Yamazaki as he had had interest in different worlds and the afterworld for a long time. After this Atsutane took the Tengu boy as an adopted son and looked after him for 9 years until 1829.

Atsutane found out about the state of different worlds and the afterworld through the Tengu boy. In 1822, he published "Senkyo Ibun" (Interview with an Apprentice of Tengu) that he summarized what he heard. Those around Atsutane accused him saying he must have used the boy, making him testify to support Atsutane's idea. However Atsutane was very serious about it. When Torakichi told he would go back to the abode of a Taoist immortal, Atsutane made Torakichi carry letter to residents of the abode of a Taoist immortal requesting for instruction.

Following "Senkyo Ibun", he studied and wrote a series of strange stories about afterworld including "Katsugoro Saisei Kibun" (Record of Katsugoro's Rebirth), "Yukyo Shingo", "Kokon-Yomi-Ko" (A study on monsters of all ages) and "Ino Mononoke Roku" (The Ghost Experience of Mr. Ino). During the several years between 49 to 54 years old, Atsutane researched Koki (Ancient records) literatures of China and India; moreover he researched about existence of sennin (immortal mountain wizard) and god in foreign countries. During this period, Atsutane had written many moralistic books including "Kasseno Den" (The Venerable Mr. Kassen), "Fusokoku Ko" (Considerations of Fu-Sang Country), "Kotei Denki" (The Life of the Yellow Emperor), "Sekiken Taiko Den" (The Legend of Ancient China), "Sanshinzan Yoko" (Consideration of Three Sacred Mountains) and "Tenchu Gogaku Yoron", and had read Buddhist scriptures such as Daozang (Daoist Canon).

In 1818, Atsutane married to an adopted daughter of Atsutoshi YAMAZAKI, a disciple. The wife took over the name, Orise.

Around the time, he built a temporary hermitage in precincts of Hisaizu-jinja Shrine that is in current Koshigaya City, Saitama Prefecture. Wisteria flowers that planted by Atsutane are blooming in the precincts. Also there is a sekihi (stone monument) for recollection of Atsutane.

Going to Kyoto - the later years

In 1823, he went up to Kyoto and made a tour around Kansai region. The aim of the trip was to present literary work to the Imperial Court, to visit Haruniwa MOTOORI (Norinaga's child) in Matsuzaka and Ohira MOTOORI (the successor of Suzuya family) in Wakayama (present Wakayama City), and to visit Norinaga's grave. He left Edo on August 27. His enthusiasm towards going to Kyoto can be seen from a poem, 'The time has come to awake the cloud of dragon hidden in a little stream, to be shown to the heavens' that he read when he went to Kyoto.

On September 7, he visited Atsuta-jingu Shrine, and on September 10, he arrived at Kyoto. He presented his literary work to the Emperor Kokaku through Sadanao TOMINOKOJI, and also to the Emperor Ninko through disciples, Yoshika MUTOBE and Tokika MUTOBE. He achieved first aim, the presentation of literary work.

On the other hand, the news of Atsutane visiting Suzuya raised a disturbance among disciples of Suzuya. Atsutane's innovative literary works already had created large stir in the family, and opinion of how to receive Atsutane, who was a heretical disciple, was divided. There was Nakatsune HATTORI for pro-Atsutane group. Nakatsune was the author of "Sandaiko" (On the Three Worlds: Between Myth and Reality) that greatly influenced Atsutane. Therefore, he and Atsutane shared similar thought and he rated Atsutane highly. Nakatsune even said that Atsutane is worthy of the successor to Norinaga and any disciples, including Ohira, are no matches for Atsutane. Chitate KIDO in Kyoto and Harukado MURATA in Osaka are named for representatives of anti-Atsutane group. It is said that Chitate KIDO even sabotaged Atsutane's visit. Anti-Atsutane group accused Atsutane, stating he interpreted many books arbitrary and made arguments forcefully.

