Moriyama Einosuke (森山栄之助)

Einosuke MORIYAMA (also referred to as Takichiro MORIYAMA, July 10, 1820 - 1871) was a Japanese interpreter in the Edo period.

Biography

In 1820, he was born in Nagasaki (present Nagasaki Prefecture). His family had been serving as Dutch interpreter for generations. In 1848, he professionally learned English from Ranald MacDonald, an American who had entered Japan disguising himself as a castaway; he became an interpreter who could used Dutch and English perfectly and played very important role in those days. In 1850, he engaged in editing of 'English explained in Japanese', and showed a great performance as the interpreter for Toshiakira KAWAJI during the visit of Evfimiy Vasil'evich Putyatin to Japan in 1853. Also, he knew that on a Dutch map the border between Japan and Russia at Karafuto Island was situated at latitude fifty degrees north. This became an evidence for Japan to fix a border to Russia.

In 1854, during the visit of Matthew (Calbraith) PERRY to Japan, he served as an interpreter; after that, he founded an English school at Koishikawa, Edo. In 1862, he left for England by a ship which Alcock also took and joined a mission and served as interpreter; the mission was led by Yasunori TAKEUCHI and had been sent to Europe in order to settle the issue of the postponement of opening the port. After that, he visited each country and returned. After returning to Japan, he successively held important posts as chief of interpreters and inspector of the administration of Gaikoku Bugyo (commissioners of foreign affairs), and in 1860, he was involved in drawing up English documents addressed to the President. However, he never served the New Government after Meiji Restoration.

As pupils of his English school, there were Sen TSUDA, Genichiro FUKUCHI, Morikazu NUMA and so on. Yukichi FUKUZAWA was also a pupil although a short term. His grave was located at Honmyo-ji Temple, Sugamo, Toshima Ward, Tokyo (Toshima Ward).