Karigane Junichi (雁金準一)

Junichi KARIGANE (July 30, 1879 - February 21, 1959) was a kishi (professional Go player) from the Meiji period to the Showa period. His original family name was Iwase. He was from Tokyo Metropolis, a disciple of Kamezaburo NAKAGAWA (the first) and a nine dan holder. After the period of these Hoen-sha (Hoen Go Association), a disciple of Shuei HONINBO and Nihon Ki-in (the Japanese Go Association), KARIGANE, as a leader of Kisei-sha (Kisei Go Association) in In (Nihon Ki-in) vs Sha (Hoen-sha) matches, was a rival of Shusai HONINBO. Later he founded Keiin-sha.

Career
Background
He was born in Hongo (Bunkyo Ward), Tokyo Metropolis, in a former samurai family serving in the residence of Mikawa-Yoshida Domain of Mikawa Province. He learned Go at about the age of 4 from his father who liked Go, improved his skills by playing Go with visitors; he secretly brushed up his skills by learning from 'Honinbo Jowa Chosaku' and so on in spite of the order from his father not to play Go for the sake of his studies, and at about the age of 12 to 13 after receiving his father's permission at last, he had no rivals in his neighborhood. Being in poverty due to his father's asthma, he was supported by Nobune ONO, an acquaintance of Konosuke KAWAKITA, began to go to Hoen-sha in 1893 and became a ranked player the following year.
Subsequently favored by Hirobumi ITO, he lived in Ito's house, and while accompanying him to Hiroshima City and Shimonoseki City, he came to be known as a 'Go Kid.'
Three years later, he opened a training room in Hongo to make a living for himself. After entering Hoen-sha in 1896, he became a private pupil of the retired Kamezaburo NAKAGAWA, and accompanied him on his trips to various places.

He became two dan in 1898. In the same year he joined 'Shisho-kai,' a study group of Honinbo Shuei (the 19th). In 1899 he accompanied Yoshio KUSAKA in his trip to Korea for one month.
In Takate in Keijo (old name of Seoul City in the period of Japan's rule) he played so well with four stones down to start the game (in the Korean rule two stones) against Haku Nankei, a Chusuin official, that he was called a 'prodigy.'
He began Juban Go (a series of 10 games either with the same opponent or with a team of opponents) against Shuei in 1900. In 1905, he left Hoen-sha, entered 'Japan Igo Kai' organized by Shuei in the same year, then promoted to 5 dan, while becoming Shuei's disciple at the same time. In January, 1907, he became a six dan holder.
In this reception he was given a shi-sho (context of a poem or a book with musical components) from Ito: '東西分局勢 黒白闘雌雄 坐看輸贏迹 賢愚老此中.'

Strife on the Succession of Honinbo
In those days, the possible candidates of Shuei were Karigane and Yasuhisa TAMURA, who was five years older and a better player than Karigane; however, Shuei did not decide his successor because he did not like Tamura's character. Also, it is said to have been a factor, which Tamura lost Shuei's trust when he asked Karigane, five dan, finishing their match in a jigo (drawn match) in the commemoration of his promotion to seven dan (in 1905) was revealed from the kifu (record of a game of go, shogi, chess, etc.).

In February, 1907, Shuei passed away leaving a will that Karigane to be Honinbo, which brought a conflict on the succession of the professional name Honinbo between the supporters of Karigane Rokudan (6 dan) and the those of Tamura Nanadan (7 dan), therefore, Honinbo Shugen, Shuei's younger brother and Shuwa Honinbo's third son, became the provisional Honinbo the 21st. Karigane became the leader of Kogyoku-kai, the group of Shuei's widow, however, the Honinbo-i (rank of Honinbo) was given over to Tamura from Shugen in the following year, and as a result, Tamura became Honinbo Shusai the 21st and the Kyogyoku-kai was dissolved due to Karigane' s withdrawal. In the same year Karigane attended the party announcing the succession of the name Honiobo by Shusai, who also became a eight dan holder, and played a game against Heijiro HIROSE, five dan holder at the party, but after that he kept away Go games.

Until Kiseisha Years
In 1915, he became a member of Kansai Igo Kenkyu-kai (Kansai Iki-kai) inaugurated in 1907. In 1917, the Inoue school (stable) decided to have Karigane as the successor, but in 1920 Eiho EGATA officially succeeded to the name of Inseki INOUE the 16th.

