Minamoto no Tsunefusa (源経房)

MINAMOTO no Tsunefusa (969 - December 3, 1023) was a retainer of Imperial Court during the Heian period. He belonged to Daigo-Genji (the Minamoto clan). He was the fifth son of MINAMOTO no Takaakira, Nishi no miya no Sadaijin (minister of the left for Nishinomiya). His mother was Ai no miya, the fifth daughter of FUJIWARA no Morosuke, Udaijin (minister of the right). He was a younger brother-uterine of MINAMOTO no Akiko, a wife of Mido Kanpaku, FUJIWARA no Michinaga. MINAMOTO no Toshikata, whose mother was the third daughter of Morosuke, was a half brother. His second wife was a daughter of FUJIWARA no Kanehira, Chunagon (vice-councilor of state), and a sister by blood of FUJIWARA no Sukehira. His children include Sadayoshi, kogogu no suke (person who is in charge of matters concerning the empress), MINAMOTO no Sanemoto, Sachujo (Middle Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards) (a kajin (waka poet) of Senzai Wakashu (Collection of a Thousand Years) whose real mother was a daughter of Kanehira), and Yoshimune, Echizen no kuni no kami (Governor of Echizen Province). One of his daughters married FUJIWARA no Yoshiyori, Gon Chunagon (a provisional vice-councilor of state). His waka poems were selected for Chokusenshu (anthology of poems collected by Imperial command), including "Shui Wakashu" (3rd Imperial anthology), "Senzai" (poem collection of a thousand years), and "Gyokuyo Wakashu" (Jeweled Leaves Collection). He was a talented performer of Sho (Japanese flute).

His father fell from power in the Anna Incident and was exhiled to Dazai-fu (local government office in the Kyushu region) in the year he was born. However, he won favorable promotions in a circumstance where his sister married a person in power. In 984, he was granted Shojo (the first investiture) as Ugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade). After he took a position as a member of the Palace staff and Hyoe no suke (assistant captain of the Headquarters of the Middle Palace Guard), he was promoted to Ukon no gon no chujo (Provisional Middle Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards) in 996. He was further promoted to Sakon Chujo (middle captain of the Inner Palace Guards) in 998, Kurodo no to (Head Chamberlain) in 1001, Sangi (councilor) in 1005, Chunagon (vice-councilor of state) in 1015, and Shonii (Senior Second Rank) in 1018. He concurrently took the post of Dazai no sochi (Governor-General of the Dazai-fu offices) in 1020. He went to Chinzei (a nickname of Kyushu) for his new post in the following year (1021) and died there on December 3, 1023 at the age of 55.

Although he was an adopted child of his sister's husband, Michinaga, he had a close relationship with the Nakanokanpaku family. When FUJIWARA no Takaie went to Dazai-fu to take the post of sochi during the Chowa period, he left Imperial Prince Atsuyasu, a bereaved child of FUJIWARA no Teishi, to the hands of Tsunefusa, according to "Eiga monogatari" (a Tale of Flowering Fortunes). Takaie's first son, Yoshiyori, was the husband of Tsunefusa's daughter. He often appears as 'Sachujo' (Middle Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards) in "Makura no soshi" (the Pillow Book). In particular, a passage of the afterword starting with 'when Sachujo was still Ise no kami (Governor of Ise Province),' says that he was the first to make "Makura no soshi" widely known to the public. He was an important person in consideration of how "Makura no soshi" came into existence.

Brief Personal History
He was born in 969. On February 16, 984, he was granted Jugoinoge. On September 24, 986, he took the posts of chamberlain and on November 30 of the same year, Sahyoe no suke (Assistant Captain of the Left Division of Middle Palace Guards). On November 12, 987, he was granted Jugoinojo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade). On March 27, he was given permission to enter the sanctum of a shrine or temple and on March 29 of the same year, granted the post of Sashosho (Minor Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards). On March 14, 989, he took the post of Iyo no suke (assistant governor of Iyo Province). On Febriary 24, 994, he was granted Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade). On February 14, 995, he was granted Jushiinoge (Junior Forth Rank, Lower Grade) and on May 20 of the same year, the post of Ise no Gon no kami (Provisional Governor of Ise Province). On August 12, 996, he took the post of Ukon no gon no chujo. In 997, he took the post of Bicchu no kami (the governor of Bicchu Province) (on January 28). On October 29, 998, he took the post of sakon chujo. On March 8, 1000, he was granted Jushiij (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade). On September 21, 1001, he took the post of Kurodo no to and on November 3 of the same year, was granted Shoshiinoge (Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade). On April 21, 1002, he took the post of Kura no kami (Chief of Kuraryo, Bureau of Palace Storehouses) and Mimasaka no kami (the governor of Mimasaka Province). On March 11, 1003, he took the post of Harima gon no kami (provisional governor of Harima Province). On August 2, 1005, he took the post of Sangi. On February 16, 1007, he was granted Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank). On January 8, 1011, he took the post of Bizen gon no kami (provisional governor of Bizen Province). On February 27, 1012, he was took the posts of Tamba no gon no kami (provisional governor of Tanba Province) and on March 15 of the same year, Chugu Gon no daibu (provisional master of the Consort's Household) when Chugu (the second consort of an emperor) was FUJIWARA no Kenshi), and on January 11, 1013, he was granted Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank). On October 29, 1013, he was granted Junii (Junior Second Rank). On March 17, 1015, he took the post of Gon Chunagon (a provisional vice-councilor of state). On December 8, 1018, he was granted Shonii (Senior Second Rank) and on December 31 of the same year, transferred to Kotaigogu gon no daibu (Provisional Master of the Empress Dowager's Household). On December 22, 1020, he concurrently took the post of Dazai gon no sochi. On April 24, 1021, he was transferred to the Kyushu region. On December 3, 1023, he died.