Hayashi Onri (林遠里)
Onri HAYASHI (March 3, 1831 - January 30, 1906) was a Rono (Tokunoka [a well-experienced, exemplary good farmer]) and leader of agricultural techniques, who was born in Fukuoka Prefecture. He was also known as a founder of private schools, Kosansha and Kannosha.
The agricultural methods devised by Onri HAYASHI was called Chikuzen noho (Chikuzen farming method) or Fukuoka noho (Fukuoka farming method), which introduced Kansui shinho (soaking seeds in water during winter), Tsuchigakoi-ho (keeping seeds in soil during winter) and Fuyumaki hata nawashiro-ho (sowing seeds in non-irrigated rice nursery in winter) as its core methods, and while improving land productivity with work-intensive agricultural techniques, it increased labor productivity by saving tillage works using cattle equipped with Kakaemottatesuki (a kind of Japanese plow without sole). This Chikuzen noho spread throughout the county as the core method of the Meiji noho (generic name for farming methods in the Meiji period that systematized conventional agricultural techniques, in contrast to modern agricultural techniques).
The grave of Onri HAYASHI was in Irube region, where the 100th death anniversary of Onri HAYASHI was held in 2005 and the fourth grade students (for two classrooms) at Irube elementary school of the time joined rice planting.
Biography and Achievements
In 1831, he was born in Fukuoka City, Sawara County, as the second son of Chokunai HAYASHI, a feudal retainer of Fukuoka Domain and instructor of gun shooting.
In 1865, he was appointed a trainer of gun shooting at Fukuoka Domain.
In 1868, he was appointed a squad commander of Kanko-tai.
In 1869, he was assigned to Shosakan (Junior clerk) of Juhoso (gunnery division) and became in charge of manufacturing gunpowder, and he started working in Nakagawa-machi, Naka County (Chikuzen Province) (Fukuoka Prefecture).
In 1870, he was assigned to Ihogata (department in charge of casting cannon) and given the semi 15th grade.
In 1871, he resigned the position at the Domain, and returned to Fukuoka City, Sawara County to farm.
In 1879, he founded a private school, Kosansha.
In 1882, he travelled around Nagasaki Prefecture to provide agricultural trainings.
In 1884, he made lectures traveling around Ishikawa Prefecture and Toyama Prefecture.
In 1885, he made lectures traveling around Ishikawa Prefecture, Tottori Prefecture and Niigata Prefecture.
In 1886, he made lectures traveling around Ishikawa Prefecture, Tottori Prefecture, Hiroshima Prefecture, Yamaguchi Prefecture and Kyoto Prefecture.
In 1887, he founded a private school, Kannosha, and made lectures traveling around Yamaguchi Prefecture, Hiroshima Prefecture, Shimane Prefecture, Kochi Prefecture, Kyoto Prefecture, Ishikawa Prefecture and Fukui Prefecture.
In 1888, he made lectures traveling around Kyoto Prefecture, Tottori Prefecture, Hiroshima Prefecture, Osaka Prefecture, Aichi Prefecture and Gifu Prefecture.
In 1889, he travelled to Western countries, as he was assigned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce (Japan) to an exhibition attendant at Hamburg Industrial Exhibition in Germany, as well as to have an agricultural study tour to Germany, France, the United States of America, India and Vietnam.
In 1890, he made lectures traveling around Aichi Prefecture, Miyagi Prefecture, Fukushima prefecture and Ehime Prefecture.
In 1892, he made lectures traveling around Kagawa Prefecture, Aichi Prefecture and Gifu Prefecture.
In 1894, he made lectures traveling around Miyagi Prefecture, Toyama Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture.
In 1895, he made lectures traveling around Shizuoka Prefecture, Nagano Prefecture and Aomori Prefecture.
In 1896, he made lectures traveling around Okayama Prefecture.
From 1897 to 1898, he made lectures traveling around Kagawa Prefecture
From 1899 to 1901, he made lectures traveling around Kumamoto Prefecture.
In 1906, he died of bronchial catarrhal inflammation.