Kakizaki Hakyo (蠣崎波響)

Hakyo KAKIZAKI (June 25, 1764 - July 26, 1826) was a Japanese painter and Karo (chief retainer) of Matsumae Domain. He was the fifth son of Sukehiro MATSUMAE, the lord of Matsumae Domain the 12th. Michihiro MATSUMAE, the lord of Matsumae Domain the 13th, was his elder paternal half-brother. His mother, Sadako, was the daughter of Chozaemon Sadayoshi NAGAKURA, a vassal of Matsumae Domain. His childhood name was Kinsuke, and the name was Hirotoshi. As his father died the following year of his birth and his brother took over the position, Hakyo was adopted as an heir by Kakizaki family, the Karo (chief retainer) for Matsumae Domain. Hakyo's eldest son, Haboku KAKIZAKI, was also a painter.

In 1773, he went to Edo (then capital of Japan) and studied painting under Ayatari TAKEBE and So Shiseki, both were the painters from the School of Shen Nanpin. His representative work is "Ishu Retsuzo"(A Series of portraits of twelve Ainu chiefs) (owned by Hakodate City Central Library etc.), which shows the chiefs of Ainu tribe, who cooperated with Matsumae Domain on the occasion of the battle of Kunashiri, Menashi (uprising of Ezo [northerners] in Kansei era) in 1789. In 1980's, other 11 pieces of "Ishu Retsuzo" were found in Besancon Museum, France.

During his lifetime, Hakyo socialized with many painters such as Okyo MARUYAMA, Ganku, and Goshun MATSUMURA etc. from Maruyama-Shijo School, and literary men, Chazan KAN, and Rikunyo etc. who were composers of Chinese poems. He also socialized with Masakata MASHIYAMA and Seizan MATSURA etc., members of Daimyo family (feudal lord family) through Kenkado KIMURA (a literary man in the middle of Edo period). He often visited Kyoto and was warmly welcomed not only as he was Karo (chief retainer) of Matsumae Domain but his personality being gentle and sociable.

Ogai MORI introduced Hakyo in his literary work "Izawa Ranken" (A study of Izawa Ranken). Though his local people held his exhibitions many times, Hakyo was an unknown painter. After the publication of "Kakizaki Hakyo no shogai" (The life of Hakyo KAKIZAKI) by Shinichiro NAKAMURA, he gained nation-wide attention. His own handwritings are owned by Hakodate City Central Library.