Atsutane visited Suzuya's branch like the place in Kyoto, and met with Nakatsune HATTORI. Disciples who encountered Atsutane in Kyoto sent letters to Ohira stating criticism about Atsutane. Ohira filed those criticism of Atsutane in one place, but in time the manuscript was passed on to Atsutane through hands of other people. Later Kanetane HIRATA added critics and supplement, and published as "Kiyosohan Sho" (Praise and Censure).

Although Atsutane criticized Ohira MOTOORI fiercely in the argument about "Sandaiko", he who managed Suzuya family decided to show Atsutane hospitality, as one of disciple. Atsutane sent a poem 'have a compassion for a child visiting at this late, even though he have fallen to Musashino' before he paid visit, and Ohira replied with a poem 'though a person speaks bitterly of another, he is not hateful if met today'.

And thus a conference between the two was carried out in a cordial atmosphere, and Atsutane was given one of Norinaga's reihi (a monument to console the spirit of a deceased person) from Ohira. Norinaga's reihi was prepared by Norinaga himself and prepared three of them. One was at Haruniwa, a biological child of Norinaga, and remaining two were at Ohira, the successor. Ohira entrusted one of them to Atsutane. Entrusted with the reihi, it is imaginable that Atsutane became even more conscious of being the successor of Norinaga. Atsutane visited Ise Jingu Shrine then visited Matsuzaka, and on December 5, he accomplished his heartfelt wish of visiting Norinaga's grave. A poem he had read before Norinaga's grave at the time showed a confidence that he was a righteous successor. It was 'among many disciples of 1500, I am awed that your departed soul have chosen me'. In Matsuzaka, he visited Suzuya head family and talked with Haruniwa MOTOORI. He returned home on December 20, after accomplishing his purpose.

After the prime of manhood, Atsutane started to devote himself to the art of divination, which is said to be a philosophy of China, and the study of the calendar since 1831 (aged around 56). Atsutane also researched the origin of languages and letters, such as the ancient Japanese character and Koshihon jikyo (Historical Change of Japanese Syllabary) (Gojuon Giketsu (Historical Change of Japanese Syllabary)) as well as "Shunju Meireki Yoko", "Sanreki Yuraiki" (The Origins of Three Calendar Systems), "Konin rekiunki ko" and "Taiko koeki den" (The Old Calendar of Taihao).

On January 23, 1841, the content of "Tencho Mukyureki" caught the eye of bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), then he was ordered to go back to Akita, his birthplace, and banned from literary work. That was because he criticized the calendar system of bakufu. Also it is said that his aggressive denial towards Confucianism and supremacy of the emperor were evaded. On November 2, 1843, two years after going back to Akita, Atsutane died from illness at the age of 68. There were 553 disciples at that time, and 1330 people became disciples after death. His grave is located at 21-1 Tegata aza Osawa Akita City, Akita Prefecture, and designated as a national historical site.

Family tree
He had two sons and a daughter between his former wife, Orise but both sons died young. The eldest son Tsunetaro was born in 1802, the eldest daughter Chie (or Chieko) was born in 1805, and the second son Hanbee (later changed name to Matagoro) was born in 1808. Tsunetaro died in the year after his birth, and Hanbee died in 1816. The fact that he lost his wife and two children must have gave him more reasons to study afterworld.

On February 14, 1824, Chie, the only one grew up safely, got married to Atsumasa MIDORIKAWA of Niiya Domain, Iyo Province. Atsumasa MIDORIKAWA was the elder brother of Yoshihisa MIDORIKAWA and Atsumasa became the adoptive heir of the Hirata family, claiming Kanetane HIRATA. Later Chie changed name to Oteu, and succeeded her mother's name Orise in her late years (Died in March 1888).