In 1919, he played a match against Tokuzo HAYASHI Sandan (3 dan), sponsored by the Jiji Shinpo (senni, nishiban and KARIGANE's nakaoshi victory) for the first time in 13 years. In the same year, he founded Taisho Iki-kai together with Genkichi SEKI, Dosan YOSHIZAWA, Kentaro KOBAYASHI and others. Subsequently among people in the political and business world, an idea of having Karigane to play games was arranged, and on March, 1920, as the auspices of Moritatsu HOSOKAWA, he played a match with 13 uchikake (intermissions) against Shuya, who had been ranked as a meijin (Go) in 1914, and the match was finished on January 30, the following year, resulting in Karigane's win (sente or initiative move) by 6 moku (points). In April of the same year at Katsukiyo KUBOMATSU's reception party announcing his promotion to 5 dan, he played against Shusai with the match ending in an uchikake at 33rd move. In May in the same year he played a game sponsored by Jiji Shipo against Shusai, which had 19 uchikake and ended on December 28 with a win of Shusai (white) by nakaoshi.

He became a director of Hoen-sha, but retired from it in 1922 to found "Hisei-kai" with other three kishi including Dohei TAKABE, Tamejiro SUZUKI and Kensaku SEGOE. The Kisei-kai introduced sogo-sen-komi-dashi and a time limit rule as the first time. Karigane was the best player among them, followed by Segoe.

With a great coalition of the Go world in 1924 promoted by Dohei TAKABE, Karigane joined Nihon Ki-in (the Japanese Go Association); however, in the same year, Karigane, Tamejiro SUZUKI, Dohei TAKABE, Shin KATO and Chiyotaro ONODA were expelled because of their individual contracts against regulations between Hochi Shimbun and Nihon Ki-in. These five kishi founded Kisei-sha. He was promoted to seven dan the following year. Suzuki and Kato left Kisei-sha in 1926.

In 1926 through the Yomiuri Shimbun, In (Nihon Ki-in) vs Sha (Kisei-sha) matches (officially called Nihon Kiin Tai Kisei-sha Haitai Teai) were started, which were also called Taisho-daisogo. The first match was between Shusai and Karigane (sente), which ended in Karigane's loss with 254 moves, due to time out. In the following tournament Kiseisha added Chikucho NOZAWA called an ever-victorious shogun, and in this tournament which ended in 1929, Kiseisha had 14 wins, 26 losses and 2 draws (KARIGANE had 4 wins and 9 losses). The Yomiuri Shimbun that reported this In vs Sha tournament tripled its number of issues by advertizing it with the whole company, placing the men of letters including Shofu MURAMATSU and others in witness's accounts of the games, and partly because the Shusai vs Karigane match became a scuffle from the beginning.

From Keiinsha Years on
In 1933 he became a eight dan holder.

Because of the conflict against TAKABE, he left Kisei-sha with his school to find Keiin-sha in 1941. In the same year, at the age of 62, he began uchikomu juban Go matches against Seigen GO Nanadan (seven dan) of Nihon Ki-in. As to teaiwari (handicaps), Nihon Ki-in discussed a matter of admitting KARIGANE's dan-i (dan grading), however KARIGANE chose tagai-sen. He had a record of one win and four losses up to the fifth game in the following year, and the rest of the games were canceled. Also, the juban Go matches between Shokichi WATANABE Rokudan (six dan) of Keiin-sha and Hosai FUJISAWA (six dan) were conducted; ending in the cancellation due to Fujisawa's three successive wins.

After that, there were exchange matches with kishi of Nihon Ki-in, and also a return movement to Nihon Ki-in, however, he remained in Keiin-sha. In 1944, he participated in the Quasi-expert Tournament (sponsored by the Yomiuri Shimbun), and played against Seigen GO, resulting in shiroban-jigo. In 1952, he participated in the Zen Honinbo Eight Dan Tournament, defeated by Utaro HASHIMOTO by shiroban han-moku. He became the winner of the San Choro (patriarch) Sen (matches) in 1953.

In January, 1959, he was recommended for a nine dan holder. He passed away on February 21 of the same year. He was awarded posthumous Meiyo Kudan (honorable nine dan) by Nihon Ki-in. His grave is located in Kenpon-ji Temple. Shuei commented on his Go as one with visible moves. He is also said to have had a mild and noble character.

His disciples included Shokichi WATANABE Kudan (nine dan), Tadao TOMITA Hachidan (eight dan) and others. Kaiseki SU and Koji KASAI also received guidance in their boyhood. Tomita's disciples were O Meien Kudan (nine dan), Tei Meiko Kudan (nine dan) and others, and it might be said that O's acquirement of Honinbo-i put Karigane in Honinbo-i in his second disciple generation.