Ino Jakusui (稲生若水)

Jakusui INO (August 28, 1655 – August 4, 1715) was a medical, herbal and Confucian scholar in the middle of the Edo Period. His name was Nobuyoshi INO, and his nickname was Akinobu. He was commonly called Shosuke. Jakusui was a pseudonym. He also had a different pseudonym, Hakuundojin.

His father was the gotenni (doctor hired by the feudal government or lord) of Yodo Domain, Koken INO, real name Shoji INO. Jakusui was born in a residence in the Yodo Domain of Edo.

He studied medicine from his father. Later he studied herbalism with Tokujun FUKUYAMA, a scholar of herbalism in Osaka, and Kogigaku (study of ancient morals) of Confucianism from Confucian scholar Jinsai ITO in Kyoto.

Around the Genroku Era his wisdom became well-known, and Tsunanori MAEDA who was the lord of Kaga Domain, Kaga Province heard of his fame and took Jakusui into his service in 1693 as a Confucian.

At that time, he used a single character for his family name in the Chinese fashion, changing the name from Ino to Ine. Jakusui asked Tsunanori MAEDA to be allowed to compile 'a study of various materials' and was commissioned to do so, receiving the order to edit the 'Shobutsuruisan' (book on the study of herbalism) which would complement the 'Compendium of Materia Medica,' considered the bible of herbalism at the time. For his efforts, he was given special treatment to be allowed to attend the court every other year in Kanazawa. In order to satisfy the favor he put his efforts into the study in Kyoto, collecting a wide range of articles related to fauna and flora that were found in 174 books from China to organize, compile and classify: Jakusui began writing in 1697, and passed away at his home in Kitaoji, Kyoto in 1715, after writing up 362 volumes. Later, under the orders of the eighth shogun Yoshimune TOKUGAWA, Jakusui's son Shinsuke INO and disciple Shohaku NIWA wrote up 638 volumes, completing a substantial piece of work totaling 1000 volumes. It can be said that Jakusui furnished herbalism which was centered around traditional Chinese medicine and drugs with a focus towards natural history with all fauna and flora in scope.

His disciples included Genjo NORO, Shohaku NIWA and Joan MATSUOKA.

Major Works

1689: Wrote "The Complete Pao Zhi" (processing herbs).
Published in 1692

1702: published "the (New Expanded) Complete Pao Zhi." 1772: published under the new title "Medical Plant Hokin."

1709: Wrote "Understanding of Shikyo" (Chinese poetry). Wrote "The Dutch Medical Plant Diagrams."

1714: published "Honsozuyoku" "Ketsubokyobetsushu" and "New Revised Compendium of Materia Medica."

1738: published "Shobutsuruisan (362 volumes)."