Fujiwara no Moromichi (藤原師通)
FUJIWARA no Moromichi (October 16, 1062 - July 18, 1099) was a court noble during the period of Insei (a government by a retired emperor), and was a Toshi choja (chieftain of the Fujiwara family). His titles were Naidaijin (Minister of the Center) and Kanpaku (Chief Adviser to the Emperor). His aliases were Gonijo-dono (Lord Gonijo) and Nijo Kanpaku. His father was FUJIWARA no Morozane. His mother was MINAMOTO no Yoshiko, the daughter of Murakami-Genji (Minamoto clan) MINAMOTO no Morofusa.
In 1076, Moromichi married FUJIWARA no Matako, the daughter of FUJIWARA no Toshiie with the title of Gon Dainagon (provisional chief councilor of state). His eldest son, FUJIWARA no Tadazane, was born in 1078, but the couple's relationship became distant. Matako bore a grudge about this all her life; she worshipped an image of her father, Toshiie, whose creation she ordered, and cursed Moromichi (according to "Taiki" (diary of FUJIWARA no Yorinaga)). Moromichi later made Nobuko, the adopted daughter of FUJIWARA no Nobunaga (the son of FUJIWARA no Norimichi), his legal wife. This was carried out in order to end the long internal conflict of the Sekkan regents between the FUJIWARA no Yorimichi and Norimichi cliques. Once he was inaugurated Kanpaku following Morozane in 1094, Moromichi actively participated in the affairs of state with the 16-year-old Emperor Horikawa, who desired to become politically independent.
Moromichi criticized especially the political interference of the Retired Emperor Shirakawa, and publicly stated, 'the ox-drawn carriages should not be parked around the entrance of the retired emperor's mansion' (according to "Imakagami" (The Mirror of the Present)). He studied academics under OE no Masafusa, and learned the traditional bureaucratic lessons for practical business. Meanwhile, he considered the new and rising power of the In-no-kinshin (vassal attending on a retired emperor) to be dangerous; there is a story told that he destroyed the palace of FUJIWARA no Akisue, saying that it was not up to his social position (according to "Kichibu Hikunsho"). He also restrained the retired emperor from reappointing Kinshin-zuryo (close servants who receive land) while ignoring the Zuryo-kokka-sadame (criteria to determine if one is eligible for employment as an imperial court officer). Such politics were referred to as 'politically-solemn in the Kaho and Eicho eras' (according to "Honcho seiki" (Chronicle of Imperial Reigns)).
In 1095, Moromichi rejected the mass protest by the Enryaku-ji Temple and Hiyoshi-sha Shrine monks, demanding the exile of Mino no kami (the governor of Mino Province), MINAMOTO no Yoshitsuna, and dispatched samurai and ordered them to attack the monks. Since the mountain temple monks and Shinto priests were struck with and injured by arrows, Enryaku-ji Temple cursed Emperor Horikawa and Moromichi. In 1099, Moromichi died suddenly at the age of 38. The Enryaku-ji Temple spread the word that Moromichi's death was a divine punishment, and his political power ended in just five years. His successor, Tadazane, being only 22 years old, was inexperienced in political duties and lacked the strength to loyally serve the retired Morozane. The Sekkan-ke (regent families) had to subordinate themselves to In (the retired emperor), and their power decreased greatly. He left a diary called "Gonijo Moromichi ki."
Chronology of government posts and ranks
Dates follow the lunar calendar. On January 25, 1072, Moromichi participated in Genpuku (Coming of Age ceremony) and received the rank of Jugoinojo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade). On April 26, he was assigned as a Jiju (chamberlain). On June 22, he was reassigned as Ukone no Gon no shosho (Provisional Minor Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards). On July 24, he was reassigned as Ukone no Gon no chujo (Provisional Middle Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards).
On January 5, 1073, he was promoted to Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) and retained his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo. On January 30, he was promoted to Shogoinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade) and retained his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo.
On January 28, 1074, he was promoted to Jushiinojo (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade) and retained his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo. On June 25, he was promoted to Shoshiinoge (Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade), and retained his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo. On November 16, he was assigned additional position as Omi no suke (assistant governor of Omi Province).
On January 29, 1075, he was promoted to Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank) and retained his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo.
On October 24, 1076, he was promoted to Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank) and retained his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo.
On March 27, 1077, Morimichi was assigned as Sangi (consultant) and retired from his position as Ukone no Gon no chujo. On April 9, he was assigned additional post of Sakone no daisho (Major Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards) (similarly, assigned additional post as Konoe no daisho (Major Captain of the Palace Guards) while serving as Sangi). On December 13, 1077 (the era changed to Joryaku era), Moromichi was reassigned as Gon Chunagon (a provisional vice-councilor of state) and retained his position as Sakone no daisho.
On October 25, 1079, he was promoted to Junii (Junior Second Rank) and retained his positions as Gon Chunagon and Sakone no daisho. On November 25, he was assigned additionally as Daibu (director general) to Chugu (Empress) (FUJIWARA no Katako, who was the Chugu of Emperor Shirakawa and daughter of FUJIWARA no Morozane).
On January 28, 1080, he was promoted to Shonii (Senior Second Rank) and retained his positions as Sakone no daisho and Chugu daibu. On August 14, he was reassigned as Gon Dainagon and retained positions as Sakone no daisho and Chugu daibu.
On January 26, 1083, he was reassigned as Naidaijin. On January 27, he retained his position as Sakone no daisho.
On December 1092, he retired from Sakone no daisho.
On March 9, 1094, Senge (an imperial proclamation) was issued appointing him as Kanpaku. Retained position as Naidaijin. On March 11, Senge was issued appointing him as Fujiwarashi (Toshi) choja. Sat in line with MINAMOTO no Toshifusa with titles of Juichii (Junior First Rank) Sadaijin (minister of the left). Senge was not issued appointing him as Ichiza (the highest rank).
On June 28, 1099 (July 18, 1099 in the modern calendar), Moromichi passed away. He died at the age of 38.