Kanetane claimed Kuranosuke and later also claimed Daigaku. In 1868, he was appointed to Jingikan (Department of Divinities) hanji (a judge), and then to jiko (teacher) of the Emperor Meiji. He then advanced to daigaku daihakase, and later became Daikyosei. After Atsutane's death, he took over hereditary learning and spread Hirata school. He also repaid his lord and father's kindness by clearing debt of the late proprietor. He had written "Norito Seikin" (Proper Pronunciation of Shinto Prayers). Kanetane died on October 15, 1880. He was 82 years old. After that, the Hirata family was succeeded by Nobutane HIRATA, Moritane HIRATA (adoptive heir) and to Munetane HIRATA, but Munetane did not have a child and the family died out after Munetane's death on November 7, 1973. However the last family head, Munetane, braced himself for family extinction in the year before his death and founded Hirata-jinja Shrine in Yoyogi. The second Shinto priest of the shrine, Katsuyasu MAITA, has practically succeeded the family name of Hirata.

Said-to-be Atsutane's letter came out in Kaiun! Nandemo Kanteidan that broadcasted on August 22, 2006, but it was confirmed to be a letter of Kanetane as a result of appraisal. In the letter, Kanetane mentioned that the Restoration of Imperial Rule is imminent in the confused political situation of the end of Edo Period.

Thought

Study of afterlife
Atsutane said that one have to know whereabouts of one's soul after death before the pursuit of learning. Doing so, one can gain composure of mentality and only after that, one can live in touch with the pursuit of learning.

From Japanese classics, Norinaga MOTOORI believed that human soul travel to the land of the dead after one's death. The land of the dead is a filthy evil land and this is unavoidable, therefore nothing is sadder than the death. He preached that the sad event is sad, and people should accept it as is. Similarly, Nakatsune HATTORI, a disciple of Norinaga MOTOORI and a person greatly influenced Atsutane, also believed that souls of the deceased travel to the land of the dead.
However Nakatsune stated that the land of dead is the moon and the world is ruled by Susanoo no mikoto (same as Tsukuyomi no mikoto)

On the other hand, unlike other scholars, Atsutane did not think the next world is located somewhere totally different, cut off from the land of the living. He accepted the existence of yominokuni (hades, realm of the dead, the next world), but said it is not a land of dead. Atsutane believed that souls of the deceased travel to the land of dead but the different worlds are unevenly distributed in every space of the land of the living, judging by the manners and customs carried out in reality. He believed that similar to gods which are enshrined in shrines, souls of the deceased stays above their graves.
Yukai (world after death) cannot be seen from the land of the living
However, although souls of deceased leave this world, they stay in Yukai that located next to people and from there they are looking at the land of the living. He believed that they comes in contact with livings through religious services and watch over close blood relatives and relatives forever. This is very close to Japanese traditional view of different worlds shown by the folklore after the Meiji period. Conversely, the folklore is strongly influenced by the study of Japanese classical literature.

According to Atsutane, Yukai is a world ruled by Okuninushi no Mikoto (a Shinto deity). Okuninushi no Mikoto judges the soul of the deceased and gives reward or punishment depending on merits and demerits in the land of the living. However Atsutane did not describe detailed punishments that the deceased receives. This shows that Atsutane's interest was set in how to solve and save irrationality in life at this mortal world, and not something to preach compliance of ethical standard that statesman cared. The theory of Okuninushi no Mikoto ruling the afterworld became a basic creed of fukko Shinto after Atsutane. It was denied officially as Izumo-ha school lost in the argument of enshrined deity in 1881, which greatly fixed the future course of Shinto and government-religion-relationship after the Meiji period. However it is accepted in many Shinto line religions even at present. He believed that the chief god of the whole afterworld is Okuninushi but each region is ruled by kunitama no kami, Ichinomiya no kami, Ubusunagami (guardian deity of one's birthplace) and ujigami (a guardian god or spirit of a particular place in the Shinto religion) of the region. This concept was succeeded to Yoshika MUTOBE and developed further.

It is believed that the land of the living is a temporary world and the afterlife is the real world. This was an influence of Christianity. Atsutane also treated Christianity scriptures as one of ancient records that tells ancient teachings like "Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) and Buddhist scriptures.

