Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu (藤原冬嗣)

FUJIWARA no Fuyutsugu (775 - August 30, 826) was a court noble and poet living during the Heian period.


Fuyutsugu was the second son of FUJIWARA no Uchimaro of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan (he is listed as the third son in "Okagami" (The Great Mirror)). During his lifetime, he moved up the social ladder to become Sadaijin (minister of the left), which was one rank higher than his father, Uchimaro, and he established the foundation for the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan. His private residence, located in Heian Sakyo Sanjo Nibo, was called Kanintei; therefore, he was called Kanin Sadaijin.

While he was active in politics, he also established Kangakuin (university) as an educational institute to educate the children of the Fujiwara clan. Fuyutsugu restored the Seyaku-in (Pharmacy Institution) and opened its doors to the poor. Fuyutsugu created Nanen-do Hall within the grounds of Kofuku-ji Temple, the temple of the Fujiwara clan. He was engaged in the compilation of books, including "Konin Kyakushiki" (compilation of rules, regulations, and precedents), "Nihonkoki" (Later Chronicle of Japan) and "Dairishiki" (Ceremonial Book of the Court), and he was active in diverse fields, including the literary and military arts. He also created Chinese poems in the collections of Chinese poetry such as "Ryounshu" (A collection from above the clouds), "Bunka Shureishu" (The second Imperial Chinese poetry collection) and "Keikokushu" (A collection of managing the country), and also created waka (classic Japanese poetry) in "Gosen shu" (Later selected collection of Japanese poetry).

Brief biography
806: Given the rank of Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade). 806: Promoted to Togu-daishin (Senior official of the Crown Prince's Quarters) for Imperial Prince Kamino (later Emperor Saga), and later promoted to Togu no suke (Assistant Master in the Crown Prince's Quarters). 809: Promoted to Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) on the day Emperor Saga was enthroned, and skipped to Jushiinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade) on the following day. 810: With the establishment of the Kurododokoro (the Chamberlain's Office), he was appointed as Kurodo no to (Head Chamberlain), and Shikibu no taifu (Senior Assistant Minister of the Ministry of Ceremonial). 811: Appointed as Sangi (Councilor). 814: Promoted to Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank). 816: Appointed as Gon Chunagon (a provisional vice-councilor of state). 816: Appointed as Mutsu Dewa Azechi (Inspector of the provincial government in Mutsu and Dewa). 816: Appointed as Chunagon (vice-councilor of state). 816: Appointed as Dainagon (chief councilor of state). 821: Appointed as Udaijin (Minister of the Right). 821: Established Kangakuin. 823: Promoted o Shonii (Senior Second Rank). 825: Promoted to Sadaijin. 826: Died at the age of 52. Posthumously promoted to Shoichii (Senior First Rank).

850: Additionally appointed as Daijo-daijin (Grand Minister of State).