Yamanaka Nagatoshi (山中長俊)

Nagatoshi YAMANAKA (1547-March 21, 1607) was a daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) who lived during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. He was a son of Tametoshi YAMANAKA. His official rank was Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) and "Yamashiro no kami" (Governor of Yamashiro Province). He was given sobriquets "Kichinai" and "Kitsunari." He had three sons: Nobutoshi YAMANAKA, Tomotoshi YAMANAKA and Moritoshi YAMANAKA.


He was from Koga County of Omi Province; His family was a branch of the Yamanaka family which was one of 21 Koga families (the branch family had been split up in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts). He served for the Rokkaku clan first; After the clan was conquered by Nobunaga ODA, he served for Nobunaga second; after Nobunaga died due to the Honnoji Incident, Nagatoshi belonged to Katsuie SHIBATA's family third; He was given 3000 koku (koku is a unit of volume and 1-koku of rice grain is 180.39 liter) and appointed Karo (chief retainer) by Katsuie. After the Katsuie's family collapsed, Nagatoshi served for Nagahide NIWA.

The Niwa family became domestically disordered after Nagahide died and it caused Nagatoshi to lived off Hidemasa HORI. Later he was called by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI and became Yuhitsu (amanuensis) of the Toyotomi family. In 1590, Nagatoshi joined the army in the Siege of Odawara and Oshu-shioki (repression of the Oshu District), in which he played a great role in negotiation and other activities. On the Bunroku War in 1592, he took up a camp of his troops around Nagoya-jo Castle in Hizen Province. Since 1593, he successively took different positions, such as a local governor of a land which was directly controlled by theToyotomi family, whose land was located in Kitabukuro-ginzan of Echizen Province, and another local governor of another directly-controlled land which was located in Chikuzen Province; in September of the same year, he was given another 100 koku in addition to his property. Nagatoshi was appointed "Yamashiro no kami" (the governor of Yamashiro Province); in 1595, he owned 10,000 koku, which gave him the title lord. His shoryo (territories) were located separately; some were in Seisan County of Settsu Province, some in the central part of Kawachi Province, some in Omi Province and also some in Ise Province. Later he became a local governor who owned 30,000 koku of directly-controlled lands in and around the capital.

He worked on writing a full-length history book called 'Chuko Nihon Chiranki' (literally, the History of Peace and War of medieval Japan) which was commissioned by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI because Hideyoshi wanted a book sequel to Taiheiki (The Record of the Great Peace). Hideyoshi died when Nagatoshi finished a part of the book: history from 1362 to 1597; in spite of Hideyoshi's death, he expanded the content of the book because of Sukekata OTA's advice; He continued writing about history until the end of the Battle of Sekigahara; Eventually, he finally completed the book.

On the Battle of Sekigahara, he belonged to the West squad and was in charge of defending around Osaka-jo Castle as rusui (keeper) and a garrison of Osaka-jo Castle. After the battle, because the West squad was defeated, he was forced to change his rank; he went into seclusion in Kyoto and died there. His tomb is located in Saikyo-ji Temple (the present Otsu City). His homyo (a posthumous Buddhist name) is Syoshun.

Yukitoshi YAMANAKA who was Nagatoshi's grandson (Nobutoshi's son) served for Hideyori TOYOTOMI and joined the army on the Siege of Osaka. After fall of the Toyoyomi family, he was secluded in Kyoto for a while; Later he served for Nagaakira ASANO; it is said that his descendants kept remaining as feudal retainers of the Hiroshima clan. Munetoshi YAMANAKA who was Nobutoshi's second son served for Ieyasu TOKUGAWA; Munetoshi became hatamoto (direct retainer of bakufu which was the Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) by receiving 1,000 koku in 1609; he joined the army on the Siege of Osaka, who belonged to Naokatsu NAGAI's troop. His descendants still remain as hatamoto.