"Senkyo Ibun" (Interview with an Apprentice of Tengu), five volumes, were included in series of argument and consideration of the different world research such as "Kishin Shinron" (New Treatise on the Gods), "Honkyo Gaihen", "Kokon-Yomi-Ko" (A study on monsters of all ages), "Katsugoro Saisei Kibun" (Record of Katsugoro's Rebirth), "Kirishimayama Yukyo Shingo" (True Story of Mysterious Place in Mt. Kirishima), "Ino Mononoke Roku" (The Ghost Experience of Mr. Ino) and "Yuken no ben". First books were in three volumes and last books were in two volumes. Considerations of 'Sendo Torakichi Monogatari' (The Story of Torakichi, the Tengu Apprentice), 'Shindo Hyotan Ryakki' (Brief Account of the Supernatural Boy) and 'Shichishomai no Ki' (The Dance of Seven Lifetimes) were included in the books. At that time, the books were treated as forbidden books that never allowed to be taken out of the house, which even a high-caliber disciple was not allowed to browse and therefore these books were called book of Absolute secrecy. Outline of the content is as follows.
Here among my fellow students, there is the one who called Atsushi ISHII.'
His original name is Torakichi TAKAYAMA.'
He was taken to Yukai at the age of 7 and for 7 years, until 14 years old, he served an immortal (a benevolent wizard) (a sanjin who calls himself Sugiyama Sojo and a teacher of Torakichi) who was enshrined at Mt. Asama in Shinano Province.'
This is the intimate experience of what was seen and heard during this time and a record that the master himself ascertained the truth by asking.'
I have studied knowledge of Kodo for a long time, however this is not something to be shown to those who does not know god's way and only hold mediocre knowledge'

Atsutane had been interested in the existence of a strange land and hidden villages, and he came to confirm the existence of the afterworld by encountering Torakichi and hearing about the different worlds from him. Atsutane made Eshi painter to draw immortal master's god-figure that Torakichi had seen in the afterworld by persuading Torakichi. After that the treasury figure was enshrined as Hirata family's treasure. When Torakichi was returning to Yukai, Atsutane made Torakichi carry his letter and literary work 'Tama no Mihashira (The Concept of Afterlife)' for Yaman no kami of the hidden village at Mt. Asama in Shinano Province, where the master was said to be enshrined. Atsutane also entrusted Torakichi with a question on the ancient Japanese character to be presented to Yaman no kami. He included those circumstances, and poem and letters that were offered to Yaman no kami and Torakichi at the time, in Senkyo Ibun. Presently the figure of Yaman no kami is kept with great care at the Hirata-jinja Shrine head family in Yoyogi, Tokyo, and it is enshrined on set date on Yamanokami sai (Mountain God Festival) at Omi-jingu Shrine in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture.

Atsutane HIRATA's issue of the extra number Taiyo issued by Heibonsha Limited, Publishers on May 23, 2004 included a talk between the chief priest of Hirata Shrine, Maita and novelist, Hiroshi ARAMATA, and many unreleased materials of the treasures kept in the head family, including photographs editions. The content included Atsutane's Shinto thought, view of the afterworld, study of an immortal, study of folk, view of medical ethics and letters/diaries. Photographs of valuable material collections, especially 'Description of an encounter in the dream' with Norinaga and 'treasured figure of the god of the lofty peak', and 'Shichishomai no Ki' (The Dance of Seven Lifetimes), 'Senkyo-zu' (Enchanted Land) and 'Reiho Gogaku Shinkei-zu' (sacred treasure of the genuine map of five sacred mountains) that describe details of Senkyo in painting by ascertaining the truth of the different world's scenery by asking Torakichi in Senkyo Ibun, as well as 'Ino Heitaro Monogatari' (The Story of Heitaro INO), 'Onokoro-jima no zu' (the picture of Onokoro Island) and 'Ibukinoya Nikki' (Diary of Ibukinoya) were revealed.